Published on January 14, 2014
WEB PROGRAMMING AND INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES HENRY OSBORNE
OBJECTIVES • Distinguish between the Internet and the World Wide Web • Explain client-server architecture • Discuss how web browsers and servers communicate CPTR304: Internet Authoring 1/13/2014 2
WHAT IS THE INTERNET? • World-wide collection of computers and other devices connected via communications media • Started in the 1960s • Initial development under the auspices of the ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) • Other networks developed by late 1970s, early 1980s CPTR304: Internet Authoring 1/13/2014 3
CPTR304: Internet Authoring Visualization of the various routes through parts of the Internet. 1/13/2014 4
WHAT IS THE WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)? • “software infrastructure” consisting of various communications standards for gaining access to, and exchanging information over, the internet • Development started in the late 1980s by Sir Tim Berners-Lee and others at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) • The idea was to make scientific documents available over the Internet • HTML was developed for the purpose of describing the structure of documents • Browsers, with simple text-based interfaces were used to retrieve and display the documents (Lynx) • Mosaic, the first widely used GUI browser CPTR304: Internet Authoring 1/13/2014 5
CLIENT-SERVER ARCHITECTURE CPTR304: Internet Authoring 1/13/2014 6
HOW WEB BROWSERS AND WEB SERVERS COMMUNICATE 1.Web Protocols and Layered Communication Architectures 2.Web Addresses and Address Resolution via DNS 3.URLs, URNs, and URIs CPTR304: Internet Authoring 1/13/2014 7
1. WEB PROTOCOLS AND LAYERED COMMUNICATION ARCHITECTURES • Communication protocol: an agreement between two or more parties about what rules will be followed when communication takes place. • Web protocol: agreed-upon set of rules and date formats to be used when two or more computers or other devices, or application programs running on those machines, wish to communicate across the Internet. CPTR304: Internet Authoring 1/13/2014 8
COMMON WEB PROTOCOLS • TCP/IP • UDP • HTTP/HTTPS • FTP • TELNET and SSH CPTR304: Internet Authoring 1/13/2014 9
LAYERED COMMUNICATION ARCHITECTURE CPTR304: Internet Authoring 1/13/2014 10
2. WEB ADDRESSES AND ADDRESS RESOLUTION VIA DNS • IP Address: has the form a.b.c.d, where each of the values is a positive integer in the range 0…255 (32-bit address/~4 billion addresses) • E.g. 220.127.116.11 • FQDN: human-readable version of an IP address • E.g www.google.com • Host Machines and domains • Domain Name System and Domain Name Servers CPTR304: Internet Authoring 1/13/2014 11
The logical hierarchy of the Domain Name Service (DNS) CPTR304: Internet Authoring 1/13/2014 12
3. URLS, URNS, AND URIS • Uniform Resource Locator (URL): a standard way of referring to the location of a web document/resource • scheme: address_of_resource • http://cis.ncu.edu.jm • Uniform Resource Name (URN): has the same form as a URL but may not identify an actual location on the Internet. • urn:isan:0000-0000-9E59-0000-O-0000-0000-2 • The 2002 film Spider-Man, identified by its audiovisual number. • Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): a string of characters used to identify a name of a web resource. URIs can be classified as locators (URLs), as names (URNs), or as both. CPTR304: Internet Authoring 1/13/2014 13
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