Web 2.0 and Web 3.0

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Information about Web 2.0 and Web 3.0

Published on March 1, 2014

Author: valerie_sinti



SECTION ONE INTRODUCTION 1.0 Introduction The current generations of Web applications (Web 2.0) have made them an outright phenomenon in today’s society helping to redefine the way organizations and individuals communicate and collaborate with each other. The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize the evolution of Web technologies from a user perspective. This paper attempts to enlighten the current generations of Web applications (Web 2.0) and also to identify the architectural direction of that the next generation (Web 3.0) of Web applications would meld itself into. 1.1 Definition Web 2.0 Over the recent past, the Web has been transformed from being a medium in which information is transmitted and consumed, to a platform where content is created, shared, altered and reproduced. At the same time differentiation between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 is not clearly defined. Indeed Sir Tim Berners-Lee1, creator of the World Wide Web, has suggested that there is no real difference between the two, as some of the elements of Web 2.0 were fundamental parts of Web 1.0. The term “Web 2.0” peaked in popularity during the early part of 2007 and was believed to have enormous potential in its features. However murky the definition of Web 2.0 may be, its underlying features emphasize flexibility of access, interaction, mobility, multimedia capability, participation, informality and feedback. Though frequently these terms are associated with Web 2.0, the technical developments are not its essence. Web 2.0 is instead associates to reference the transition of the World Wide Web to a new phase of use and service development. 1 Sir Tim Berners-Lee (born 8 June 1955) is a British computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web. He made a proposal for an information management system in March 1989, and he implemented the first successful communication between a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) client and server via the Internet. Source: 1|WEB2.0 AND WEB 3.0

1.2 Definition of Web 3.0 From a humble beginning as a methodology used as machine interpretable data through the new generation software, “Web 3.0” also known by its pseudonym as Semantic Web2, has matured itself into a set of standards that support open data formats whilst at the same time processes information that emphasizes information rather than mere processing. The main idea behind the semantics in Web 3.0 was the creation of Web content by not using natural language but a form of script that could be understood and gauged by software agents in order to allow them to find, share or integrate information much more easily and efficiently, meeting the first stepping stone towards intelligent applications. The focal aim of the Web 3.0 technology is to assist the web users to contribute information in ways that computers can understand, process and exchange. These developments in Web technology would enable the Web application to perform tedious tasks like collating information from varied sources and assist users to search relevant information according to their needs efficiently. This nature of versatile offering by technology in the past few years has prompted a growing interest in the new generation of Web, as indicated by the rapidly increasing number of semantic markup available on the Web, the number of organizations starting to carry out research and development activities in the area and by the number of Web 3.0 applications which now exist. All these developments indicate that Web 3.0 is mirroring the same growth of the Web in the early stages of its evolution, a strong signal that Web 3.0 is likely to become another technology phenomenon. The availability of Semantic markups would open up novel possibilities to develop smart, web based applications and functionalities. Web 3.0 would bring additional properties that would include micro formats, natural language search, data mining, machine learning, recommendation agents and artificial intelligence technologies which would emphasize the importance of machine facilitated understanding of information. 2 The Semantic Web is a collaborative movement led by international standards body the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The standard promotes common data formats on the World Wide Web. Source: 2|WEB2.0 AND WEB 3.0

SECTION TWO WEB 2.0 2.1 Background of Web 2.0 Tim Berners-Lee’s vision of the World Wide Web (WWW) was for a tool which created and gathered knowledge through human interaction and collaboration. Web 2.0 is a stage of development in which the Web is progressing towards this goal. Most analysts define Web 2.0 in terms of the tools that foster online participation in content creation and social interaction. This tends only to produce lists of new software applications or claims of ‘we are the web’, ‘web 2.0 is people’ etc. The term “Web 2.0” was first used in January 1999 by Darcy DiNucci, a consultant on electronic information design (information architecture). Writing when Palm Inc. was introducing its first web-capable personal digital assistant, supporting web access with WAP 3, DiNucci saw the web “fragmenting” into a future that extended far beyond the browser/PC combination it was identified with. Her vision of the web’s future focused on how the basic information structure and hyper-linking mechanism introduced by HTTP4 would be used by a variety of devices and platforms. As such, her use of the “2.0” designation refers to a next version of the web that does not directly relate to the term's current use. The term Web 2.0 did not resurface until 2002. These authors focus on the concepts currently associated with the term where, as Scott Dietzen puts it, “the Web becomes a universal, standards-based integration platform”. John Robb wrote: “What is Web 2.0? It is a system that breaks with the old model of centralized Web sites and moves the power of the Web/Internet to the desktop.” In 2004, Tim O’Reilly popularized Web 2.0 as an expression when he wrote a fairly coherent definition. Web 2.0 is definitely the next big thing in the WWW. It makes use of latest technologies and concepts in order to make the user experience more interactive, useful and interconnecting. It has brought yet another way to interconnect the 3 Wireless access point (WAP) is a device that allows wireless devices to connect to a wired network. The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web. 4 3|WEB2.0 AND WEB 3.0

world by means of collecting information and allowing it to be shared affectively. It definitely has a bright future with so many Web 2.0 based websites coming up. It is a revolution in the field of computers and will definitely achieve far greater success. The term Web 2.0 was initially championed by bloggers and by technology journalists, culminating in the 2006 TIME magazine Person of The Year. That is, TIME selected the masses of users who were participating in content creation on social networks, blogs, wikis, and media sharing sites. 2.2 The Characteristics of Web 2.0 Web 2.0 websites allow users to do more than just retrieve information. Instead of merely 'reading', a user is invited to 'write' as well, or contribute to the content available to everyone in a user friendly way. By increasing what was already possible in “Web 1.0”, they provide the user with more user-interface, software and storage facilities, all through their browser. This has been called “network as platform” computing. Major characteristics of Web 2.0 include: 1. Information Search: Search engine helps in finding relevant information for the keywords entered. It includes website designing, website ranking in search engine, keyword research, etc. 2. Links: Low-barrier social tool. It includes one-way linking, link exchange, etc. 3. Authoring: This gives the right to create, publish and upload content, videos, audios of your own. It includes blogs, press releases, articles, newsletters, etc. 4. Tags: These are one word descriptions of the entire content written by the owner. 5. Extensions: It is software that makes web an application platform as well as a document server. 6. Signals: It is the use of syndicate technology that informs users of content changes. RSS, Really Simple Syndication, is a tool from where you can get the latest updates of your area of interest. 4|WEB2.0 AND WEB 3.0

2.3 Web 2.0 Technologies Some specific Web 2.0 technologies are also important to understand. These include: Figure 2-1. Web 2.0 1. AJAX – An acronym derived from “Asynchronous JavaScript and XML”. AJAX is an important underlying technology used to create interactive Web applications. Ajax is what enables Web 2.0 sites to behave dynamically, so that they feel more like computer programs than static web pages. 2. Atom – A format for the syndication of online content, atom functions as a newer alternative to RSS (described below). 3. Blog – Originally derived from the word “weblog”, a blog is a simple content website created with inexpensive self-publishing tools. Blogs are the backbone of Web 2.0’s democratic spirit. 4. Mashups – Websites or applications that combine content from one or more sources. For example, combines Google Maps with a database of 124,000 cell phone tower locations to help users determine where mobile coverage is strong and where it isn’t. 5|WEB2.0 AND WEB 3.0

5. RSS – Shorthand for “Real Simple Syndication”, RSS is a protocol that makes it easy for computer users to receive content from their favorite providers whenever the content is updated. Instead of having to remember to visit a website to read a favorite column, watch a video, or listen to an audio program, RSS lets a user subscribe to the content so it's delivered automatically. The flow of content the user receives is called an “RSS feed”. 6. Social media – A generic term used to describe Web-based tools that harness the power of collaboration and group interaction. This can take many forms, from the personal web pages of MySpace to the virtual worlds of Second Life to the professional networking popular on LinkedIn. 7. Tags – User-generated keywords used to describe online content. Tags make it easier for both humans and search engines to find relevant and related information. 8. Wikis – A dynamic Web document that allows users to add, change, or edit the content displayed on the page. The user-created Wikipedia online encyclopedia is the most famous example. 9. XML – An abbreviation for “Extensible Markup Language”, XML is a programming code for online data that preserves the structure and formatting of a digital document regardless of whatever application is used to read it. XML is an important enabling technology for RSS feeds (described above). 2.4 Example of Web 2.0 Websites Here are the 8 Most Popular Web 2.0 Websites as derived from eBizMBA Rank which is a constantly updated average of each website’s Alexa Global Traffic Rank, and U.S. Traffic Rank from both Compete and Quantcast5. 5 6|WEB2.0 AND WEB 3.0

YouTube – It allows the users to upload their videos and share it with everyone. Wikipedia – It is online encyclopedia wherein the users contribute by writing the articles, definitions, etc. It is completely edited and maintained by the users. Twitter – It is an online social networking and microblogging service that enables users to send and read “tweets”, which are text messages limited to 140 characters. Flickr – It is a photo sharing website which allows users to upload their photographs and share it with anyone and everyone. Instagram – It is an online photo-sharing, video-sharing and social networking service that enables its users to take pictures and videos, apply digital filters to them. Tumblr – It is a microblogging platform and social networking website that allows users to post multimedia and other content to a short-form blog. eHow – It is an online how-to guide with articles and videos offering stepby-step instructions. Users can leave comments or responses, but only contracted writers can contribute changes to articles. Photobucket – It is an image hosting and video hosting website, web services suite, and online community dedicated to preserving and sharing the entire photo and video lifecycle. 7|WEB2.0 AND WEB 3.0

2.5 Benefits and Drawbacks of Web 2.0 In all cases communication efficiency. Due one-way always to lacks many disadvantages of Web 1.0, Web 2.0 came into existence. The term Web 2.0 is usually associated with web applications that help in two-way communication. It is basically a user-centered design that is associated with terms such as interactive, collaborative, information/ knowledge sharing, etc. Earlier, only the advertisers, publishers and website owners were allowed to share their knowledge and information in the worldwide web. Today, it is more than just sharing knowledge and information. Web 2.0 gives the freedom to each and every individual to post their thoughts, views, philosophies, likes and dislikes. It is all about interaction, sharing and networking. Now let’s discuss few of the pros and cons of Web 2.0: PROS CONS 1. Social Media Marketing and Search Engine Optimization. 2. Equal chance to all to post their views and comments. 3. Increase the circle of friends and contacts through social networking. 4. Latest update and content can be received if you are a RSS reader. 5. Online promotion of businesses, products and services. 6. Engaging the customers. Customers can write their views about the products and services. 1. Information overload. Too much information is daily posted by many people with different thought. This creates confusion for the readers and the quality of the content is not reliable. 2. Freedom to post views and comments provides good opportunities for competitors and rivals to post negative comments about other companies. 3. Too many fake ID’s and spammers. 4. Forgeries and hackers commit crimes. 8|WEB2.0 AND WEB 3.0

Social media marketing is one of the biggest and most significant results of Web 2.0. Websites like Facebook, Orkut, LinkedIn, Twitter, MySpace, You Tube, etc are the top visited websites. It is because networking is one of the most essential needs in today’s world. Efficient networking is backed by internet. Thus, two-thirds of the total number of internet users visit social media websites daily. It has become an addiction to many. Again this brings many advantages and disadvantages along with it. Few of them are: PROS CONS 1. Create a large and strong network. 1. People are highly dependent on internet 2. Increase in number of friends. to network. 3. More interaction leads to higher 2. Wastage of time. exchange of knowledge. 3. High number of frauds and hackers. 4. Build strong relationships. People now-a-days are so addicted to update their Facebook and LinkedIn accounts that they do not realize the amount of time they are spending in such activities. According to a survey, every individual working in an organization spends an average time of about 40 minutes daily on social media websites. This incurs loss to the organizations as their valuable and knowledgeable employees are busy chatting online with their friends. The organizations are taking the following steps to eliminate this problem:  Organizations now-a-days block all social media websites.  They encourage employees to indulge in activities organized within the company, where they can socialize and relax.  An interesting work environment can help employees to concentrate more on their work. 9|WEB2.0 AND WEB 3.0

SECTION THREE WEB 3.0 3.1 Background of Web 3.0 The semantic web or Web 3.0, introduced by Tim Berners-Lee in 2001, refers to dispensing with the typical cost and hassle of installing and running certain software programs and using the internet. While many people believe it is still far in the future, Web 3.0 has already infiltrated our daily life in our normal use of Internet. Companies such as Amazon and Google have been actively using Web 3.0 to attract customers, and Facebook’s recent rendition of the “pages” has pushed web 3.0 to a new height and awareness. Through the use of rating systems and products we’ve accessed, e-mail subject scanning, the frequency of the music we are listening to, and the “Like” button, the web is actively learning the preferences of the user and providing content that would be most appealing to the user. The Internet is evolving around the user, and ultimately would expand to appliances and other daily gadgets people use. For many people, Web 3.0 is often called the Semantic Web, which, in essence, is a place where search engines and software agents can better troll the Net and find what users are looking for. According to Nova Spivack, the CEO of Radar Networks, one of the leading voices of Web 3.0, it is a “set of standards that turns the Web into one big database.” 3.2 The Characteristics of Web 3.0 While the concept continues to be identified, there are some basic characteristics of Web 3.0: 1. Semantic Web – a web where machines read sites in a way similar to humans, and seek out information based on the users’ set criteria to produce optimal result. For example, the computer may check the person’s schedule against the available appointment schedule of all dentists around the person in a 10-mile radius. 10 | W E B 2 . 0 A N D W E B 3 . 0

2. 3D Web – a web that provides virtual reality surfing similar to that of 3D video games or movies, giving viewers a more dynamic and realistic experience while viewing the site’s material. 3. Media-Centric Web – a web where one uses a media to find other media, thereby eliminating the use of keywords and the frustration of not knowing what to use to find the information you need. One of the ideas within this concept is the Augmented Reality, where users can use their cellphone to take a picture of the neighborhood, and access the web to search for information regarding this particular location. It increases the accuracy and eliminates wait time or guessing. 4. All-encompassing Web – or as PC Mag calls it, the “pervasive web”, a web that is everywhere and surrounds every aspects of one’s life. Appliances, not just computers, can be programmed and connected to the web, and provide a more luxurious, anticipatory lifestyle to people. 3.3 Web 3.0 Technologies There are actually several major technology trends that are about to reach a new level of maturity at the same time. The simultaneous maturity of these trends is mutually reinforcing, and collectively they will drive the third-generation Web (Web 3.0). From this broader perspective, Web 3.0 might be defined as a third-generation of the Web enabled by the convergence of several key emerging technology trends: 1. Ubiquitous Connectivity – broadband adoption, mobile internet access, mobile devices. 2. Network Computing – software-as-a-service business models, web services interoperability, distributed computing (P2P, grid computing, hosted “cloud computing” server farms such as Amazon S3). 11 | W E B 2 . 0 A N D W E B 3 . 0

3. Open Technologies – Open APIs and protocols, Open data formats, Open-source software platforms, Open data (Creative Commons, Open Data License, etc.). 4. Open Identity – Open identity (OpenID), Open reputation, Portable identity and personal data (for example, the ability to port your user account and search history from one service to another). 5. The Intelligent Web –  Semantic Web technologies (RDF, OWL, SWRL, SPARQL, Semantic application platforms, and statement-based datastores such as triplestores, tuplestores and associative databases).  Distributed databases — or what I call “The World Wide Database” (wide-area distributed database interoperability enabled by Semantic Web technologies).  Intelligent applications (natural language processing, machine learning, machine reasoning, autonomous agents). Figure 3-1. Web 3.0 12 | W E B 2 . 0 A N D W E B 3 . 0

3.4 Example of Web 3.0 Websites Today’s web has terabytes of information available to humans, but hidden from computers. It is a paradox that information is stuck inside HTML 6 pages, formatted in esoteric ways that are difficult for machines to process. The so called Web 3.0, which is likely to be a pre-cursor of the real semantic web, is going to change this. The transformation will happen in one of two ways. Some web sites will follow the example of Amazon, and Flickr and will offer their information via a REST API7. Others will try to keep their information proprietary, but it will be opened via mashups created using services like Dapper, Teqlo and Yahoo! Pipes. Amazon – The Seattle web giant is reinventing itself by exposing its own infrastructure via a set of elegant APIs. One of the first web services opened up by Amazon was the ECommerce service. This service opens access to the majority of items in Amazon's product catalog. – It is also famous as one of the first companies to open a subset of its web site functionality via an API. Dapper – It launched a generic scraping service for any web site. Dapper is an interesting technology that facilitates the scraping of the web pages, using a visual interface. As more and more of the Web are becoming remixable, the entire system is turning into both a platform and the database. APIs are a more controlled, cleaner and altogether preferred way of becoming a web service. 6 HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the main markup language for creating web pages and other information that can be displayed in a web browser. 7 Representational state transfer (REST) is an architectural style consisting of a coordinated set of constraints applied to components, connectors, and data elements, within a distributed hypermedia system. 13 | W E B 2 . 0 A N D W E B 3 . 0

3.5 Benefits and Drawbacks of Web 3.0 The potential benefits and drawbacks of Web 3.0 can be illustrated by showing the advantages and disadvantages in the following: ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES 1. Information categorized and presented in a visually improved manner that enhances interaction, analysis intuition and search functions. 2. Taxonomies – standardized and selfdescribing classifications. 3. No software programs to install. 4. Web 3.0 browsers learn (artificial intelligence) likes and dislikes and would function as trusted advisor, mentor and personal assistant and less like a search engine. 5. Browsers will position themselves as true lifestyle canvases, taking into account cutting-edge concepts like social bookmarking and in-group searching to produce a much more customized and targeted Web surfing experience. 1. Search engine optimization practices may undergo wholesale adjustments as the different information and architectural standards of Web 3.0 fight for supremacy. 2. As with any new technology or Internet-related development, personal privacy issues will be at the forefront of consumers’ consciousness. 3. Still a long way from reality because of the number of technologies that is involved. 4. New technologies that not all companies are embracing yet 14 | W E B 2 . 0 A N D W E B 3 . 0

SECTION FOUR CONCLUSION 4.1 Summary Web 2.0 changes the authoring of eLearning content and knowledge by providing user flexible and friendly applications for developing, analyzing, publishing and sharing the instructions and recourses. Machine processing of content, programs and people relationships and advanced automation of an authoring process is possible using the advantages of semantic technologies.In the paper the characteristics of social Web 2.0 and semantic Web 3.0 are identified. The benefits of the Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 authoring tools are summarized and discussed. A number of key challenges and areas for implementation which would enable more widespread adoption of semantic technologies by authors are identified. The semantic web or Web 3.0 presented in this paper offers a vision of a world with unprecedented interconnectedness (that will) be an important part of everyday life at some point in the future. Whether that point is the year 2020 as predicted by Tim 15 | W E B 2 . 0 A N D W E B 3 . 0

Berners-Lee remains to be seen. Many technological changes will need to take place in order to realize Berners-Lee’s vision. What is certain is that “massive improvements in mobile computing and interconnectivity of remotely enabled devices coupled with Web 3.0 developments will result in the positioning of the Internet as “the world’s common database”. 4.2 Conclusion The main conclusion is that integration of Web 2.0 application design patterns and Web 3.0 logics and knowledge management should give rise to a new and exciting environment-the Social Semantic Web. In a Social Semantic Web, certain, formally representable parts of human knowledge can be encoded and reasoned about via the tools of the Semantic Web and it can also easily be maintained via the social, communityoriented techniques of Web 2.0. Semantic technologies will guarantee the efficient search of learning resources, information or services, automatic knowledge management, accuracy consistency and integration, while Web 2.0 will guarantee the collaborative human participation. Although the web 3.0 is fast developing its new system, we will probably still be using the web 2.0 for some more years now, as the data web use that web 3.0 proposes is still in its early stages. However, it will slowly become an integrated part of the web, and these new technologies will allow for advanced infrastructures for better information and data through the web, which will no doubt be more powerful than the existing web 2.0. It may be incredible to think that there can be anything better than the web 2.0 where design was created to have a great impact on the users, which it seems hard to surpass. However, the web 3.0 will be focusing more on the type of browsing and not only on the different browsers used. 16 | W E B 2 . 0 A N D W E B 3 . 0

REFERENCES Baumann, M. (2010). Pew Report: Expert Opinion Divided on Web 3.0. Information Today, July/August 2010, 27(7), 11. Franklin, T. & van Harmelen, M. (2007). Web 2.0 for Content for Learning and Teaching in Higher Education. Gray, R. (2009). Three's a cloud. Human Resources, 39-40,42. Retrieved October 10, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. Hendler, J. & Golbeck, J. (2007). Metcalfe's Law, Web 2.0, and the Semantic Web. Higher Education in a Web 2.0 World. (2009). Report of an independent Committee of Inquiry into the impact on higher education of students’ widespread use of Web 2.0 technologies. Katona, Z, Zubcsek, P.P. & Sarvary, M. (2009). Network Effects and Personal Influences: Diffusion of an Online Social Network. Kroeker, K. (2010). Engineering the Web's Third Decade. Communications of the ACM, New York: Mar 2010. 53(3), 16-18. William Laurent. (2010). Where We're Headed with Web 3.0: Not a gilded age or paradigm shift, but social interaction will increasingly drive business. Information Management, July 1, 2010, Vol. 20, Iss. 4, pg. 40. 17 | W E B 2 . 0 A N D W E B 3 . 0

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