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Published on January 19, 2008

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The University of the West Indies St. Augustine:  The University of the West Indies St. Augustine Research Day – 2006 Research in the Faculty of Engineering WEALTH CREATION By Professor C. K. Sankat Dean, Faculty of Engineering OUR MISSION:  OUR MISSION The Mission of the Faculty of Engineering is to be the provider of a world quality education in Engineering, Geoinformatics and Geoscineces and research and development programmes in support of Caribbean Business, Industry and Infrastructure, with its graduates, staff and facilities being at the forefront in propelling growth, development and innovation in the Region. WEALTH CREATION:  WEALTH CREATION This can be embodied in the growth and development of our human capital and their overall well being, in our physical capital, in the sustainable exploitation of our natural resources and the management of our environment and in our businesses and industries and the supply of goods and services. AN OVERVIEW:  AN OVERVIEW Since its inception in 1961, the Faculty of Engineering of the UWI has been engaged in wealth creating activities for the English Speaking Caribbean through its: Undergraduate and Postgraduate Programmes in: - Engineering - Surveying - Food Science - Geo Sciences An Overview (continued):  An Overview (continued) Research, Development & Outreach - Food & Agriculture - Education - Manufacturing & Industry - Construction & Infrastructure - Oil, Gas & Petrochemicals - Energy - Water & the Environment - Urban & Rural Planning - The Future GRADUATE & POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION DRIVING WEALTH CREATION:  GRADUATE & POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION DRIVING WEALTH CREATION The Faculty has produced approximately 5000 Engineering, Surveying & Geo Science Graduates, serving all of the English speaking Caribbean, from the Bahamas in the North to Guyana in the South. Our graduates have achieved distinctive leadership positions managing major facets of the wealth creating industries and infrastructure in petroleum, oil, gas & petrochemicals, in food, beverage and agriculture, in bauxite, alumina, cement, iron & steel, in housing, roads, buildings, in the provision of electricity, water, telecommunications, waste and environmental management, in entertainment, etc. THE ORGANISATION OF OUR RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT & OUTREACH WORK:  THE ORGANISATION OF OUR RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT & OUTREACH WORK Our Research & Development and Outreach efforts are concentrated in either joint or individual activities of Staff and Students. For example:- Research & Development Work: There is a rich output of creative, innovative work particularly from our Undergraduate and Postgraduate students in the Faculty. Undergraduate Student Projects – approximately 250 M. Sc Projects - approximately 110 of these M.Phil/Ph.D Theses - approximately 8 of these Individual Staff Research OUTREACH:  OUTREACH Transferring knowledge from the Faculty to Government, Businesses and Industry is as important as fundamental research and this is facilitated through: Individual staff linkages with Industry The work of the Engineering Institute and the RTSG The Business Development Office of the Campus Specialised conferences and workshops Our flagship publication, the West Indian Journal of Engineering There is much more to be done here. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Food and Agriculture :  RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Food and Agriculture Food Production Processes* – Relishes, Juices, Condiments Food characterisation/ Food Quality* /Utilization Food safety (the poultry industry, potable water, etc.) EXAMPLES OF FOOD & AGRICULTURE:  EXAMPLES OF FOOD & AGRICULTURE Akingbala, J.O., Oyewole, O.B., Uzo-Peters, P.O., Karim, O.R. and Baccus-Taylor, G.S.H., (2005). Evaluating stored cassava quality in gari production. Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Vol. 3, (1) 74-79 Dookeran, M. Baccus-Taylor, G.S.H., and Akingbala, J.O. (2004). Laboratory manufacture and comparison of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) beer quality. Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Vol. 2, (3&4): 29-33 Mujaffar, S. and Sankat, C.K. (2005). The air-drying behaviour of Shark Fillets. Canadian Bio-Systems Engineering. Vol. 47, (3), 11-21. Examples of Food & Agriculture (continued):  Examples of Food & Agriculture (continued) Sankat, C.K. and Castaigne, F. (2004), Foaming and Drying behaviour of Ripe Bananas. Lebensmittel – Wissenschaft und Technologie (LWT), Vol. 37, 517-525. Sankat, C.K. and Harrynanan, L. (2004). Refrigerated Storage of the Seeded Breadfruit (Breadnut) or “Chataigne”. West Indian Journal of Engineering, Vol. 27, (1), 1-9. Sankat, C.K. and Maharaj, R. 2005. Effect of Shrink Wrapping and Controlled Atmospheres on the Post-Harvest Browning and Quality of Breadfruit. ASEAN Food Journal Vol. 13, (1), 29-40. Examples of Food & Agriculture (continued):  Examples of Food & Agriculture (continued) M. Forman-Thomas, G.S.H. Baccus-Taylor and J. Akingbala. Reformation, Production and Quality Evaluation of Soy and Worchestershire Sauces Using a Cold Process. Annual Institute of Food Technologists Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 16-20, 2005 G.S.H. Baccus-Taylor. Food Safety Practices and the Caribbean. Regional Conference on Food Safety, organized by the Caribbean Industrial Research Institute (CARIRI) and WAITRO, Trinidad, May 17 & 18, 2005. Mayaki, O.M., Akingbala, J. O., Gaccus-Taylor, G. S. and Thomas, S, (2003). Evaluation of breadfruit (Artocarpus communis) in traditional stiff porridge foods. Journal Of Food Agriculture And Environment 1, 54-59. EDUCATION:  EDUCATION “It is now generally recognised that development of a country’s human resources is essential to its prosperity and growth and to the effective use of its physical Capital” Developing new methods for learning, promoting wider access for Undergraduate & Postgraduate education facilitating Computer Aided Education (CAE), quality etc. Examples of Educational Technology Research & Development (continued):  Examples of Educational Technology Research & Development (continued) Mallalieu, K. “An E-learning strategy – foundation block for a knowledge-based society. 2005. CTU 8th Telecommunication Policy Seminar, Barbados. Gift, S.J.G. and Ward, R. (2005). “E-Learning in a Wireless Classroom”. July 2005. ACHEA 5th Annual Conference. Tobago. Muddeen, F. and Gabriel K. The Development of a MATLAB Instrumentation Tutor. International Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 21, No. 3 Pun, K.F., Ellis, R.L.A. and Chan, L, (2005). Development of a Quality Manual for a Research and Educational Centre: A Case Study, Asian Journal on Quality, Vol. 6, (2), 131 - 146. Examples of Educational Technology Research & Development (continued):  Examples of Educational Technology Research & Development (continued) Yam, R.C.M. and K.F. Pun, (2005). Enhancing quality teaching in operations management: an action learning approach, The Asian Journal on Quality, Vol. 6, (1), 2005, 43- 57. Shrivastava, G. S., (2004). Fluid Mechanics and the Undergraduate Civil Engineer, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers, 130 (10): 953-956. MANAGING THE FUTURE:  MANAGING THE FUTURE Replacing Linear Regression Models by Neuro Fuzzy Modelling – using new tools to treat with large amounts of historical data and to deal with complexity so as to model, predict and manage the future. Application of the research work of Dr. A. Kong are in the financial sector (commercial stock markets), the industrial sector (building and rejuvenating our industries) and the infrastructural sector (roads, telecoms, etc.). Managing the Future (Continued):  Managing the Future (Continued) Kong, A. “Fast Computing – A fusion of Foundations, Methodologies and Applications”. Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. Vol. 9, No. 6: 421-429 Managing the Future (Continued):  Managing the Future (Continued) Building future wealth through the investment in Research and Development, Innovation, Technology Transfer and Country Models which may be used to foster this are also being studied. Sankat, C.K., Pun, K.F. and Motilal, C.B. 2005. The Technology Transfer Vehicle for Agro-Innovation Development in the Caribbean: A Model. Acta Horticulturae (674), 343-350. Managing the Future (Continued):  Managing the Future (Continued) On managing the future for resource mapping disaster preparedness, better environmental management and protection, there is considerable on going research and development work. Wilson, B. (2004). A note on the foraminiferal biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the San José Calcareous Silt Member (Manzanilla Formation) at the Forres Park Landfill, Central Trinidad. Caribbean Journal of Science (40), 388-391.   Examples of Managing the Future (Continued):  Examples of Managing the Future (Continued) Baban, S.M.J., and Sant, K.J. (2005). Mapping Landslide Susceptibility for the Caribbean Island of Tobago using GIS, Multi-Criteria Evaluation techniques with a varied weighted approach. Caribbean J. of Earth Sciences. Vol. 38, 11-20. Baban, S.M.J., and Sant, K.J. (2004). Mapping Landslide Susceptibility on A Small Mountainous Tropical Island Using GIS. Asian J. Geoinformatics. Vol. 5, (1), 33-42. Baban, S.M.J., Ramlal, B., and Raid Al-Tahir. (2004). Issues in Information Poverty and Decision-Making in the Caribbean Region, A Way Forward. The West Indian Journal of Engineering. Vol. 27, (1), 28-37 OIL, GAS AND PETROCHEMICALS:  OIL, GAS AND PETROCHEMICALS Finding oil and gas: Seismic surveys - bp and others are using the latest seismic techniques using the detailed properties of the P and S waves and how they are modified through the earth's surface. As S waves do not travel through liquid (eg water) the receivers (hydrophones) have to be laid onto the seabed. This is costly but can be very informative. Oil, Gas And Petrochemicals (continued):  Oil, Gas And Petrochemicals (continued) Hydrates: Hydrates are composed of water molecules but have gas contained in the space of the three dimensional lattice of the water molecules. The interactions make the gas plus water stable above the normal freezing point of water to form an ice like compound. Natural gases particularly methane can be trapped. Worldwide the quantities are believed to be huge but - no one knows exactly how much or worse - how best to extract this gas in a way that is inherently safe. Until this can be assured hydrate gas is a dream - however it could be the base of energy wealth. Oil, Gas and Petrochemicals (Continued):  Oil, Gas and Petrochemicals (Continued) Heavy Oil: This is viscous dense black sticky oil - there is much in Trinidad but it is difficult to extract at economic rates. Enhanced oil recovery particularly heavy oil is being used to obtain some of this oil. new procedures are being conceived and eventually pilot tested on real fields. Processing: oil and gas produced from the reservoirs are not very beneficial as they are. The oil and gas have to be processed into useful products. Refineries do this and separate oil into components and maybe crack or break the long molecules into shorter ones to make fuels or modify the molecules to be better fuels. Gas can be converted into LNG and sold as energy, or made into methanol or ammonia to be sold or made into fertilizer. Methanol can be used as a fuel or fuel additive or polymerized into plastics. Oil, Gas and Petrochemicals (Continued):  Oil, Gas and Petrochemicals (Continued) Processing (continued): There are many plastics and methanol is a useful starting point. The energy from gas can be used to make electricity or used as energy - eg to convert bauxite to alumina and subsequently into aluminium, or making iron from iron ore. The energy can also be used to make cement, glass etc. These basic products are the start of the wealth creating chain. From aluminium come car engine blocks or many other aluminium products. Examples of Research and Development:  Examples of Research and Development Thomas, S and Dawe, R. A. “Review of ways to transport natural gas energy from Countries which do not need gas fro domestic use”. (2003). Energy (28): 1461-1477. Kromah, M., Thomas, S. and Dawe, R. A. “Transporting Natural Gas Around The Caribbean”. (January 2003). West Indian Journal of Engineering Vol 25 (2): 18-32. Roopa, I., Dawe, R.A. and Samuell, T. (2005). The effectiveness of downhole heating in heavy oil reservoirs – the limiting conditions, Petroleum Science and Technology, (23), 681-692. Wilson, B. (2004). A note on the foraminiferal biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the San José Calcareous Silt Member (Manzanilla Formation) at the Forres Park Landfill, Central Trinidad. Caribbean Journal of Science (40), 388-391. Examples of Research and Development (continued):  Examples of Research and Development (continued) Wilson, B. (2004). Benthonic Foraminiferal Paleocology across a Trangressive-Regressive Cycle in the Brasso Formation (Early-Middle Miocene) of Central Trinidad. Caribbean Journal of Science (40), 126-138. Smith, J. V. (co-presenter), Grierson, L. and Caffyn, A. “Gas to Products Research at UWI”. (February 2005) Gas to Products: From Research to Reality, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago Shrivastava, G. S., (2004). Fluid Mechanics and the Undergraduate Civil Engineer, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineers, 130 (10): 953-956. MANUFACTURE AND INDUSTRY †:  MANUFACTURE AND INDUSTRY † Recent developments of the World Trade Organisation and other international trade agreements have forced industries worldwide to face a new era of intense global competition (Dangayach and Deshmukh, 2001). Associated with rapid technological changes and product variety proliferation, this has led to an emerging scenario in which industries must continuously implement best practice management principles, strategies and technologies (Carpinetti et al., 2000). Manufacturing enterprises should define clear organisational objectives and compete effectively not only in the local context, but also in a wider regional and global marketplace. Manufacture and Industry (continued):  Manufacture and Industry (continued) It has been argued that the achievement of organisational objectives is realised through: the deployment of strategic decisions; the alignment of resources with strategy; and the enhancement of the ability to compete on competitive criteria (e.g. quality, cost, delivery, and flexibility). Manufacture and Industry (continued):  Manufacture and Industry (continued) Many recent studies have found that the formulation and execution of viable organisational strategies (Barnes 2002; Porter, 1998; Segal-Horn, 1998) determine how a company competes in the marketplace. † Source: Pun, Kit Fai. “An empirical investigation of strategy determinants and choices in manufacturing enterprises.” Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management. Vol. 16 (3): 282-301 MANAGING MANUFACTURING FOR COMPETITIVENESS:  MANAGING MANUFACTURING FOR COMPETITIVENESS Pun. K.F., (2004). A Conceptual Synergy Model of Strategy Formulation for Manufacturing, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Vol. 24, (9), 903 - 928. Pun, K.F. and Chin, K.S. (2005). On-line Assessment of New Product Development Performance: An approach, Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, Vol. 16, (2), 157 – 169. Managing Manufacturing for Competitiveness (continued):  Managing Manufacturing for Competitiveness (continued) Chowdary, B.V. and P. Praveen (2005). Formation of Virtual Manufacturing Cells by Incorporating Flexibility, Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, Vol. 6, (1), 1 - 8. Chowdary, B.V., J. Slomp, and N.C. Suresh (2005). Design of Virtual Manufacturing Cells : A Mathematical Programming Approach, International Journal of Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Vol. 21, (3), 273 - 288. ON MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES:  ON MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES “The creation of small, medium and large manufacturing and production industries. The development and improvement of software and the management of support tools. The application of efficient performance and quality measurement systems in such enterprises in the Region are priorities for the Faculty”. Examples of Manufacturing Technologies:  Examples of Manufacturing Technologies Lewis, W.G., K.F. Pun and T.R.M. Lalla (2004). A Generative Research Methodology for TQM implementation in Small and Medium-sized Manufacturing enterprises. The Asian Journal on Quality, Vol 5, (2), 89 - 105. Ramesh, K., Lewis, W.G. (2005). Nanotechnology advances around the World and its relevance to the Caricom Region. West Indian Journal of Engineering, Vol. 28, (1), 24 - 35. THE CONSTRUCTION SECTOR OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO:  THE CONSTRUCTION SECTOR OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO “One of the most dynamic and responsive industrial sectors is that of construction. It is one of the most important providers of employment, its output (as capital formation) is very economically significant, it has strong backward and forward linkages with other industries (which result in high, economic multipliers and make it a particularly powerful tool for economic manipulation), and, in addition, its output is highly “visible”, which gives it added political appeal. Given this profile, it is important for policy-makers to know how the construction sector responds to changes in other aspects of the economy, particularly those that are relatively easy to regulate.” Source: Lewis, T. M. (2005) “The Economics of the Construction Sector of Trinidad & Tobago.” West Indian Journal of Engineering. Vol. 28. (1): 13-23. Examples of Research & Development in the Construction Sector:  Examples of Research & Development in the Construction Sector Labour issues in the Construction Sector; the competitiveness of the Construction Sector in the Caribbean; development of a construction cost database; comparisons of the costs of constructions in different Caribbean Countries. Examples of Research & Development in the Construction Sector (continued):  Examples of Research & Development in the Construction Sector (continued) Lewis, T.M. (2005). Public procurement and corruption in Trinidad and Tobago. Journal of Construction Procurement, Vol. 10, (1), 4-15. Lewis, T.M. (2005). The Demand for Labour in Construction. Proceedings, CIB Symposium, COMBINING FORCES – Advancing Facilities Management and Construction through Innovation, June 13-16, Helsinki. Examples of Research & Development in the Construction Sector (continued):  Examples of Research & Development in the Construction Sector (continued) Lewis, T.M. (2005). The Economics of the Construction Sector of Trinidad and Tobago. West Indian Journal of Engineering, Vol. 28, (1), 13-23. Lewis, T.M. and Imbert, C.A.C. (2005). Policy Imperatives for International Trade in Construction Services in the Caribbean Community. West Indian Journal of Engineering, SUPPORTING CONSTRUCTION THROUGH MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY:  SUPPORTING CONSTRUCTION THROUGH MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY Examples: Sharma, A. K. and Sirju, K., (2004). Strength and Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Columns, Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Concrete and Construction”, December 2004, Hyderabad, India, 139-149 pages. Clarke, R. P. and Sharma, A.K., (2004) Hysteretic Behaviour of Ferrocement-Retrofitted Clay Tiles Walls, American Concrete Institute (ACI) Structural Journal Vol. 101, No. 3, 387-394. Sharma, A.K., (2005). Testing of repaired reinforced concrete beams, Proceedings of Third International Conference on Construction Materials: Performance, Innovations and Structural Implications, ConMat’05, Vancouver, Canada. Supporting Construction Through Materials Technology (Continued):  Supporting Construction Through Materials Technology (Continued) Examples: Ekwue, E. I., Stone, R. J., Maharaj, V. V., and Bhagwat D. (2005). Thermal Conductivity and Diffusivity of Four (4) Trinidadian Soils as affected by Peat Content. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Vol. 48 (5). 1803-1815. Manohar, K., Ramlakhan, D. and Kochhar, G.S. (2005). Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Wood by means of a Water-Activated Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus, West Indian Journal of Engineering, Vol. 28, (1), 61 - 68. Manohar, K., Ramroop, K and Kochhar, G.S. (2005). Thermal Conductivity of Trinidad - Guanapo Sharp Sand, West Indian Journal of Engineering, Vol. 27, (2),18 - 26. WATER AND THE ENVIRONMENT:  WATER AND THE ENVIRONMENT “In most developing countries, planning was initially concerned with economic growth. Upon gaining political independence, post-colonial countries set about addressing the unmet backlog of physical and social infrastructure problems, low rates of economic growth, and poverty. Since the post-independence era, development in non-industrialized countries has undergone significant changes in both scope and approach and has arisen from shifts in international agency policies as well as from local factors. These transformations are reflected in issues such as the provision of infrastructure, of which water supply is a prime example.” Source: Mycoo, Michelle. (2005). “Shifting Paradigms in Water Provisioning Policies: A Trinidad Case Study.” Water Resources Development. Vol. 21, (3): 509-523 Examples of Water and the Environment:  Examples of Water and the Environment Shrivastava, G. S., (2005). Watershed Management for Environmental Quality and Food Security, Water Encyclopedia: Surface and Agricultural Water, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pg. 479. Mycoo, Michelle (2005). Utility Performance and Consumer Willingness to Pay for Water in the 1990s: Case Study of Trinidad, West Indian Journal of Engineering, Vol. 27, (2), 45-53. Baban, S.M.J., and Sant, K.J. (2004). Mapping Landslide Susceptibility on A Small Mountainous Tropical Island Using GIS. Asian J. Geoinformatics. Vol. 5, (1), 33-42. INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROLS:  INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROLS INSTRUMENTATION Improved circuitry for a wide variety of industrial applications – computers, communication equipment, measurement systems etc. Instrumentation designers and manufactures could utilise these circuits in their products and systems. Examples: Gift, S.J.G., Maundy, B., and Aronhime, P. (2004). New Current Feedback Amplifier Configuration. International Journal of Electronics. Vol. 91 (11), 675-684. Examples of Instrumentation (continued):  Examples of Instrumentation (continued) Gift, S.J.G. and Maundy, B., (2004). High-Performance Active Bandpass Filter Using Current Feedback Amplifiers. International Journal of Electronics. Vol. 91, (10), 563-570. Gift, S.J.G. (2005). The Operational Conveyor and its Application in an Accurate Current Amplifier with Gain-Independent Bandwidth. International Journal of Electronics. Vol. 92, (1), 33-47. Instrumentation and Controls (continued):  Instrumentation and Controls (continued) CONTROLS Maximising the profitability of our process industries through for example raising product throughput and readucing energy consumption are important for competitiveness. Research and development work focusses on developing concrete guidelines for engineers to tune and choose the appropriate controllers for our process and food industries. Examples of Controls:  Examples of Controls Foley, M.W., Julien, R. H., and Copeland, B. (2005). A Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Methods. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering. Vol. 83 (4) 712-722. Riverol, C. and Pilipovik, V. (2005). Tuning a space-time scalable PI controller using thermal parameters. Heat and Mass Transfer Journal, Vol. 41, (5), 465-470. Foley, M.W., Ramharack, N.R. and Copeland, B. (2005). Comparison of PIC Controller Tuning Methods. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research. Vol. 44 (17), 6741-6750. LAND TENURE AND USE, URBAN AND RURAL PLANNING:  LAND TENURE AND USE, URBAN AND RURAL PLANNING Issues of land tenure and ownership, land use policy, urban and rural settlements, squatting and urban squalor are matters that are reflective of the wealth of nations. Settlements, towns and cities with their associated transportation systems in developed societies are characterised by the attention to details in their planning and growth and can serve as benchmarks for developing societies. Current research in the Faculty addresses some of these concerns. Examples of Land Tenure & Use, Urban & Rural Planning:  Examples of Land Tenure & Use, Urban & Rural Planning Mohammed, A., and Balbosa-Phillip, A. (2005). Transportation in Port of Spain: Socio-Spatial Segregation and Access to Downtown, in Bussiere, Y., (ed) Urban Transportation in Latin America and the Caribbean, FLASCO, Costa Rica. 167-201. Mohammed, A., (2004). Is there a Unique Caribbean Capital City Form? The Caribbean Architect, Vol. 3, (2), 86-87. Mycoo, M. (2005). Minimising Foreign Control of Land: A Case Study of St. Lucia, Land Use Policy. Elsevier, UK Vol. 22, (4): 345-357 Griffith-Charles, C. (2004). Trinidad : We are not Squatters, We are Settlers in R. Home and H. Lim (eds) Demystifying the Mystery of Capital: Land Tenure and Poverty in Africa and the Caribbean. London: Glasshouse Press 99-120. ON THE STEELPAN:  ON THE STEELPAN Understanding the workings of our unique national instrument, the steelpan, is finally getting focussed attention in the Faculty. Understanding the acoustics of the pan, amplification techniques, as well as methods for its manufacture are all under investigation. Examples of current research are: Copeland, B., Morrison, A., Rossing, T. (2005). Sound Radiation from Caribbean Steelpans. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. Vol. 117, No 1, 375-383. Copeland, B. (2004). “Steelpan Technology Research. Its implications on strategies for developing a local innovation culture.” UWI/bpTT Distinguished Lecture Series. Trinidad CONCLUSION:  CONCLUSION There is much happening in Research and Development in the Faculty of Engineering and in particular work that can lead to wealth production. This effort of staff and students needs to be intensified and sustained. The most important challenge however, is for our Research & Development, like that of many other Faculties of the UWI, to be impacting on our societies. This can be demonstrated by new products, processes, and systems, or through public policies for example. Conclusion (continued):  Conclusion (continued) The key to achieving this may be to have very strong stakeholder involvement in our research, manifested by financial, technical and entrepreneurial support. This may facilitate rapid technological transfer, from University to Industry in particular. Building a forward looking reward system, for all involved, internally at the UWI, and nationally, will propel this change. Conclusion (continued):  Conclusion (continued) However we are attempting to create a change of values entrenched in our societies. Building more creative, innovative, entrepreneurial societies where indigenous wealth creation is rooted, will take some time. However do we have any options? Acknowledgement:  Acknowledgement I wish to thank my colleagues in the Faculty for supporting this effort and in particular Professor J. Akingbala and Dr. B. Ramlal for leading the team and also Professor K. F. Pun, Dr. W. G. Lewis, Dr. A. Kong, Dr. G. Shrivastava and Dr. A. C. Pilgrim for their contributions. THANK YOU.:  THANK YOU.

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