Published on August 13, 2007
A SURVEY OF SEX TOURISM AND SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN : A SURVEY OF SEX TOURISM AND SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN A Government of Kenya/UNICEF study of the extent and effect of Child Sex Tourism on the Kenyan Coast C. S. Jones; A. Ferguson, A. Mirikau, J. Dunn. Background: Background 2001 - UNICEF report on sexual exploitation of children in Eastern and Southern Africa noted increasing levels of child sexual abuse in the region; 2003 - Government of Kenya (Ministry of Tourism and Information) reported internationally on an increase in CSET but noted a lack of data; 2005 – Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Tourism: A Perception Analysis in Kenya (Wong-Grünwald, R 2005) Purpose of the study: Purpose of the study To support the introduction of the ECPAT Code of Conduct To study the extent and effect of Child Sexual Exploitation and Sex Tourism (CSET) on the Kenyan Coast; To assist the Government of Kenya to refine its initiatives to reduce children’s involvement in sex tourism Definition of CSET: Definition of CSET 'the commercial exploitation of children by men or women who travel from one place to another usually from a richer country to one less developed, and there engage in sexual acts with children, defined as anyone under the age of 18' Subgroup against Sexual Exploitation of Children, NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child January 2005 The Study: The Study The study was conducted in four coastal districts in Coast province: Malindi, Kilifi/Mombasa and Kwale; The district research team members were drawn from GoK, local NGOs, CBOs and FBOs; Malindi – Oct 2005 Kilifi/Mombasa – Nov 2005 Kwale – March 2006 Slide6: Methodology: Methodology The study used both qualitative and quantitative survey instruments. Qualitative methods included: Key informant interviews (n=230); Focus Group Discussions (n=25) Quantitative methods included: Enumeration and mapping of hotspots; Sex worker diaries (n=84) Enumeration and Mapping of Hotspots: Enumeration and Mapping of Hotspots A 4-step process Points of solicitation and lodges i.e. hotspots were identified from FGDs/interviews; The hotspots were enumerated; GIS training of GoK and UNICEF personnel Mapping of sites and hotspots Slide9: Various Hot Spots Sex worker diaries: Sex worker diaries A multi-step process The identification and selection of children involved in commercial sex work with tourists; Research team and children trained in completing diaries for 28-day period; Children were monitored on regular basis – once or twice a week; Diaries were closely scrutinized and checked for credibility both on site and at data entry 229 diaries were distributed, 119 returned, 32 were rejected either as incomplete or falsified Slide11: DIARY DoB … Code No. ……………… Start and end dates From …………….. To ………………. Diary data: Diary data Day of the week Date Where he/she spent the night Casual or regular client Nationality of client Previously recorded Number of rounds (ejaculations) Condom used Yes/No Nos. of condoms used Type of sexual activity: oral, vaginal, anal, other Menses Value of hotspot mapping and CSW diaries: Value of hotspot mapping and CSW diaries Provides reliable data on: - location and extent of children’s involvement in sex tourism; - risk and risk factors; - nationality of clients; In turn, this data allows the government and its partners to plan and direct resources to specific areas and programming activities. Selected key findings 1: Selected key findings 1 Wide acceptance and approval of CST - 76.3% of key informants found CST normal in girls compared to only 20% who thought the practice immoral and unacceptable; Peer pressure is regarded as a primary cause of a child’s entry into sex tourism; A third of all key informants regard parents as either actively or passively encouraging CST Key findings 2: Key findings 2 Child Sex Tourism is intricately linked to existing child prostitution and exploitation – Kenyan clients represented 41% of the total number of clients 35.5% of all sex acts took place without condoms Anal intercourse represents andgt;16% of all sexual activity with children involved in sex tourism. Government of Kenya’s response: Government of Kenya’s response Kenya to become a signatory to the ECPAT Code of Conduct; Inter-ministerial CSET committee to set policy guidelines and ensure funding and resources; Dissemination of findings at district level; District CSET sub-committees of government and civil society stakeholders struck; Plans of Action developed for each district; Acknowledgements: Acknowledgements Particular thanks to the following: UNICEF Kenya Country Office staff; Government of Kenya personnel: Mr Ahmed Hussein, Director of Children’s Department and Mrs. Margaret Basigwa, Dept. Director The Nairobi research team: Eunice Maranya, Geoffrey Macharia and Alan Ferguson The Malindi, Kilifi, and Kwale district research teams; SOLWODI, Ramani Communications Ltd.