'We don't need to CLIL it; we need to KILL it: Knowledge-Integrated Language Learning for EAP' (Steve Kirk plenary, St Andrews University, UK. 27.02.16)

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Information about 'We don't need to CLIL it; we need to KILL it: Knowledge-Integrated...

Published on October 18, 2016

Author: stiiiv

Source: slideshare.net

1. We don’t need to CLIL it; We need to KILL it Knowledge-Integrated Language Learning for EAP Steve Kirk | Durham University (UK) @stiivkirk | s.e.kirk@durham.ac.uk

2. We don’t need to CLIL it; we need to KILL it: Knowledge- Integrated Language Learning for EAP Summary In this talk I take a critical look at the ideas of content and language in EAP and examine the relations we might establish between them. I suggest we need to replace the term ‘content’ with knowledge and sketch an outline of what a knowledge-integrated approach to EAP curriculum and pedagogy might look like.

3. We don’t need to CLIL it; we need to KILL it: Knowledge- Integrated Language Learning for EAP What do we mean as EAP teachers when we talk about integrating ‘content’ with language into our curriculum and teaching practices? Do we always mean the same thing? Are there different forms of content, and might the form of this content actually impact on the kinds of teaching and learning that are made possible? Talking about the integration of content ‘with language’ also assumes that content and language can be separated – and this is indeed the tacit assumption that much of EAP appears to have inherited. What happens to views of design and pedagogy when we see language and content as serving instead to build each other? Before making decisions about ‘balancing’ language and content in EAP, therefore, I’d like to spend some time in this talk exploring the nature of content itself. In doing so I’m going to suggest we replace ‘content’ with ‘knowledge’. I argue that one future for EAP curriculum and classroom is to bring knowledge practices and language practices closer together, to build a view of pedagogy more in line with the research-oriented view of EAP – but one which also extends this.

4. Existing Assumptions & Practice? (i)

5. [task]

6. ??

7. relationsbetween

8. relations within ? ?

9. Entering And Positioning (x3) (ii)

10. P1 We need both-and approaches, (not either-or approaches)

11. stance | ATTITUDE

12. What ATTITUDE is inscribed by the use of comparison here?

13. The research takes a qualitative rather than quantitative approach The teacher…reads students’ essays for assessment purposes rather than for real communication Indirect conclusions on the physiological state of the host can be drawn by [x], whereas a direct view can be gained by [y] (Hood 2010, p80)

14. …and in EAP

15. I want to be a teacher, not a researcher ‘We need materials, not principles’ I’m a teacher of language, not a teacher of content Is your pre-sessional EGAP or ESAP?

16. P2 Theory is not applied; it’s enacted

17. EAP needs more enactors

18. P3 “…less an allegiance to an approach, and more a dedication to a problem.”

19. and the problem?

20. “A disembodied proficiency score as an entrance criterion, which is often the same for both undergraduates and postgraduates, and the assumptions that go along with it that language is a finite object or capacity, helps to maintain the conceptualisation of language work as intellectually empty. The dominant discourse within EAP itself, which focuses around skills, further helps to maintain this conceptualisation.”” (Turner 2004, p104)

21. “A disembodied proficiency score as an entrance criterion, which is often the same for both undergraduates and postgraduates, and the assumptions that go along with it that language is a finite object or capacity, helps to maintain the conceptualisation of language work as intellectually empty. The dominant discourse within EAP itself, which focuses around skills, further helps to maintain this conceptualisation.”” (Turner 2004, p104)

22. resolvable?

23. maybe…

24. (2) ‘content’ > knowledge (1)

25. “Perhaps the best answer to the question of what makes writing academic is not the words and sentences but the fact that we are writing about academic things.” (English, 2015, p.103)

26. we need to KILL it

27. Exude Academic Plausibility

28. “If we do not provide personal examples of our own empowering influences on the campus, our students will not take heart. We cannot expect students to research and negotiate, mediate and appropriate texts and situations on the campuses unless these activities are modelled for them.” (Johns, 1996, p75)

29. Exploring A Problem (iii)

30. why the separation?

31. EAP has no agreed theory of language

32. corpus research

33. correlative

34. correlative pedagogically: productive theoretically: weak cannot explain: how language builds meaning

35. correlative

36. correlative constitutive

37. constitutive theoretically: very rich practically: perhaps daunting but can explain: how language builds meaning

38. constitutive

39. context language

40. “Text interacts with system as weather interacts with climate” (Martin & Rose, 2007 p310)

41. Exemplifying Alternative Perspectives (iv)

42. FIELD MODETENOR eg1 [interpersonal meanings] [textual meanings] [ideational meanings]

43. Method … 2.3. Wordlist construction To determine how ADJECTIVES are used relating to the ENGLISH FOOTBALL TEAM I decided to first build a WORDLIST using CONCAP for the BROADSHEET and ONLINE NEWS SAMPLES as I felt this would allow me an overview to evaluate my RESULTS which would in turn give me the opportunity to INVESTIGATE any interesting FEATURES. (Gardner, 2012, p.60) [extract A]

44. Experimental FOUR SETS OF BOILING TUBES were prepared as described below and placed in the THERMOSTAT to EQUILIBRIATE AT EACH TEMPERATURE. TUBE 1: 10 CM3 OF 0.01 M PHENOL, 10 CM3 OF THE BROMATE/BROMIDE SOLUTION (0.0833M BR AND 0.0167 M BRO3), 4 DROPS OF METHYL RED TUBE 2: 5 CM3 0.5 M H2SO4 (Gardner, 2012, p.60) [extract B]

45. Method … 2.3. Wordlist construction To determine how ADJECTIVES are used relating to the ENGLISH FOOTBALL TEAM I decided to first build a WORDLIST using CONCAP for the BROADSHEET and ONLINE NEWS SAMPLES as I felt this would allow me an overview to evaluate my RESULTS which would in turn give me the opportunity to INVESTIGATE any interesting FEATURES. (Gardner, 2012, p.60) [FIELDA]

46. Experimental FOUR SETS OF BOILING TUBES were prepared as described below and placed in the THERMOSTAT to EQUILIBRIATE AT EACH TEMPERATURE. TUBE 1: 10 CM3 OF 0.01 M PHENOL, 10 CM3 OF THE BROMATE/BROMIDE SOLUTION (0.0833M BR AND 0.0167 M BRO3), 4 DROPS OF METHYL RED TUBE 2: 5 CM3 0.5 M H2SO4 (Gardner, 2012, p.60) [FIELDB]

47. Method … 2.3. Wordlist construction To determine how ADJECTIVES are used relating to the ENGLISH FOOTBALL TEAM I decided to first build a WORDLIST using CONCAP for the BROADSHEET and ONLINE NEWS SAMPLES as I felt this would allow me an overview to evaluate my RESULTS which would in turn give me the opportunity to INVESTIGATE any interesting FEATURES. (Gardner, 2012, p.60) [TENORA]

48. Experimental FOUR SETS OF BOILING TUBES were prepared as described below and placed in the THERMOSTAT to EQUILIBRIATE AT EACH TEMPERATURE. TUBE 1: 10 CM3 OF 0.01 M PHENOL, 10 CM3 OF THE BROMATE/BROMIDE SOLUTION (0.0833M BR AND 0.0167 M BRO3), 4 DROPS OF METHYL RED TUBE 2: 5 CM3 0.5 M H2SO4 (Gardner, 2012, p.60) [TENORB]

49. Method … 2.3. Wordlist construction To determine how ADJECTIVES are used relating to the ENGLISH FOOTBALL TEAM I decided to first build a WORDLIST using CONCAP for the BROADSHEET and ONLINE NEWS SAMPLES as I felt this would allow me an overview to evaluate my RESULTS which would in turn give me the opportunity to INVESTIGATE any interesting FEATURES. (Gardner, 2012, p.60) [MODEA]

50. Experimental FOUR SETS OF BOILING TUBES were prepared as described below and placed in the THERMOSTAT to EQUILIBRIATE AT EACH TEMPERATURE. TUBE 1: 10 CM3 OF 0.01 M PHENOL, 10 CM3 OF THE BROMATE/BROMIDE SOLUTION (0.0833M BR AND 0.0167 M BRO3), 4 DROPS OF METHYL RED TUBE 2: 5 CM3 0.5 M H2SO4 (Gardner, 2012, p.60) [MODEB]

51. propagating values in text… eg2

52. His methodology showed certain other refinements. First, he excluded overseas students. Such students tend to be older than average and also to fare worse academically (Woodley 1979), thus influencing any age/performance relationship. Secondly, he used two measures of performance; the proportion leaving without obtaining a degree and the degree results of those taking final examinations. Finally he weighted the degree class obtained according to its rarity value in each faculty. (Woodly, 1985. In Hood, 2010, p109)

53. There are certain problems associated with his methodology. First, he excluded overseas students. Such students tend to be older than average and also to fare worse academically (Woodley 1979), thus influencing any age/performance relationship. Secondly, he used two measures of performance; the proportion leaving without obtaining a degree and the degree results of those taking final examinations. Finally he weighted the degree class obtained according to its rarity value in each faculty. (Hood, 2010, p145)

54. His methodology was as follows. First, he excluded overseas students. (...). Secondly, he used two measures of performance (...). Finally, he weighted the degree class obtained according to its rarity value in each faculty. (Hood, 2010, p145)

55. regenring… eg3

56. Fiona English, 2011

57. Wingate & Tribble, 2012

58. MA student regenrings…

59. [i. bedtime story]

60. Phillip--- Mummy, Mummy, come! What’s the story tonight? Mum---Well, Phillip, today I’ll tell you a story how Thomas helps the little trains be ready for writing at school. Phillip--- But, Mum, why does Thomas have to help them? Mum---You see, they have to learn to write homework and they haven’t learnt very well, just like you will have to do this. Phillip---Okay. What happened? Mum---Long, long ago, in 1988 there was a train, Thomas’ friend in the US, called Bazerman. He had an idea about how to help little trains to write at school from a social constructionist perspective. And then he sent a letter to Thomas and other trains in the UK to share the idea. Phillip--- But Mum, why didn’t the UK trains have this idea? […]

61. [ii. police interrogation]

62. Police: Right! That’s it, tell me, where is EAP? Informant: I don’t know! My friend Academic Literacies told me he’s staying with Academic Socialisation. Police: Who in blue hell is Academic Socialisation? Informant: He’s this dude right, real shady, known as A.S. My homie Lillis (2006) filled me in, she told me picks he up writing conventions implicitly without any specific teaching or practice! Old man Wenger (1991) told me he hangs around with some bad boys, “The Communities of Practice”. They help you enter the biggest gang of all, The Academy. You don’t wanna hang around with them unless you want a tough time. Becoming a full member of The Academy is difficult, you have to start on the edges and just somehow figure out how to get to the top. No one tells you anything. Many UK members spent years just observing and never figure it out, those who are deemed ‘weak’ and sent for remediation.

63. Police: What’s A.S.’s role? His rank? Is he a top dog? Informant: Some folks down Lea Street (1998) tell a different story. They say A.S. is a middle man, he helps young punks become main playas, for real yo. He gets those in the know to help recruits directly, rather than scrambling around on their own. Though he doesn’t hang around the UK and do like this ‘cause he’s scared of Haggis, Mitchell, and Evison (2006). […] Police: Does A.S. have any rivals? Informant: They don’t get on with my homie Lillis and Scott (2007) who always accuse them of textual bias. The playas on Lea Street (1998) say you can’t go around assuming the academy is a homogenous culture. That’s wack yo. Everyone knows the academy is a diverse institute. Getting initiated isn’t as simple as A-B-C. Academic Socialisation chills with The Communities of Practice, but fails to realise how diverse they are in the academy. That fool’s blind yo.

64. writing as personal meaning-making

65. genre as affordance

66. theory as affordance

67. P1 – both-and approaches

68. [not to seek another god or a Different Truth…]

69. […but finding productive ways to think differently]

70. Extending Affordances for Practice (v)

71. ?

72. blind spot… ?

73. knowledge structures Basil Bernstein (1990)

74. (Martin, 2011, p.9)

75. Empirical and objective Linear and cumulative growth of knowledge Experimental methods Quantitative methods More concentrated readership Highly structured Humanities (e.g. History) Social Science (e.g. Business) Science (e.g. Physics) Explicitly interpretive Dispersed knowledge Discursive argument Qualitative methods More varied readership More fluid (Hyland 2009, p9)

76. knowledge structures Karl Maton (2007; 2014) knower structures

77. Legitimation Code Theory (LCT) Karl Maton (2014)

78. Semantics Karl Maton (2014) ‘gravity’ degree of context embeddedness ‘density’ degree of meaning condensed

79. (Maton, 2014, Figure 7.1, p. 131) The semantic plane

80. eg nominalisation

81. context dependent (SG+) context free (SG-) (focus: semantic gravity)

82. commonsense knowledge uncommonsense knowledge (focus: semantic gravity) ‘We analysed lots of views from various interviewees’ ‘data analysis revealed that…’

83. “[T]he most significant patterns of language for university learning and teaching purposes constitute decontextualized representations of the world. Decontextualized language is central in fulfilling diverse purposes such as explaining the impact of phenomena, arguing a point of view, or analyzing a problem and suggesting a solution…” (Coffin & Donohue, 2014b, p255-6))

84. “[T]he most significant patterns of language for university learning and teaching purposes constitute decontextualized representations of the world. Decontextualized language is central in fulfilling diverse purposes such as explaining the impact of phenomena, arguing a point of view, or analyzing a problem and suggesting a solution…” (Coffin & Donohue, 2014b, p255-6))

85. “…This understanding of how language works goes far beyond the commonsense perception of academic language simply being “big massive jargon…” (Coffin & Donohue, 2014b, p255-6))

86. [P1: both-and, not either-or]

87. context dependent (SG+) context free (SG-) (focus: semantic gravity)

88. context dependent (ESAP?) context free (EGAP?) (focus: semantic gravity)

89. context dependent (ESAP?) context free (EGAP?) (focus: semantic gravity) continuums, not dichotomies

90. (Maton, 2014, Figure 7.1, p. 131) The semantic plane SFL ESP ?

91. traced over time: semantic profiles (Maton, 2014, Figure 7.3, p. 143).

92. [P2: enacting, not applying]

93. context dependent (SG+) context free (SG-) (focus: semantic gravity)

94. ‘experience’ ‘concepts / theory’ ‘generalisations’ (focus: semantic gravity) (Kirk, 2017, forthcoming)

95. eg1

96. reflective writing an unfamiliar assignment eg2

97. Anthropology and Professional Practice (MAnth)

98. [sketch]

99. (Kirk, 2017, forthcoming)

100. (Kirk, 2017, forthcoming)

101. “…knowledge practices […] vary with the nature of the intellectual field that shapes and is shaped by them.” (Hood, 2015, p.117) …and with shifts in contextual demands [e.g. employability > refl. writing]

102. feedback year 1 & 2

103. tutor

104. students

105. Experimenting And Practicalising (vi)

106. we need ‘unpackers’ and ‘repackers’ [researchers] [teachers]

107. Coffin & Donohue, 2014 P2 – enacting (not applying) LASS

108. In Coffin & Donohue, 2014b, p.282 reading-into-writing process >> Business Studies process diagram

109. and finally…

110. Engaging with Abundant Possibles (vii)

111. P3 – allegiance to a problem

112. and the problem?

113. “[C]ommunities of teachers need a way to make the organising principles of knowledge visible to students through explicitly teaching discipline-specific language resources that create and shape the knowledge of their disciplines.” (Macnaught et al, 2013, p61)

114. ? ? a richer EAP a richer role in the Academy

115. [end]

116. [thank you]

117. References Bernstein, B. (1990). The structure of pedagogic discourse. Class, Codes and Control, Volume 4. London: Routledge. Bernstein, B. (2003 [1975]) Class, Codes and Control, Volume III: Towards a theory of educational transmissions. London: Routledge. Coffin, C., & Donohue, J. (2014a). Implementing a LASS Approach to Teaching and Learning. Language Learning, 64, 255-286. Coffin, C., & Donohue, J. (2014b). A Language as Social Semiotic Based Approach to Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. John Wiley & Sons Inc.. English, F. (2011) Student Writing and Genre: reconfiguring academic discourse. London: Bloomsbury. English, F. (2015) Writing Differently: creating different spaces for student learning. In Chik, A., T. Costley and M.C. Pennington (Eds) Creativity and Discovery in the University Writing Class. London: Equinox. Gardner, S. (2012) Genres and registers of student report writing: An SFL perspective on texts and practices. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 11: 52–63. Hood, S. (2010). Appraising research: Evaluation in academic writing. Palgrave Macmillan Hood, S. (2016) Ethnographies on the move, stories on the rise: Methods in the humanities, in K. Maton, S. Hood & S. Shay (eds) Knowledge-building: Educational studies in Legitimation Code Theory, London: Routledge.

118. References Hyland, K. (2009) ‘Writing in the disciplines: Research evidence for specificity’. Taiwan International ESP Journal 1(1): 5-22. Johns, A. (1996) Text, role and context: developing academic literacies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kirk, S. (forthcoming, 2017) 'Waves of Reflection: seeing knowledge(s) in academic writing'. EAP in a rapidly changing landscape: issues, challenges and solutions. Proceedings of the 2015 BALEAP Conference. Reading: Garnet Publishing. Martin, J. R., & Rose, D. (2007). Working with discourse: Meaning beyond the clause. Bloomsbury Publishing. Martin, J. (2011) ‘Bridging troubled waters: Interdisciplinarity and what makes it stick’, in Christie, F. & Maton, K. (eds.) Disciplinarity: Functional Linguistics and Sociological Perspectives. London: Bloomsbury, p.43. Maton, K. (2014) Knowledge and Knowers: Towards a realist theory of sociology. London : Continuum. Macnaught, L., Maton, K., Martin, J. R., & Matruglio, E. (2013). Jointly constructing semantic waves: Implications for teacher training. Linguistics and Education, 24(1), 50-63. Turner, J. (2004). ‘Language as academic purpose’. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 3(2): 95-109. Wingate, U. & C. Tribble (2012) ‘The best of both worlds? Towards an English for Academic Purposes / Academic Literacies writing pedagogy’. Studies in Higher Education, 37, 481- 495.

119. [s.e.kirk@durham.ac.uk]

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