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Water Tank Presentation

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Information about Water Tank Presentation
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Published on November 8, 2007

Author: Coralie

Source: authorstream.com

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Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing for Small Domestic Water Tanks in Melbourne:  Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing for Small Domestic Water Tanks in Melbourne Background:  Background Yarra Valley Water have a program to promote water tanks to domestic consumers. Rainfall capture and water offset benefits assumed. Questions being asked about broader sustainability aspects. Goal of Study:  Goal of Study Aims of the study:  Aims of the study How much water is likely to be saved, given the seasonality of Melbourne rainfall and seasonality of water usage patterns? What are the broader environmental implications of the water tank production installation, use and eventual disposal? What are the long-term financial implications for residents purchasing water tanks? Scope of Study:  Scope of Study Scope – Options for Tank:  Scope – Options for Tank Tanks to be included are the most common tank sold by Yarra Valley Water and are targeted at existing urban blocks 600 litre plastic tank, used for garden watering only using gravity feed (i.e., no pump installed). 2,250 litre plastic tank used for garden watering and toilet flushing, with a pump installed with an automatic pressure switch. Indicators:  Indicators Water use – required Broader environmental question. – for this a broad indicator set was used (Eco- Indicator 95 including energy, greenhouse, smog, eutrophication, heavy metals, carcinogens, solid waste.) For the economic assessment, Net Present Value was used as the indicator Emphasis of research:  Emphasis of research Determining net water savings in average year. Looking at impact of tank manufacture and materials Operational energy of pump when installed. Offset in water infrastructure due to lower water demand. Function and Functional Unit:  Function and Functional Unit Function of water tank:  Function of water tank Primary function To supplement water supply to household. Secondary Functions To reduce storm water flows from domestic premises. System boundary for Study:  System boundary for Study Geographical Issues:  Geographical Issues Location of tank Rainfall and temperature data were all taken in Yarra Valley water region. Data on water usage was Victorian Offsets for water infrastructure were based on Melbourne water supply as was energy and chemical use for water supply. Lack of credit for offsets in storm water infrastructure were based on local factors Destination of Nitrogen in rainwater were based on local water treatment data and location of catchment in which tanks were installed. Pump and tank materials were from largely international data sets. Technology Choice:  Technology Choice Current technology taken Sensitivity taken on very high level of recycling of tank and pump at end of life. Limitation in available pump technology noted. Data quality:  Data quality Emphasis of data quality put in determination of water offset, energy and materials usage Offsets via infrastructure calculated more as indicative values to test sensitivity. Materials data also less important in overall scheme of LCA. Inventory:  Inventory Calculation of avoided water use:  Calculation of avoided water use Balance between water supply and water demand. Critical for a small tank. Water Demand :  Water Demand Water usage is sporadic:  Water usage is sporadic Estimating garden demand:  Estimating garden demand More than just seasonal demand Relationship to mean and highest temperatures – Index developed determine monthly variation. Relationship to rainfall events. Maximum Temperatures:  Maximum Temperatures Water use profile:  Water use profile Supply for Water Tank:  Supply for Water Tank Rainfall data examined for 7 years (1994-2000) from Yarra Valley Water data. Modelled with usage model against different roof sizes Water tank savings by roof size:  Water tank savings by roof size Savings for last 7 years with different roof areas (M2) 2250l tank supplying toilet and garden 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Roof size 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Usage versus supply by tank over 1998:  Usage versus supply by tank over 1998 (100) - 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1-Jan 15-Jan 29-Jan 12-Feb 26-Feb 12-Mar 26-Mar 9-Apr 23-Apr 7-May 21-May 4-Jun 18-Jun 2-Jul 16-Jul 30-Jul 13-Aug 27-Aug 10-Sep 24-Sep 8-Oct 22-Oct 5-Nov 19-Nov 3-Dec 17-Dec 31-Dec Water demand by house and supply by tank usage supply by tanks Optimisation of tank size for toilet and garden water:  Optimisation of tank size for toilet and garden water Savings for 2001with different roof areas (M2) and tank sizes (supplying toilet and garden) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Roof size tank sizes 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 6000 3600 4200 12000 Modelling tank production – process tree showing greenhouse emissions:  Modelling tank production – process tree showing greenhouse emissions Modelling tank production – process tree showing greenhouse emissions:  Modelling tank production – process tree showing greenhouse emissions Reticulated water supply:  Reticulated water supply Infrastructure offset:  Infrastructure offset Estimated impact of tank of water use across Melbourne with 100% uptake. Looked at infrastructure projects not required due to uptake Allocated proportion of offset infrastructure down to individual household Infrastructure offset (global warming):  Infrastructure offset (global warming) 1 p Infrastructure Offset 100% 0.02 p Pipeline 99.7% 0.402 kg Rolled steel AU 95.2% 0.402 kg Cold transforming steel 4.28% 0.000491 m Cont. welding steel 1.5 0.164% 0.02 p pumping station 0.298% 0.02 p Holding Reservoir 0.0234% Relevance of capital offset (Global Warming):  Relevance of capital offset (Global Warming) Results – Water savings:  Results – Water savings Cumulative energy impacts from tanks:  Cumulative energy impacts from tanks Results of different scenarios compared with baseline of no tank:  Results of different scenarios compared with baseline of no tank 600 litre 2250 litre 18% 26% -68% 40% 16% 67% -16% 102% 188% 208% -214% 137% 155% 8222% 264% -55% 332% 4133% -300% -200% -100% 0% 100% 200% 300% 400% Global Warming Acidification Eutrophication Heavy metals Carcinogens Photo Oxidant. Formation Cumulative Energy Demand Water Use Solid waste Water tank scenario results compared with reticulated water supply (scenario 1) 600 litre tank 2250 litre tank Results normalised to Australia per capita Impacts:  Results normalised to Australia per capita Impacts 0 -0.025 0.025 0.05 0.075 0.1 0.125 0.15 Global Warming Acidification Eutrophicat. Heavy metals Carcinogens Photo Oxid ant. Form ation Pesticides Cumulative Energy Demand Water Use Solid waste Scenario 1 -no tank Scenario 2 A 600l tank Scenario 2 B 2250l tank Energy balances for different ways of producing a 1000 litres of water:  Energy balances for different ways of producing a 1000 litres of water Energy balances for different ways of producing a 1000 litres of water:  Energy balances for different ways of producing a 1000 litres of water Water-energy budget:  Water-energy budget Options for filling the gap:  Options for filling the gap ? Life cycle costing Net Present Value of three scenarios for water supply over 30 years:  Life cycle costing Net Present Value of three scenarios for water supply over 30 years Conclusions:  Conclusions Water use – yes definite savings Nitrogen – yes reduction in emissions Remaining impacts are not offset by water savings. Conclusions cont.:  Conclusions cont. Avoid pumps or design smaller pumps Look towards more communal solutions Sociological benefits need also be taken into account Water (reticulated) supply increases are not an option, and many water saving and recovery technologies will have energy implications.

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