Water Quality for Animals

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Information about Water Quality for Animals

Published on January 4, 2008

Author: Marigold

Source: authorstream.com

Water Quality for Animals:  Water Quality for Animals By Lacy Chapman How much do animals drink per day?:  How much do animals drink per day? Beef cattle: 7-12 gallons per head Dairy cattle: 10-16 gallons per head Horses: 8-12 gallons Swine: 3-5 gallons Sheep and goats: 1-4 gallons Chickens: 8-10 gallons per 100 birds Turkeys: 10-15 gallons per 100 birds Factors for Control:  Factors for Control Water Quality Salinity, acidity, pollution, and algae growth Environmental Factors Air temperature and feed quality Animal Factors Breed differences, age, and condition of stock Salinity:  Salinity Concentration of dissolved salts in the water Expressed in parts per million (ppm) or electrical conductivity of the water measured in millisiemens per metre (mS/m) Some research states that salinity increases the intake of water by animals Partly because of taste and partly to allow greater water turnover Some research states that high salinity decreases water intake for a period of time, then the animal will consume a large amount of water at once Can cause death Salinity Tolerances:  Salinity Tolerances Acidity:  Acidity Digestive upsets are caused by water with a pH below 6.5 and above 8.5 Leads to depressed appetite, loss of production, and rejection of water Adding alum can correct a high pH Lime can be added to low pH This can kill the animals Pollution:  Pollution Toxic elements such as iron, magnesium, arsenic, lead, mercury, selenium, and fluorides Easy to reach toxic levels in underground water Detection involves a physical examination and detailed water analysis Algae:  Algae Large masses of algae can be toxic Several species of algae that grow in still water Need to grow in the correct temperature, water nutrient levels and wind conditions Goldfish can be added to water troughs in small quantities along with regular changing will reduce algae growth Temperature:  Temperature Water intake increases during hot weather due to evaporative cooling Water intake can increase by 78% in extreme conditions Intake will be approximately 40% higher in the summer than the winter Animals prefer water at a temperature below their body Young animals, heavily pregnant or lactating females, and aged or weakened animals are less tolerant of temperature Marginal quality water is not acceptable during the summer due to larger quantities consumed in the hot weather Temperature cont…:  Temperature cont… In times of drought, animals need more water since the quality of feed goes down Feed is more fibrous and less digestible Extra water allows for food movement in the gut Salt blocks will increase water intake Only use with high quality water– extra salt may depress appetite and cause stomach upsets Feed Quality:  Feed Quality Good green pastures can supply all of the animal’s water needs When the pasture is dry, the animal shows an increase in water consumption Saltbush and chenopod plants require water because of high salt content in the plant itself The watering hole:  The watering hole A trough will allow for cleaner water Algae growth and salinity is increased Cleaning and draining needs to occur regularly to prevent toxic buildup Pumps and water movement will help to keep water clean A watering hole on the ground can become more muddy and contaminated by soil and feces Importance of Water Quality:  Importance of Water Quality Water is essential to life Growth and reproduction, lactation, body temperature regulation, transport of nutrients, cell shape and function, waste excretion, joint lubrication, and cushioning of nerves The quality of water will increase the animal’s desire to consume Miscellaneous:  Miscellaneous Waters may supply a portion or all of the animal’s mineral requirement Hard water (has lots of calcium) may cause urinary calculi, or kidney stones Due to calcium and magnesium High saline waters are often mistaken for alkali waters Mostly sodium salts Minerals:  Minerals Toxic levels are relatively rare occurrences in large quantities of water These include: Arsenic, cadmium, copper, fluoride, iron, lead. Mercury, nitrate, and selenium Bacteria in the Water:  Bacteria in the Water Bacteria can migrate throughout the water table Deep wells generally have lower bacterial counts Water originating on the surface, such as ponds, have higher bacterial counts Chlorination can help to reduce contamination Significant viral diseases which may be associated with drinking water:  Significant viral diseases which may be associated with drinking water Picornavirus infections including: Foot and mouth Teschen/talfan disease Avian encephalonyelitis Swine vesicular disease Parvovirus infections Adenovirus infections including: infectious canine hepatitis Rinderpest virus Swine fever (hog cholera) African Swine fever Mucosal disease References:  References Guyer, Paul Q. Livestock Water Quality. Mar. 1980. University Nebraska, Lincoln. 8 Mar. 2005 <http://ianrpubs.unl.edu/beef/g467.htm>. Andrea, Dunn M., et al. Demonstration of microbial transport into the capillary fringe via advection from below the water table . 6 Nov. 2003. Journal of Hydrology . 8 Mar. 2005 <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_aset=V-WA-A-W-B CV-MsSAYZW-UUW-U-AAAWEBCDAA-AAAUCAZCAA-EDUVCZZWC-BCV-U&_rdoc=34&_fmt=ful l&_udi=B6V6C-4DN1PHR-1&_coverDate=10%2F27%2F2004&_cdi=5811&_orig=search& _st=13&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000059579&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid= 521828&md5=94d922783a5f474665fa500a7bff0c91>. Aquifier Source of Pure Water. 17 Aug. 1998. Gulf of Maine Aquarium. 8 Mar. 2005 <http://octopus.gma.org/katahdin/aquifer.html>. Slide19:  Water-an Important Nutrient. 8 Mar. 2005 <http://web.ask.com/redir?u=http%3A%2F%2Ftm.wc.ask.com%2Fr%3Ft%3Dan%2 6s%3Da1%26sv%3Dza5cb0d8e%26uid%3D0258515C58E58E224%26sid%3D1E56A15C58E58 E224%26o%3D0%26qid%3D9892640267E7074DB58B7043A73172DA%26io%3D5%26ask%3Dw hy%2Bis%2Bit%2Bimportant%2Bthat%2Ban%2Banimals%2Bwater%2Bsupply%2Bis%2Bo f%2Bgood%2Bquality%26uip%3D8141b10a%26en%3Dte%26eo%3D-100%26pt%3DWater%2 520-%2520An%2520Important%2520Nutrient%26ac%3D24%26qs%3D0%26pg%3D1%26ep% 3D1%26te_par%3D103%26te_id%3D%26u%3Dhttp%253a%252f%252fwww.gov.nl.ca%252 fagric%252ffact_pubs%252fpdf%252flivestock%252fnutrition%252fwater.pdf&b pg=http%3A%2F%2Fweb.ask.com%2Fweb%3Fq%3Dwhy%2Bis%2Bit%2Bimportant%2Bthat %2Ban%2Banimals%2Bwater%2Bsupply%2Bis%2Bof%2Bgood%2Bquality%26o%3D0%26pa ge%3D1&q=why%20is%20it%20important%20that%20an%20animals%20water%20suppl y%20is%20of%20good%20quality&s=a1&bu=http%3a%2f%2fwww.gov.nl.ca%2fagric% 2ffact_pubs%2fpdf%2flivestock%2fnutrition%2fwater.pdf&qte=0&o=0&abs=It%2 0is%20important%20that%20furbearers%20receive%20an%20ample%20supply%20of %20good%20quality%20water.%20This%20means%20uncontaminated%20water.%20Wa ter%20can%20be%20affected%20by...&tit=Water%20-%20An%20Important%20Nutri ent&bin=&cat=wp&purl=http%3A%2F%2Ftm.wc.ask.com%2Fi%2Fb.html%3Ft%3Dan%26 s%3Da1%26uid%3D0258515C58E58E224%26sid%3D1E56A15C58E58E224%26qid%3D98926 40267E7074DB58B7043A73172DA%26io%3D%26sv%3Dza5cb0d8e%26o%3D0%26ask%3Dwhy %2Bis%2Bit%2Bimportant%2Bthat%2Ban%2Banimals%2Bwater%2Bsupply%2Bis%2Bof% 2Bgood%2Bquality%26uip%3D8141b10a%26en%3Dbm%26eo%3D-100%26pt%3D%26ac%3D2 4%26qs%3D0%26pg%3D1%26u%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fmyjeeves.ask.com%2Faction%2Fsnip& Complete=1>. Meyer DVM, K.B.. Water Quality for Animals. Sept. 1990. Purdue University. 9 Mar. 2005 <http://http://www.ces.purdue.edu/extmedia/WQ/WQ-9.html>. Schoeller, . Water quality. 1997. 9 Mar. 2005 <http://http://www.ces.purdue.edu/extmedia/WQ/WQ-9.html>..>.

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