Published on March 8, 2014
The Contamination of water with undesirable substances which make it unfit for usage is termed water Pollution . WATER POLLUTION HAZARDS & REMEDIAL MEASURES Presented By : Aby Benz Shibi Joy Dept. Of Physics
WATER POLLUTION GLOBAL IMPACTS Oceans are polluted by oil spills. Nuclear wastes disposed from nuclear plants. Warm water dumping from thermal plant Oil mining leakage causes fatal damages coral-reef Disappearance of crustaceans Sediments from construction sites... `
WATER POLLUTION DOMESTIC IMPACT Chalakudy, Periyar, Muvattupuzha, Meenachil, Pamba and Achenkovil indicacates major bacteriological pollution due to dumping of waste,bathing & discharge of effluents Ground water quality is affected by chemical & biological contaminents . About 60% of population relies on ground water. Ground water exploitation & contamination by industries & multi-nation co-operates reported from Kochi, Palakad, Kollam, Kannur
WATER POLLUTION By Agricultural Sector HAZARDS Fertizing or manure spreading – Nutrient run-off, phosphorus leading to eutrophication, algal growth, fish kills, seepage to groundwater, nitrate in wells Pesticides run-off- contamination of surface water and biota, dysfunction of ecosystems, loss of top predators, public health impact Livestock corrals, contamination of surface water with bacteria, viruses, antibiotics
By Agricultural Sector WATER POLLUTION HAZARDS Irrigation- run-off of salts, salinization, fertilizers, pesticides leading to ecosystem damage Clear cutting, erosion, high turbidity, siltation, higher rate of run-off Silviculture, erosion and sedimentation problems Aquaculture, release of high levels of nutrients, serious eutrophication
WATER POLLUTION HAZARDS Industrial sector (400 mill tons per year – 70% not treated By Industrial sector in developing countries) Microbiological contaminants, bacteria, viruses Chemicals e.g. solvents, organic and inorganic pesticides, PCBs Metals, lead, mercury, zinc, copper Nutrients Particulates and sediments Warm effluents Pharmaceuticals
WATER POLLUTION Mining & domestic wastes HAZARDS Acid drainage (pH 2-3) – Colorado State 23,000 abandone mines have polluted 2,300 km of stream Waste material as by products Materials used in extraction or processing (e.g. mercury) House holdwastes such as garbages,sewage ,effuent etc Septic tank over flows & improper disposal septic wastes
WATER POLLUTION HUMAN IMPACT Biological hazards : Cholera , Ameobiasis, Dysentery, Diarrhoea Hepatitis A Malaria Polio Chemical hazards : Lead poisoning Arsenic Posoning Flurosis Trachoma Arsenic poisoning Severe flouride effects Trachoma Schistosomiasis
WATER POLLUTION REMEDIAL MEASURES Difference b/w evil cycle and good cycle The Good Circle The Evil Circle High Nutrients Low Nutrients Manyplanktivors Few planktivors Few predators Many predators Few zooplankton Many zooplankton Murkywater Clear water Many planktonic algae Few planktonic algae No vegetation Vegetation
WATER POLLUTION REMEDIAL MEASURES Remedial measure can be adopted in two steps : Prevention of water pollution sources & conversion of the sources to other uses .( Bio-gas, Bio-tec ) 2. Reduction of contaminants from the water sources in a sustainable way 1. Sewage treatment process Bore well construction
1. Prevention WATER POLLUTION REMEDIAL MEASURES Drainage systems should be well maintained and disposed . Medical wastes & hospital sewages should be eco-friendly disposed Usage of super bugs to reduce the oil contents over oceans Reduce the bore well usage which exploits ground water Awareness program should be periodically scheduled . Scientific usage of chemical fertilizers & pesticides Adopt scientific methods to destruct nuclear wastes Mosquito eradication Sewage treatment plant
2. Reduction WATER POLLUTION REMEDIAL MEASURES For the reduction process water quality & contaminants has to be identified . HACH TEST KIT - SCIENTIFIC EXAMINATION Sampling – Labbakadavu region, Muvattupuzha Adimali, region ,Idukki Objectives Constituents that can be toxic to biota & intense of contamination Changes in levels of pH Record Levels of fluoride, Chloride, Nitrate, Iron Changes in temperature
WATER POLLUTION HAZARDS & REMEDIAL MEASURES References Manorama online Manorama Year book 2013 & 14 State of Environmental and Related issues (kerenvis.nic.in)
WATER POLLUTION HAZARDS & REMEDIAL MEASURES Thank You “Lets do our part and pray for better tomorrow”
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