Water dowsing techniques.

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Published on January 28, 2014

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Water dowsing techniques Assignment

WATER DOWSING TECHNIQUES ASSIGNMENT SABA SAIF 01-161102-065 Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences Bahria University Islamabad 1

Table of Contents WATER DOWSING TECHNIQUES .................................................................................... 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 1 OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................................. 1 WHAT IS WATER DOWSING? .......................................................................................... 2 HISTORY ................................................................................................................................. 2 DOWSING RODS ................................................................................................................... 4 TYPES OF DOWSING ........................................................................................................... 5 OTHER EQUIPMENT USED FOR DOWSING ................................................................. 5 WHAT DO DOWSERS BELIEVE ABOUT GROUND WATER? .................................... 6 HOW DOES GROUND WATER OCCUR? ......................................................................... 6 WHAT DOES SCIENCE SAY ABOUT DOWSING? .......................................................... 7 CONCLUSION ......................................................................................................................... 8 BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................... 9

WATER DOWSING TECHNIQUES “It's an ancient art used for finding water, buried treasure and even missing people. Here's what it is, how it works, the methods and tools - and how you can learn to dowse” INTRODUCTION “Dowsing is a type of divination employed in attempts to locate ground water, buried metals or ores, gemstones, oil, gravesites, and many other objects and materials, as well as so-called currents of earth radiation (ley lines), without the use of scientific apparatus. Dowsing is also known as divining (especially in reference to interpretation of results), doodle bugging (particularly in the United States, in searching for petroleum or (when searching specifically for water) water finding, water witching or water dowsing. There is no scientific evidence that dowsing is effective”. “A Y- or L-shaped twig or rod, called a dowsing rod, divining rod (Latin: virgula divina or baculus divinatorius), a "vining rod" or witching rod is sometimes used during dowsing, although some dowsers use other equipment or no equipment at all. Dowsing appears to have arisen in the context of Renaissance magic in Germany, and it remains popular among believers in Forteana or radiesthesia”. (Wikipedia.org/wiki/dowsing, 2013) OBJECTIVE According to many books and dowsing experts, dowsing has a robust history. The objective of my assignment is to explain the various processes of water dowsing and its techniques that are being used worldwide. To explain the concept of what science says about these dowsing techniques. Its scope in the technological world is how it helps in locating ground water, its success rate, failure and the truth behind it. 1

WHAT IS WATER DOWSING? "Water dowsing" refers in general to the practice of using a forked stick, rod, pendulum, or similar device to locate underground water, minerals, or other hidden or lost substances, and has been a subject of discussion and controversy for hundreds, if not thousands, of years”. “Although tools and methods vary widely, most dowsers (also called diviners or water witches) probably still use the traditional forked stick, which may come from a variety of trees, including the willow, peach, and witch-hazel. Other dowsers may use keys, wire coat hangers, pliers, wire rods, pendulums, or various kinds of elaborate boxes and electrical instruments”. “In the classic method of using a forked stick, one fork is held in each hand with the palms upward. The bottom or butt end of the "Y" is pointed skyward at an angle of about 45 degrees. The dowser then walks back and forth over the area to be tested. When she/he passes over a source of water, the butt end of the stick is supposed to rotate or be attracted downward”. “Water dowsers practice mainly in rural or suburban communities where residents are uncertain as to how to locate the best and cheapest supply of groundwater. Because the drilling and development of a well often costs more than a thousand dollars, homeowners are understandably reluctant to gamble on a dry hole and turn to the water dowser for advice”. (http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/dowsing.html, 2013) HISTORY Cave paintings in north-western Africa that are 6,000-8,000 years old are believed to show a water dowser at work. The exact origin of the divining rod in Europe is not known. The device was introduced into England during the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603) to locate mineral deposits, and soon afterward it was adopted as a waterfinder throughout Europe. Water dowsing seems to be a mainly European cultural phenomenon; it was carried across the Atlantic to America by some of the earliest settlers from England and Germany. 2

Dowsing as practiced today may have originated in Germany during the 15th century, when it was used in attempts to find metals. As early as 1518 Martin Luther listed dowsing for metals as an act that broke the first commandment (i.e., as occultism).The 1550 edition of Sebastian Munster’s Cosmography contains a woodcut of a dowser with forked rod in hand walking over a cutaway image of a mining operation. The rod is labeled "Virgula Divina – Glück rüt" (Latin: divine rod; German. "Wünschelrute": fortune rod or stick), but there is no text accompanying the woodcut. By 1556 Georgius Agricola's treatment of mining and smelting of ore, De Re Metallica, included a detailed description of dowsing for metal ore. Figure 1. A dowser, from an 18th century In 1662 dowsing was declared to be "superstitious, or rather satanic" by a Jesuit, Gaspar Schott, though he later noted that he wasn't sure that the devil was always responsible for the movement of the rod. In the South of France in the 17th Century it was used in tracking criminals and heretics. Its abuse led to a decree of the inquisition in 1701, forbidding its employment for purposes of justice. An epigram by Samuel Sheppard, from Epigrams theological, philosophical, and romantick (1651) runs thus: Virgula divina: "Some Sorcerers do boast they have a Rod, Gather'd with Vowes and Sacrifice, And (borne about) will strangely nod To hidden Treasure where it lies, Mankind is (sure) that Rod divine, For to the Wealthiest (ever) they incline." Dowsing was conducted in South Dakota in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to help homesteaders, farmers, and ranchers located water wells on their property. 3

In the late 1960s during the Vietnam War, some United States Marines used dowsing to attempt to locate weapons and tunnels. As late as in 1986, when 31 soldiers were taken by an avalanche during an operation in the NATO drill Anchor Express in Vassdalen, Norway, the Norwegian army attempted to locate soldiers buried in the avalanche using dowsing as search method.16 soldiers died. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dowsing, 2013) DOWSING RODS Traditionally, the most common dowsing rod is a forked (Y-shaped) branch from a tree or bush. Some dowsers prefer branches from particular trees, and some prefer the branches to be freshly cut. Hazel twigs in Europe and witch-hazel in the United States are traditionally commonly chosen, as are branches from willow or peach trees. The two ends on the forked side are held one in each hand with the third (the stem of the "Y") Figure 2: Two L-shaped metal wire rods pointing straight ahead. Often the branches are grasped palms down [citation needed]. The dowser then walks slowly over the places where he suspects the target (for example, minerals or water) may be, and the dowsing rod supposedly dips, inclines or twitches when a discovery is made. This method is sometimes known as "Willow Witching". Many dowsers today use a pair of simple L-shaped metal rods. One rod is held in each hand, with the short arm of the L held upright, and the long arm pointing forward. When something is found, the rods cross over one another making an "X" over the found object. If the object is long and straight, such as a water pipe, the rods will point in opposite directions, showing its orientation. The rods are sometimes fashioned from wire coat hangers, and glass or plastic rods have also been accepted. Straight rods are also sometimes used for the same purposes, and were not uncommon in early 19th century New England. In all cases, the device is in a state of unstable equilibrium from which slight movements may be amplified. 4

TYPES OF DOWSING “There are several types or methods of dowsing: a. Forked stick: The most traditional method uses a small Y-shaped tree branch (most often from a willow). The dowser holds the branch parallel to the ground by the top of the Y shape, then walks over the area to be probed. When the dowser passes over the sought object, the end of the branch is drawn down, pointing to the spot at which the object can be found. b. Rods: An alternate method uses two L-shaped metal rods, one held in each hand parallel to the ground and parallel to each other. In this case, when the dowser passes over the sought object, the rods either swing apart or cross each other. You can easily make dowsing rods from wire coat hangers. c. Map dowsing: Some dowsers don't even have to visit the location to be dowsed. For them, a map of the area is sufficient over which they hold a pendulum. They know they have located the target area when the pendulum begins to move in a circle or back and forth. Y-rods, L-rods, pendulums and other dowsing equipment’s are also used”. (Paranormal.about.com/od/dowsing/a/All-about-Dowsing 2.htm, 2013) OTHER EQUIPMENT USED FOR DOWSING “A pendulum of crystal, metal or other materials suspended on a chain is sometimes used in divination and dowsing. In one approach the user first determines which direction (left-right, up-down) will indicate "yes" and which "no" before proceeding to ask the pendulum specific questions, or else another person may pose questions to the person holding the pendulum. The pendulum may also be used over a pad or cloth with "yes" and "no" written on it and perhaps other words written in a circle. The person holding the pendulum aims to hold it as steadily as possible over the centre and its movements are held to indicate answers to the questions. In the practice of radiesthesia, a pendulum diagnosis”.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dowsing,2013) 5 is used for medical

WHAT DO DOWSERS BELIEVE ABOUT GROUND WATER? “Some dowsers seem to believe that water occurs in veins resembling the veins of one's body. According to Henry Gross, one of the best-known modern practitioners, underground water flows upward from great depths, forming "domes." He believes such domes to be the source of water for underground veins that flow in various directions. Three domes supposedly on top of Mount Washington, N. H., were said to be coming from a depth of 57,000 feet. Most dowsers attempt only to locate the positions of the so-called water veins. But many of their clients ask: How deep will I have to drill, and how much water will I get? Some dowsers, therefore, do attempt to estimate the quantity of and the depth to water. If the well driller does not find water at the indicated spot, the failure may be blamed on interference of hills with the dowsing, a short circuit of "current," incorrect drilling, or the crushing or deflection of the delicate water veins by the driller”. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/water_dowsing/pdf/water_dowsing.pdf, 2013) HOW DOES GROUND WATER OCCUR? “Contrary to the belief of dowsers, ground water does not commonly flow in veins, domes, or underground rivers. Ground water is the water, which fills pores or cracks in underground rocks. It is replenished by nature according to the local climate and geology and is variable in both amount and quality. When rail falls, the plants and soil take up water. Some of the excess water runs off to streams, and some percolates down into the pores or cracks in the subsurface rocks. A well that extends into the saturated zone will fill with water to the level of the water table the top of the zone in which all the openings of the rocks are filled with water”. 6

“It is important to know whether water will flow into the well fast enough to make it useful for man's purposes. A "tight" rock such as clay or solid granite, with tiny pores or only a few narrow cracks, may give up water so slowly that it is not useful. If the openings in the rock are large enough to let water flow freely, however, water in useful amounts can be taken out. Several water-bearing rock layers may lie beneath the surface, separated by layers of rock less capable of carrying water. This geologic configuration may give rise to artesian conditions, where water levels in wells that penetrate the deeper layers of water-carrying rock rise under pressure and in some instances rise so high as to create flowing wells”. WHAT DOES SCIENCE SAY ABOUT DOWSING? “Case histories and demonstrations of dowsers may seem convincing, but when dowsing is exposed to scientific examination, it presents a very different picture. The natural explanation of "successful" water dowsing is that in many areas underground water is so prevalent close to the land surface that it would be hard to drill a well and not find water. In a region of adequate rainfall and favorable geology, it is difficult not to drill and find water! Some water exists under the Earth's surface almost everywhere. This explains why many dowsers appear to be successful. To locate groundwater accurately, however, as to depth, quantity, and quality, a number of techniques must be used. Hydrologic, geologic, and geophysical knowledge is needed to determine the depths and extent of the different water-bearing strata and the quantity and quality of water found in each. The area must be thoroughly tested and studied to determine these facts”.(http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/dowsing.html, 2013) 7

CONCLUSION Dowsing has a long, illustrious and checker history. Because it accesses the realm of intuition, however, it is often sneered at in these rational times. But in fact, most people are using their 'dowsing response' constantly - they just call it something else, like 'a hunch', a 'gut feeling', a 'sixth sense', 'first impression' and so on. A dowsing response is simply a kind of self-registering biofeedback. 8

Bibliography http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dowsing http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/dowsing.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dowsing http://paranormal.about.com/od/dowsing/a/All-About-Dowsing_2.htm http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/water_dowsing/pdf/water_dowsing.pdf http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/dowsing.html 9

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