WaltersUofMN

50 %
50 %
Information about WaltersUofMN
Entertainment

Published on October 17, 2007

Author: Connor

Source: authorstream.com

Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: An Intercultural Perspective:  Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: An Intercultural Perspective LeRoy Walters Kennedy Institute of Ethics Georgetown University Overview:  Overview A visit to the White House Biological background Three policy options Regional maps and policy trends The U.N. debate about cloning ISSCR initiatives International data Ethical arguments Religious perspectives Conclusions and recommendations The Visit to the White House: August 2, 2001:  The Visit to the White House: August 2, 2001 Biological Background:  Biological Background Three Policy Options:  Three Policy Options The Restrictive Option: Prohibits human embryo research; does not explicitly permit research with existing human embryonic stem cell lines (shown in red) Three Policy Options:  Three Policy Options The Permissive Option: Accepts the production of human embryos for research purposes through in vitro fertilization and/or nuclear transfer (cloning) (shown in green) Three Policy Options:  Three Policy Options The Moderate Option: Permits the derivation of new human embryonic stem cell lines but only through the use of remaining embryos from infertility clinics (shown in blue) A Fourth Policy Option?:  A Fourth Policy Option? The Compromise Option: Permits research with existing human embryonic stem cell lines but not the derivation of new stem cell lines through the destruction of human embryos (shown in yellow) Seven World Regions: An Overview:  Seven World Regions: An Overview Europe The Middle East and the Persian Gulf Africa Asia Oceania: Australia and New Zealand South America North America (outside the U.S.) The European Union:  The European Union The rules for funding hESC research under the 6th Research Programme Liberalizing Countries 2002-Present:  Liberalizing Countries 2002-Present Australia Belgium Brazil Czech Republic Denmark France Germany Greece Japan Liberalizing Countries 2002-Present:  Liberalizing Countries 2002-Present The Netherlands New Zealand Portugal Singapore South Korea Spain Sweden Switzerland The United Kingdom U.S. Government Funding Policy:  U.S. Government Funding Policy Option 2, with a time limit of August 9, 2001, for the creation of the stem cell lines Public Opinion in the U.S.:  Public Opinion in the U.S. The Gallup Organization, “Society’s Moral Boundaries,” May 16, 2005 The U.N. Debate about Cloning:  The U.N. Debate about Cloning Major stages in the debate August 2001 February 2002 Fall 2003 December 2004 March 2005 The United Nations General Assembly Vote in March 2005:  The United Nations General Assembly Vote in March 2005 The key text in the compromise Italian declaration (L.26): (b) Member states are called upon to prohibit all forms of human cloning inasmuch as they are incompatible with human dignity and the protection of human life; The General Assembly Vote:  The General Assembly Vote Nations voting in favor of the resolution (84) Australia Austria Germany Hungary Ireland Italy Mexico Poland Portugal Switzerland The United States The General Assembly Vote:  The General Assembly Vote Nations voting against the resolution (34) Belgium Brazil Canada China Denmark Finland France India Japan The General Assembly Vote:  The General Assembly Vote Nations voting against the resolution (cont.) Netherlands New Zealand Norway Republic of Korea Singapore Spain Sweden United Kingdom The General Assembly Vote:  The General Assembly Vote Nations abstaining (37) Egypt Iran Israel South Africa ISSCR Inititatives:  ISSCR Inititatives June 2006 November 2006 (projected) Source of Data:  Source of Data Figure 1 from Jason Owen-Smith and Jennifer McCormick, “An International Gap in Human ES Cell Research,” Nature Biotechnology 24(4): April 2006, 391-392. Date range: Papers published between November 1998 and December 31, 2004. Ethical Arguments:  Ethical Arguments Arguments in Favor of the Restrictive Option:  Arguments in Favor of the Restrictive Option Human embryos have a high moral status. They deserve to be protected from avoidable harm. Arguments in Favor of the Restrictive Option:  Arguments in Favor of the Restrictive Option When human embryos are developing in vitro, their continuing development does not conflict with any rights of the men or women who were the progenitors of the embryos. Thus, the issues of embryo research and embryo discard can be distinguished from the abortion issue. Implication of This Policy for Assisted Reproduction:  Implication of This Policy for Assisted Reproduction Only the number of early human embryos should be produced that will be transferred in the attempt to start a pregnancy. That is, there should be no remaining embryos, either fresh or frozen. Arguments in Favor of the Moderate Option:  Arguments in Favor of the Moderate Option Human embryos have an important moral status only after their biological individuality has been established and only after the completion of implantation. Arguments in Favor of the Moderate Option:  Arguments in Favor of the Moderate Option No additional harm is done to remaining early human embryos if they are used in research rather than discarded. Arguments in Favor of the Moderate Option:  Arguments in Favor of the Moderate Option The development of additional HESC research lines offers great promise for basic science in the short term and may help to provide new approaches to therapy in the long term. Implication of This Policy for Assisted Reproduction:  Implication of This Policy for Assisted Reproduction The current practice of fertilizing multiple eggs per ovulatory cycle is morally justified because it reduces the number of egg retrievals each woman must undergo. The practice of freezing human embryos is permitted because of the embryos’ modest moral status. Arguments in Favor of the Permissive Option:  Arguments in Favor of the Permissive Option Certain kinds of hESC research can be conducted only with human embryos that have particular genetic characteristics – for example, genotypes associated with serious diseases like cystic fibrosis or amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Arguments in Favor of the Permissive Option:  Arguments in Favor of the Permissive Option The circumstances of a human embryo’s creation do not affect its moral status while it is in vitro. Arguments in Favor of the Permissive Option:  Arguments in Favor of the Permissive Option This kind of HESC research offers great promise for basic science in the short term and may help to provide new approaches to therapy in the long term. Arguments in Favor of the Compromise Option:  Arguments in Favor of the Compromise Option Embryos that have been destroyed in the past to create the existing hESC lines cannot be brought back to life. Therefore, it seems reasonable to use the lines in research. However, no additional stem cell lines should be produced if that process would destroy presently existing or future embryos. Religious Perspectives:  Religious Perspectives Human Embryo Research and Religious Traditions:  Human Embryo Research and Religious Traditions Thesis: At least some representatives of most major religious traditions judge human embryo research (including human embryonic stem cell research), to be ethically acceptable, within limits. Major Religious Traditions and Standard hESC Research:  Major Religious Traditions and Standard hESC Research In the West Judaism (an almost universal view) Christianity Roman Catholicism (several theologians) Eastern Orthodoxy Protestantism (multiple viewpoints) Islam The Sunni tradition (multiple viewpoints) The Shi’i tradition (multiple viewpoints) Major Religious Traditions and Standard hESC Research:  Major Religious Traditions and Standard hESC Research In the East Hinduism Buddhism Taoism This evidence is derived primarily from submissions to the Singapore Bioethics Advisory Committee. A Text from the Hebrew Bible: Exodus 21: 22-24:  A Text from the Hebrew Bible: Exodus 21: 22-24 When men strive together, and hurt a woman with child, so that there is a miscarriage, and yet no harm follows, the one who hurt her shall be fined, according as the woman’s husband shall lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges determine. Exodus 21: 22-24 (continued):  Exodus 21: 22-24 (continued) If any harm follows, then you shall give life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe. Revised Standard Version (1952) Conclusions and Recommendations:  Conclusions and Recommendations Early human embryos in vitro have a relatively modest moral status. The Moderate and Permissive Options can be morally justified in principle. It is too early to know the extent to which hESC research will contribute either to basic science or to new therapies. Conclusions and Recommendations:  Conclusions and Recommendations Research in this field should be transparent to public view. HESC research should be reviewed locally and monitored nationally for scientific merit and to ensure respectful treatment of sperm, egg, and cell donors. Acknowledgments:  Acknowledgments The following people provided general information for this presentation: Cynthia Cohen (Georgetown University), Thomas Eich (Ruhr-University Bochum), Julia Finkel (Johns Hopkins University); Gail Javitt (Johns Hopkins University), Lori Knowles (University of Alberta), Alexandre Mauron (University of Geneva), and Erik Parens (the Hastings Center). The following people provided information for specific parts of the presentation: Ahmed Muhammed Al-Tayyeb (Islam); Robert Araujo (U.N., Observer Mission of the Holy See); D. Balasubramanian (India); Acknowledgments:  Acknowledgments Zelina Ben-Gershon (Israel); Ole Johan Borge (Norway); Jan Carlstedt-Duke (Sweden); Robin Alta Charo (multiple nations);Ole Döring (China); Mostafa Dolatyar (U.N., Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran); Carlos Fernando Diaz (U.N., Mission of Costa Rica); B. M. Gandhi (India); Ahmad Hajihosseini (U.N., Observer Mission of the Organization of the Islamic Conference); William Hoffman (multiple nations); Alissa Johnson (state legislation, U.S.); Gareth Jones (New Zealand); Phillan Joung (South Korea); Young-Mo Koo (South Korea); Acknowledgments:  Acknowledgments Line Matthiessen-Guyader (European Commission, Directorate General: Research); Jonathan Moreno (NAS guidelines); Michel Revel (Israel); Adam Thiam (Islamic Fiqh Academy, Saudi Arabia); Carolyn Willson (U.N., Mission of the United States); and Laurie Zoloth (Judaism, South Korea). Postdoctoral fellows at the Boston Children’s Hospital

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

India 2012: Stem Cell Research PPT - blogspot.com

www.mbbnet.umn.edu/scmap/WaltersUofMN.ppt Interested in Stem Cell Research ?: Download Stem Cell Research PPT ... Download Stem Cell Research PPT
Read more

MBBNet | Mbbnet.umn.edu | WebCompanyInfo.com

Learn more about mbbnet.umn.edu AND mbbnet. Get reviews, whois and traffic for Mbbnet.umn.edu. Is mbbnet.umn.edu a scam or a fraud? Coupon for mbbnet.umn.edu
Read more

Stem Cell research | PPT Directory

Stem Cell Research: Status and Ethics Stem Cell Research: Status and Ethics . Richard Deem, Evidence for God from Science
Read more

Ppt Stem-therapy-in-the-united-states | Powerpoint ...

Find PowerPoint Presentations and Slides using the power of XPowerPoint.com, find free presentations about STEM THERAPY IN THE UNITED STATES PPT. Search:
Read more

Slide 1 - University of Minnesota

Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: An Intercultural Perspective LeRoy Walters Kennedy Institute of Ethics Georgetown University Overview A visit to the ...
Read more

Les biotechnologies en Chine (PDF Download Available)

Minnesota. 26 February 2007. http://mbbnet.umn.edu/scmap/WaltersUofMN.ppt [25] Mark R. TRUSHEIM, Ernst R. BERNDT, Frank L. DOUGLAS. Stratified medicine: ...
Read more