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Published on June 18, 2007

Author: Abbott

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Perfect phylogenetic networks, and inferring language evolution:  Perfect phylogenetic networks, and inferring language evolution Tandy Warnow The University of Texas at Austin (Joint work with Don Ringe, Steve Evans, and Luay Nakhleh) Species phylogeny:  Species phylogeny Orangutan Gorilla Chimpanzee Human From the Tree of the Life Website, University of Arizona Possible Indo-European tree(Ringe, Warnow and Taylor 2000):  Possible Indo-European tree (Ringe, Warnow and Taylor 2000) Controversies for Indo-European history:  Controversies for Indo-European history Subgrouping: Other than the 10 major subgroups, what is likely to be true? In particular, what about Indo-Hittite Italo-Celtic, Greco-Armenian, Anatolian + Tocharian, Satem Core? Historical Linguistic Data:  Historical Linguistic Data A character is a function that maps a set of languages, L, to a set of states. Three kinds of characters: Phonological (sound changes) Lexical (meanings based on a wordlist) Morphological (especially inflectional) Homoplasy-free evolution:  Homoplasy-free evolution When a character changes state, it changes to a new state not in the tree In other words, there is no homoplasy (character reversal or parallel evolution) First inferred for weird innovations in phonological characters and morphological characters in the 19th century. 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 Lexical characters can also evolve without homoplasy:  Lexical characters can also evolve without homoplasy For every cognate class, the nodes of the tree in that class should form a connected subset - as long as there is no undetected borrowing nor parallel semantic shift. However, in practice, lexical characters are more likely to evolve homoplastically than complex phonological or morphological characters. 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 1 0 Differences between different characters:  Differences between different characters Lexical: most easily borrowed (most borrowings detectable), and homoplasy relatively frequent (we estimate about 25-30% overall for our wordlist, but a much smaller percentage for basic vocabulary). Phonological: can still be borrowed but much less likely than lexical. Complex phonological characters are infrequently (if ever) homoplastic, although simple phonological characters very often homoplastic. Morphological: least easily borrowed, least likely to be homoplastic. Linguistic character evolution:  Linguistic character evolution Characters are lexical, phonological, and morphological. Homoplasy is much less frequent than in biomolecular data: most changes result in a new state, and hence there is an unbounded number of possible states. Borrowing between languages occurs, but can often be detected. Our methods/models :  Our methods/models Ringe andamp; Warnow 'Almost Perfect Phylogeny': most characters evolve without homoplasy under a no-common-mechanism assumption (various publications since 1995) Ringe, Warnow, andamp; Nakhleh 'Perfect Phylogenetic Network': extends APP model to allow for borrowing, but assumes homoplasy-free evolution for all characters (Language, 2005) Warnow, Evans, Ringe andamp; Nakhleh 'Extended Markov model': parameterizes PPN and allows for homoplasy provided that homoplastic states can be identified from the data (to appear in Cambridge University Press) Ongoing work: incorporating unidentified homoplasy. First analysis: Almost Perfect Phylogeny:  First analysis: Almost Perfect Phylogeny The original dataset contained 375 characters (336 lexical, 17 morphological, and 22 phonological). We screened the dataset to eliminate characters likely to evolve homoplastically or by borrowing. On this reduced dataset (259 lexical, 13 morphological, 22 phonological), we attempted to maximize the number of compatible characters while requiring that certain of the morphological and phonological characters be compatible. (Computational problem NP-hard.) Indo-European Tree(95% of the characters compatible):  Indo-European Tree (95% of the characters compatible) Initial analysis:  Initial analysis Initial analysis of the IE dataset revealed that no perfect phylogeny for that dataset existed, even after careful screening. Possible explanations: Homoplasy Polymorphism (e.g. rock/stone) Mistakes in character coding Borrowing (horizontal transmission) Modelling borrowing: Networks and Trees within Networks:  Modelling borrowing: Networks and Trees within Networks Perfect Phylogenetic Networks:  Perfect Phylogenetic Networks 1 2 2 1 An underlying tree + additional contact edges No cycles that involve tree edges Each character is compatible on at least one of the trees 'inside' the network 2 2 1 1 1 PPN Reconstruction Method:  PPN Reconstruction Method Minimum Increment to a PPN (MIPPN): Estimate the underlying 'genetic' tree Add a minimum number of contact edges to make all characters compatible (NP-hard to solve exactly even when the genetic tree is known, so we do exhaustive search on each candidate tree.) The Indo-European (IE) Dataset:  The Indo-European (IE) Dataset 24 languages 294 characters: 22 phonological, 13 morphological, and 259 lexical We examined five different 'genetic' trees, one of which had a minimum number of incompatible characters (14 lexical characters) Quality of Solutions:  Quality of Solutions Three mathematical criteria: # characters incompatible with the 'genetic' tree T # additional contact edges needed to obtain a PPN from T # borrowing events needed to make all characters compatible on the PPN Also: feasibility with respect to the archaeological and historical record Our best PPN (Language, 2005):  Our best PPN (Language, 2005) Are we done?:  Are we done? We observed that of the three contact edges, only two are well-supported. If we eliminate that weakly supported edge, then we must explain the incompatibility of some characters (either through homoplasy or polymorphism). Challenge: How to model polymorphism, homoplasy, borrowing, and genetic transmission? Other work:  Other work Stochastic model of language evolution incorporating homoplasy, showing identifiability and efficient reconstructability (to appear Cambridge University Press) Comparison of various methods on the IE dataset (to appear, Transactions of the Philological Society) Modelling polymorphism (SIAM J. Computing, and ongoing) Simulation study (ongoing) Extended Markov model:  Extended Markov model There are two types of states: those that can arise more than once, but others can arise only once, and for each state of each character we know which type it is. (This information is not inferred by the estimation procedure.) There are two types of substitutions: homoplastic and non-homoplastic. Parameters: each character has its own 2x2 substitution matrix, and a relative probability of being borrowed. Each 'contact edge' has a relative probability of transmitting character states. Each character evolves down a tree contained within the network. The characters evolve independently under this no-common-mechanism model. Initial results:  Initial results The model tree is identifiable under very mild conditions (where the substitution probabilities are bounded away from 0 and 1). Statistically consistent and efficient methods exist for reconstructing trees (as well as some networks). Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses are also feasible, since likelihood calculations can be done in linear time. Ongoing model development:  Ongoing model development Not all homoplastic states are identifiable! Therefore, our ongoing work is seeking to develop improved models of language evolution which permit unidentified homoplasy. Such models are not likely to be identifiable, making inference of evolution more difficult Polymorphism (i.e., two or more states of a character present in a language) remains insufficiently characterized, and therefore cannot yet be used rigorously in a phylogenetic analysis. Our earlier work provided an initial model when evolution is tree-like, but we need to extend the model in the presence of borrowing. The no-common-mechanism model:  The no-common-mechanism model In this model, there is a separate random variable for every combination of site and edge - the underlying tree is fixed, but otherwise there are no constraints on variation between sites. Including this assumption in the usual molecular evolution models makes the tree and dates unidentifiable. A B C D A B C D For more information:  For more information Please see the Computational Phylogenetics for Historical Linguistics web site for papers, data, and additional material http://www.cs.rice.edu/~nakhleh/CPHL Acknowledgements:  Acknowledgements The Program for Evolutionary Dynamics at Harvard NSF, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Studies, and the Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology at UT-Austin. Collaborators: Don Ringe, Steve Evans, and Luay Nakhleh.

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