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wade_psych_2ce_ppt_ch13

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Theories of Personality : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1 Theories of Personality Chapter 13 Chapter Outline : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 2 Chapter Outline Measuring Personality Genetic influences on personality Environmental influences on personality Cultural influences on personality Psychodynamic influences on personality The inner experience: Humanistic/Existential Defining Personality and Traits : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 3 Defining Personality and Traits Personality Distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviours, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual throughout life Trait A characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling Measuring Personality : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 4 Measuring Personality Objective Tests (inventories) Standardized questions requiring written responses; they typically include scales on which people are asked to rate themselves Factor analysis is often used to examine the underlying characteristics “Big Five” Personality Dimensions : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5 “Big Five” Personality Dimensions The Big Five have emerged as distinct, central personality dimensions in many countries around the world Are stable over a lifetime Some argue it is incomplete; other important dimensions (e.g., religiosity) are missing Others (Eysenck) argue for only 3 factors “Big Five” Personality Dimensions : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 6 “Big Five” Personality Dimensions Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness / Dependability Emotional Stability Culture / Intellect / Openness Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 7 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Most widely used personality instrument Now the MMPI - 2 Clinical & Employment settings Measures aspects of personality that, if extreme, suggest a problem e.g., extreme suspiciousness Long test - 567 questions Characteristics of the MMPI-2 : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 8 Characteristics of the MMPI-2 Has several different scales (multiphasic) Scales thought to measure different kinds of psychological disorders e.g., depression Scale scores indicate how you compare with others Overall assessment is interpretive From inspecting profile of different scales MMPI Score Profile : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 9 MMPI Score Profile MMPI Validity Scales : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 10 MMPI Validity Scales Four scales designed to determine whether respondent is presenting self accurately Example: L scale (‘Fake Good’) - Trying too hard to present self in a positive light “I smile at everyone I meet” (T) “I read every editorial every day” (T) MMPI Sample Items : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 11 MMPI Sample Items I usually feel that life is worthwhile and interesting Depression Evil people are trying to influence my mind Paranoia I seem to hear things that other people can’t hear Schizophrenia Consistency over a lifetime : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 12 Consistency over a lifetime Projective Tests : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 13 Projective Tests Based on the assumption that the test taker will transfer (“project”) unconscious conflicts and motives onto an ambiguous stimulus. Examples include the Thematic Apperception Test and the Rorschach Thematic Apperception Test : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 14 Thematic Apperception Test Person is asked to tell a story about the “hero” in the picture Another projective test Based on Murray’s personality theory People are distinguished by the needs that motivate their behaviour The Rorschach Inkblot Test : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 15 The Rorschach Inkblot Test Ambiguous stimuli Person is asked to report what they see This type of test is called projective No clear image, so the things you see must be “projected” from inside yourself Sample Rorschach Card Genetic Influences on Personality : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 16 Genetic Influences on Personality Heredity and temperament Heredity and traits Evaluating Genetic Theories Genetic Influences on Personality : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 17 Genetic Influences on Personality 123 pairs of identical twins and 127 pairs of fraternal twins Measured on “Big Five” personality dimensions Results suggest that personality differences in the population are 40 - 50% genetically determined Heredity and Temperament : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 18 Heredity and Temperament Temperaments Physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways Present in infancy and assumed to be innate Includes: Reactivity Soothability Positive and Negative Emotionality Temperaments are relatively stable over time Heredity and Traits : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 19 Heredity and Traits Heritability A statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group Heritability of personality traits is about 50% Within a group of people, about 50 % of the variation associated with a given trait is attributable to genetic differences among individuals in the group Genetic predisposition is not genetic inevitability Evaluating Genetic Theories : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 20 Evaluating Genetic Theories If genetic theories are correct we may not be able to transform our personalities: implications for therapy May leave us to focus on living with temperaments we have Removes blame from parents Be careful not to oversimplify support for genetic influences Environmental Influences on Personality : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 21 Environmental Influences on Personality The power of parents The power of peers Situations and circumstances The Power of Parents : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 22 The Power of Parents The shared environment of the home has little influence on personality The non-shared environment is a more important influence Few parents have a single child-rearing style that is consistent over time and that they use with all children Even when parents try to be consistent in the way they treat their children, there may be little relation between what they do and how their children turn out The Power of Peers : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 23 The Power of Peers Adolescent culture includes different peer groups organized by different interests Peer acceptance is so important to children and adolescents that being bullied, victimized or rejected by peers is far more traumatic than punitive treatment by parents Situations & Circumstances : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 24 Situations & Circumstances Reciprocal Determinism The two-way interaction between aspects of the environment and aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits Non-shared Environment : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 25 Non-shared Environment Unique aspects of a person’s environment and aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits Two-way process of reciprocal determinismshows how the genetic and situational factors are both important : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 26 Two-way process of reciprocal determinismshows how the genetic and situational factors are both important Cultural Influences on Personality : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 27 Cultural Influences on Personality Culture, values and traits Customs in context Aggressiveness and altruism Culture, Values, and Traits : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 28 Culture, Values, and Traits Culture A program of shared rules that govern the behaviour of members of a community or society A set of values, beliefs and attitudes shared by most members of that community Culture, Values, and Traits : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 29 Culture, Values, and Traits Individualistic culture Cultures in which the self is regarded as autonomous, and individual goals and wishes are prized above duty and relations with others Collectivistic culture Cultures in which the self is regarded as embedded in relationships, and harmony with one’s group is prized above individual goals and wishes Customs in Context : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 30 Customs in Context When culture isn’t appropriately considered, people attribute unusual behaviour to personality Timeliness monochronic cultures time is ordered sequentially, schedules and deadlines values over people polychronic cultures time is ordered horizontally, people valued over schedules and deadline Aggressiveness : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 31 Aggressiveness Considerable cross-cultural evidence suggests that male aggression results more from cultural factors than biological ones In cultures in which competition for resources is fierce and survival is difficult, men are “toughened up” and pushed to take risks Altruism : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 32 Altruism Culture also strong influence on moral behaviour. Children from the United States were less likely to be altruistic when compared with children from Kenya, India, Mexico, the Philippines and Okinawa Psychodynamic Influences on Personality : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 33 Psychodynamic Influences on Personality Psychodynamic theories explain behaviour and personality in terms of unconscious energy dynamics within the individual Freud and Psychoanalysis Other Psychodynamic approaches Evaluating psychodynamic approaches Freud and Psychoanalysis : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 34 Freud and Psychoanalysis The structure of the personality Intrapsychic – within the mind (psyche) Libido – in psychoanalysis, the psychic energy that fuels the life or sexual instincts of the id The Structure of Personality : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 35 The Structure of Personality Id: Operates according to the pleasure principle Primitive and unconscious part of personality Ego: Operates according to the reality principle Mediates between id and superego Superego: Moral ideals and conscience Slide 36: Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 36 Defence Mechanisms : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 37 Defence Mechanisms Repression Projection Displacement Reaction formation Regression Denial Other Psychodynamic Approaches : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 38 Other Psychodynamic Approaches Jungian Theory Collective unconscious The universal memories, symbols, and experiences of human kind Represented in the archetypes or universal symbolic images that appear in myths, art, stories, and dreams Two important archetypes are maleness and femaleness, which Jung believed existed in both sexes Other Psychodynamic Approaches : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 39 Other Psychodynamic Approaches The Object-Relations School Emphasizes the importance of the infant’s first two years of life and the baby’s formative relationships, especially with the mother Emphasized children’s needs for a powerful mother and to be in relationships Slide 40: Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 40 Three scientific failings Violating the principle of falsifiability Drawing universal principles from the experiences of a few atypical patients Basing theories of personality development on retrospective accounts and the fallible memories of patients Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories The Humanistic Approach : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 41 The Humanistic Approach Abraham Maslow Carl Rodgers Rollo May Evaluating Humanists Abraham Maslow : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 42 Abraham Maslow Humanist psychology An approach that emphasizes personal growth, resilience, and the achievement of human potential Peak experiences Rare moments of rapture cause by the attainment of excellence or the experience of beauty Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 43 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Carl Rogers : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 44 Carl Rogers Unconditional Positive Regard A situation in which the acceptance and love one receives from significant others is unqualified Conditional Positive Regard A situation in which the acceptance and love one receives from significant others is contingent upon one’s behaviour Self-Discrepancy Theory : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 45 Self-Discrepancy Theory Self-esteem is defined by the match between how we see ourselves and how we want to see ourselves Rollo May : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 46 Rollo May Shared with humanists the belief in free will and freedom of choice but also emphasized loneliness, anxiety and alienation Existentialism Free will confers on us responsibility for our actions Evaluating Humanists : Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 47 Evaluating Humanists Hard to operationally define many of the concepts Have added balance to the study of personality The approach has encouraged others to focus on “positive psychology” The argument that we have the power to choose our own destiny has fostered a new appreciation for resilience

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