W R B R08 Web

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Published on March 16, 2008

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2008 WORLD RETAIL BANKING REPORT

Contents 5 Pricing Index 27 Organic Growth in Domestic Markets 53 Appendix: Methodology 58 About Us © 2008 Capgemini. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means without written permission from Capgemini.

Preface For the fifth consecutive year, Capgemini, ING, and the European Financial Management & Marketing Association (EFMA) have cooperated to develop this latest annual examination of the global retail banking market. As in previous years, it provides overviews and insights into the global retail banking industry’s dynamics. This year’s edition adds two new countries, Singapore and Denmark, raising the number of countries to 26 and increasing the banks studied from 180 to 194. We continue to investigate the worldwide pricing of day-to-day banking products and services, and this year’s edition continues to highlight the evolution of bank prices for these products and services around the world. Our website, www.wrbr08.com, provides dashboards that offer more detail on each country’s national banking industry. A sample dashboard is included later in this publication. As in earlier editions, our 2008 report adds a spotlight section that focuses on a current retail banking issue. This year’s spotlight highlights the problems banks face as they search for ways to maximise their retail banks’ growth in a changing market, and how some top performers are making strategic choices that ensure their retail operations will sustain the bank’s market performance in the years ahead. Based on case studies, in-depth interviews with banking executives in each market around the world, and quantitative analysis, the spotlight section concentrates on the operational levers and client value propositions that can help retail banks grow in the high-income domestic markets in which they operate today. All of us welcome the opportunity to offer this 2008 edition of the World Retail Banking Report to the financial services community. We hope it will stimulate debate and provide bankers with information they can use effectively as they negotiate the difficult strategic terrain of today’s retail banking landscape. Bertrand Lavayssière Patrick Desmarès Felix Potvliege Managing Director Secretary General Head Strategy & Business Global Financial Services European Financial Management Development of Retail Banking Capgemini & Marketing Association ING Group

 2008 World Retail Banking Report

PRICING INDEx 5 PRICING INDEx Key Findings ß This year the average annual price of core banking services across the 26 studied countries was €70 for the local active user, with price levels ranging from €52 in Asia-Pacific to €79 in North America. ß The average price fell slightly (1%) from last year. ß We have confirmed again that as a nation’s economy matures, the proportion of its GDP per capita allocated to banking services declines. ß From 2006 to 2008, in their struggle to compete, banks used price to influence customer behaviour: – Banks cut the price of sales influencers (e.g. current accounts, cards) by 0.8% a year to promote sales. – Behaviour influencers of two kinds—lower cost products (e.g. online banking or withdrawals at ATMs), whose prices banks cut by 0.2% a year to encourage their use; and higher cost products (e.g. cheques or withdrawals at desk), whose prices banks raised by 0.9% a year to discourage their use. – Unseen services (e.g. exceptions handling), for which prices remained unchanged. ß North America’s price rose the most—averaging 5.7%—resulting primarily from higher prices for payments and cash utilisation; its price had declined during the three previous years due to fierce competition on account management fees. ß Asia-Pacific’s price fell by 11.1% this year, essentially because of intensified competition in Australia and India, particularly in payments and account management. ß European prices remained stable, with only a 0.8% price increase across both the eurozone and non-eurozone countries studied. ß With the advent of SEPA, prices of pan-European payments have stabilised in the eurozone, and (excluding Ireland) even decreased faster in Europe eurozone than in the rest of the world. ß Price discrepancies between banks dropped significantly at both the country and region levels; this was particularly striking in North America, although pricing differences in the eurozone remained the smallest.

 2008 World Retail Banking Report METHODOLOGY We collected most of the data for this 2008 edition For this 2008 edition, we expanded the geographic of the World Retail Banking Report during the last scope of the pricing index and spotlight to 26 three months of 2007. We continued to focus on four countries, adding Denmark and Singapore, and the categories of banking products and services: account number of participating banks rose from 180 to 194 management, cash utilisation, exceptions handling, (see Figure 1.1). Once again, we compared retail and payments. Figure 1.2 shows the components of banking in four regions: Europe eurozone, Europe each category. non-eurozone, North America, and Asia-Pacific. Figure 1.1 New Countries Countries in Number Banks Surveyed Region in 2008 WRBR 2007 WRBR of Banks Austria 6 Belgium 4 France 10 Germany 7 Europe Eurozone Ireland 5 Italy 6 Netherlands 6 Portugal 6 Spain 18 Croatia 7 Czech Republic 5 Denmark 4 Norway 6 Romania 9 Europe Non-eurozone Poland 11 Slovakia 6 Sweden 6 Switzerland 6 UK 5 Canada 6 North America US 9 Australia 5 China 9 Asia-Pacific India 9 Japan 20 Singapore 3 TOTAL countries/banks 26/194

PRICING INDEx 7 To compare prices from the consumer’s point of To compare prices around the world, we also view, a local expert defined a basket of products and developed a global profile. It is not governed by local services reflecting the typical consumer’s banking product usage, which obviously varies by country, behaviour in each country. We call these local but by a standard basket of products for all countries. profiles, which we divided into three frequency-of- While it is not as precise as the local profile, it is the use categories: less active, active, and very active users only practical way we can effectively compare global (also shown in Figure 1.2). The price index built on banking prices. these local profiles measures what consumers in a particular country, at these frequency-of-use levels, When comparing prices over more than one year, we pay annually for their day-to-day banking services. consistently use prices based on profiles as updated for this latest edition. Figure 1.2 Scope of Products and Services in the Global and Local Pricing Indexes Core Day-to-Day Two Profiles Three Usage Patterns Nineteen Products & Services Banking Needs Current account Account Products’ frequencies On-line banking Less Represent 20% of Management of use are estimated Call centre Active users with the lowest for each country Users frequencies of use to reflect local Local consumption patterns Profile Measures cost Deposit at desk of basic banking Deposit at ATM needs for domestic Withdrawal at desk customers Cash Utilisation Withdrawal at bank’s ATM Withdrawal at other banks’ ATM networks Active Account for 60% Users of the population Debit card stop payment Exceptions Cheque stop payment Handling Document search Banker’s draft Identical frequency of use for all countries Global Profile Allows the comparison Cheque of price levels based Represent 20% Very Debit card on a single profile of users with the Active Credit card highest frequencies Users Internal wire transfer of use Payments External wire transfer Standing order (fixed amount transfer) Direct debit Source: Capgemini analysis, 2008.

8 2008 World Retail Banking Report NEW COUNTRIES IN OUR 2008 REPORT GENERAL PRICING ANALYSES Denmark Local Profile Danish banks have a long-standing tradition of Local active users pay an average of €70 a year for partnering, which facilitated a large consolidation their day-to-day banking needs. As Figure 1.3 move that started in the 1990s and continues. Four illustrates, price levels varied from one region to banks now dominate Danish retail banking, and two another, ranging from a low of €52 in Asia-Pacific to of them, Danske Bank and Nordea Bank Denmark, €79 in North America. The average price less active control over 50% of the market. users of bank products and services paid was €35, compared to the very active users’ much higher €122 Deploying new technologies, notably for credit (about 3.5 times more). transfers, is an established industry strength in Denmark. Danish banks recently successfully Again, these are averages, and the situation varies by developed packages with free standard products region. In Europe eurozone, for instance, the prices and services for Internet users, and as a result, most banks charge the three groups do not vary Danish Internet prices are among the lowest in widely—very active users pay only twice as much Europe eurozone. Its fee structure is similar to as less active users. In contrast, Asia-Pacific banks other Nordic countries—heavily dependent on charge very active users as much as five times the payments (79%) and, less so, on cash utilisation price they charge less active users. (19%), with almost free account management. Global Profile Pricing between Danish banks varies significantly, To develop a price benchmark of banks regardless of and cannot be explained by geographic their clients’ behaviours, we computed prices based on fragmentation. This signals a market in which a single global active user profile, as detailed in the customers view relationship quality as important, Methodology section above. Measured on this global and where packaged offerings make it difficult for profile price index, Europe non-eurozone (118% of customers to compare prices. the world average) and North America (141%) remain the most expensive regions (see Figure 1.4). Singapore The Singaporean retail banking market is very concentrated, with three banks—DBS Group, United Overseas Bank, and Overseas Chinese Banking Group—controlling 67% of the market. Transaction banking is still the prevailing business model, with fast-growing demand, but the large banks are trying to develop cross-selling into the burgeoning mass affluent market. Singaporean banks for many years have been leaders in using new technologies in retail banking, such as contactless payments and mobile banking. Singapore’s prices are comparable to Australia’s, but its fee structure is closer to those of China and Japan, with a very large share of fees derived from payments (83%) and very limited fees from account management (5%). The minor differences between bank prices in Singapore reflect a very competitive, transaction-oriented market.

PRICING INDEx  Figure 1.3 Average Local Profile Price for 2008 (€) 250 200 197 Very active user price Active user price Less active user price 150 136 122 101 104 100 74 79 75 70 50 52 45 49 35 31 22 0 Europe Eurozone Europe Non-eurozone North America Asia-Paci c Average Source: Capgemini analysis, 2008. Figure 1. Global Profile Prices for 2008 Active Users (€) 150 140 117 100 99 83 57 50 0 Europe Europe North America Asia-Paci c Average Eurozone Non-eurozone Source: Capgemini analysis, 2008.

10 2008 World Retail Banking Report Price Analysis Based on this product categorisation, we analysed The average price for active users decreased 1% this banks’ pricing policies from 2006 to 2008 to year. Prices followed a similar evolution this year for understand their actions and underlying objectives local less active users (-0.1%) and for local very active (see Figure 1.5). Banks built loyalty and won new users (-0.9%). clients by reducing prices on sales influencer products, which they cut by 0.8% a year. Banks also reached To assess why banks have changed their prices for this objective in several markets by creating for certain products, we have classified banking packaged offerings. products into three categories according to their impact on customers: Many banks reduced their cost of operations by ß Sales influencers: Products whose prices primarily influencing clients’ behaviour, using the prices of affect a consumer’s decision to buy banking services behaviour influencer products to move their customers or change banks. Current accounts and credit/debit towards less expensive channels or payment means cards fall into this category, because theirs are the and away from more expensive products and services. only prices consumers commit to pay up front Banks cut the average price of the less-costly when they open an account or buy a card. behaviour influencer products by 0.2% a year to encourage their adoption. At the same time, they ß Behaviour influencers: Products whose prices increased the price of the more costly influencers by inf luence a consumer’s behaviour, but fall outside 0.9% a year to discourage customers from using them. the direct buying situation. We have split them according to their production cost for banks: They might also have enhanced their earnings by – Less-costly products for banks: On-line banking, raising prices on unseen service products, yet most deposits and withdrawals at ATMs, direct debits, banks let these prices stand, at least partly held in transfers, and standing orders check by consumer associations or regulators. – More-costly products for banks: Call centres, deposits and withdrawals at desk, withdrawals at other banks’ ATM networks, cheques ß Unseen services: Services for which consumers have to pay without having had any choice or decision, such as exceptions handling.

PRICING INDEx 11 Figure 1.5 Average yearly change Product and Service Variations, Products/Category from 2006 to 2008 200–2008 (%) Sales influencers -0.8% Current account 0% Debit card -1.3% Credit card -1.0% Behaviour influencers, less costly -0.2% Call centre -2.3% On-line banking -0.6% Cash deposit at ATM 0.0% Withdrawal at bank’s ATM -0.5% Direct debit 0.3% External transfer 1.1% Internal transfer 0.9% Standing order -0.3% Behaviour influencers, more costly 0.9% Cash deposit at desk -0.4% Withdrawal at desk 0.2% Cheque 1.9% Withdrawal at other banks’ ATM networks 2.0% Unseen services (exceptions handling) 0.0% Banker’s draft 0.4% Cheque stop 1.2% Debit card stop -1.6% Document search 0.1% All products -0.1% Source: Capgemini analysis, 2008.

12 2008 World Retail Banking Report Cost Based on GDP/Capita Charges for core banking services consumed an average of 0.55% of GDP per capita across the 26 countries we studied. As illustrated in Figure 1.6, bank pricing as a proportion of per capita GDP is higher in less-developed countries. The proportion of GDP per capita allocated to banking services declines as an economy matures, at least partly because consumers in a mature economy begin to regard these core banking services as a commodity. Figure 1. Percentage Cost of Banking, by GDP per Capita 4.5% 4.0% Country Percentage of a country’s GDP per capita 3.5% paid for core banking services (%) 3.0% 2.5% 2.0% 1.5% 1.0% 0.5% 0.0% 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 GDP per capita (€) Source: Capgemini analysis, 2008.

PRICING INDEx 13 REGIONAL PRICING ANALYSES As illustrated in Figure 1.7, overall prices remained In contrast to other banking activities, such as asset essentially stable across Europe (up only 0.8%), but management or investment banking, retail banking they soared in North America (up 5.7%) and fell is essentially a local business. National retail banking precipitously in Asia-Pacific (down 11.1%). markets for the most part are not affected by other national markets, although economic integration at Each region or even country is shaped by its history. the regional level (European Community, NAFTA) is We have used the data collected for previous editions beginning to have an impact. Based on what we have to put this year’s changes in perspective, as the learned from past editions, we know that the regional regional analyses below indicate. approach will generate the most accurate results. Figure 1.7 Evolution of Local Profile Prices, 2007–2008 (%) 8% 6% 5.7% 4% 2% 0.8% 0.8% 0% -1.0% -2% -4% -6% -8% -10% -12% -11.1% Europe Europe North America Asia-Paci c Average Eurozone Non-eurozone Source: Capgemini analysis, 2008.

1 2008 World Retail Banking Report North America North America registered the biggest price increase. The structure of North American pricing evolved North American prices went up by 5.7% (€4) for slowly over the years, characterised by free account local active users over last year. This price increase management since 2005, which was balanced by the was general across the whole continent, and reflects importance of two other fee categories: payments the growing market power large banks have gained (as much as 79% in the US, and still growing) and by growing, mostly through consolidation. North cash utilisation (48% in Canada, higher than in any American banks are currently trying to compensate other country) (see Figure 1.8). for their past low pricing strategies now that their earnings ratios are threatened by the sub-prime crisis. Figure 1.8 Sources of Fees for Core Banking Services in North America (%) 100% 90% 80% 49% 70% 57% 60% 63% 64% 79% 60% 50% 3% 40% 6% 7% 7% 7% 30% 31% 48% 20% 33% 29% 29% 10% 10% 0% 0% 0% 10% 1% 0% 6% 0% 2005 2006 2007 2008 USA Canada Edition of World Retail Banking Report Country (2008) Payments Exceptions Handling Cash Utilisation Account Management Source: Capgemini analysis, 2008.

PRICING INDEx 15 The main price increases over the year were in policy to influence customer behaviour towards payments and cash utilisation (see Figure 1.9). In more cost-efficient means of payment. In the cash payments, raising external and internal transfer utilisation category, withdrawals at other banks’ prices rather than prices for cards or cheques reflects ATM networks accounted for most of the increase, the banks’ competitive intent to keep prices low because raising this price was unlikely to impair a on products that are most important in customers’ bank’s competitive edge, and consumers might even minds when choosing their banks, rather than a blame a bank’s competitors. Figure 1. Product and Service Price Variations vs. Last Year for Local Active Users in North America (€) 3 2.7 1.4 1 0.0 0.1 -1 -3 Account Cash Exceptions Payments Management Utilisation Handling 2.5 2.0 2.0 1.5 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0 -0.2 -0.3 -0.5 Withdrawals Withdrawals Withdrawals Cheque Direct External Internal Standing at bank's at desk at other (price per debit wire transfer wire transfer order ( xed ATM banks' ATM cheque) amount networks transfer) Cash Utilisation Payments Source: Capgemini analysis, 2008.

1 2008 World Retail Banking Report Asia-Pacific The Asia-Pacific region has had a more consistent pricing structure across the four product and service categories (see Figure 1.10). Its overall structure results from the combination of two sets of countries: China, Japan, and Singapore, which follow the US pattern of free account management and heavy payments fees, in contrast to Australia and India, where fees derived from exceptions handling greatly overshadow those from payments, much like in the UK. Account management fees, which have fallen from 22% to 15% since our 2005 report, may be on a downward trend. Figure 1.10 Sources of Fees for Core Banking Services in Asia-Pacific (%) 100% 10% 90% 80% 43% 44% 49% 47% 44% 70% 51% 60% 84% 92% 83% 50% 24% 24% 40% 23% 26% 11% 43% 30% 11% 16% 13% 13% 1% 20% 28% 0% 10% 2% 10% 22% 14% 13% 16% 16% 15% 1% 0% 8% 0% 5% 0% 2005 2006 2007 2008 Australia China India Japan Singapore Edition of World Retail Banking Report Country (2008) Payments Exceptions Handling Cash Utilisation Account Management Source: Capgemini analysis, 2008.

PRICING INDEx 17 Asia-Pacific’s price declined the most. The local active First, the decrease in account management prices can user price in Asia-Pacific fell by 11.1% (€5.5). This be traced to the Australian national market, where decrease resulted mainly from price cuts in payments two large banks launched flat-fee accounts in a fierce (reversing a previous trend) and account management competitive bid to acquire new clients, drawing (see Figure 1.11). Both these changes reflect specific down the average fee charged for the region’s current national market situations. account. Second, cuts in payments fees (external wire transfers and credit cards) occurred primarily in India, where state-owned banks were attempting to align their tariffs with those of private banks. Figure 1.11 Product and Service Price Variations vs. Last Year for Local Active Users in Asia-Pacific (€) 3 1 -1.6 -0.5 -0.4 -3.0 -1 -3 Account Cash Exceptions Payments Management Utilisation Handling 1.5 0.9 1.0 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.0 -0.2 -0.3 -0.5 -1.0 -0.9 -1.1 -1.2 -1.1 -1.5 -1.6 -2.0 -2.0 -2.5 Withdrawals at other banks' ATM networks Cheque (price per cheque) Standing order ( xed amount transfer) Cheque stop payment Current account Withdrawals at bank's ATM Banker's draft (cashier's check) Debit card stop payment Document search (desk) Credit card Direct debit External wire transfer Internal wire transfer Account Manage- Cash Exceptions Payments ment Utilisation Handling Source: Capgemini analysis, 2008.

18 2008 World Retail Banking Report Europe Eurozone The Europe eurozone fee structure is not homogeneous, although a slow price convergence trend is evident as Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands progressively reduce their emphasis on account management fees (see Figure 1.12). Cash utilisation fees have increased steadily over the past three years, a clear signal that euro unification has not significantly reduced the cost of using cash. It is not surprising that, given SEPA, the cost of using cash is a major item on the agendas of both the European Commission and the European Central Bank. Figure 1.12 Sources of Fees for Core Banking in Europe Eurozone (%) 100% 90% 25% 34% 80% 43% 45% 52% 49% 58% 55% 54% 5% 70% 63% 71% 11% 1% 78% 60% 82% 13% 5% 50% 0% 5% 9% 8% 6% 6% 24% 40% 6% 5% 8% 5% 8% 9% 6% 1% 30% 4% 1% 59% 57% 42% 20% 37% 34% 22% 31% 31% 31% 27% 14% 29% 10% 19% 2% 0% 4% 6% 0% 2005 2006 2007 2008 Austria Belgium France Germany Netherlands Portugal Spain Italy Ireland Edition of World Retail Banking Report Country (2008) Payments Exceptions Handling Cash Utilisation Account Management Source: Capgemini analysis, 2008.

PRICING INDEx 1 In Europe eurozone, prices remained relatively stable, Figure 1.13 Product and Service Price Variations with only a 0.8% (€0.6) rise. The changes in Europe vs. Last Year for the Local Active User in Europe Eurozone (€) eurozone were much smaller than those outside Europe. They were mainly related to payments (see Figure 1.13). Banks raised the price of internal wire 3 transfers at desk to compensate for the development of Internet origination (generally free), while the price of external wire transfers decreased under the 1 0.5 influence of SEPA. Account management prices 0.0 0.2 remained essentially stable, because a price increase -0.1 in current accounts was offset by a cut in the price of -1 on-line banking. -3 Account Cash Exceptions Payments Management Utilisation Handling 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.1 -0.4 -0.6 -0.5 -0.6 -0.8 Current account On-line banking Cheque (price per cheque) External wire transfer Internal wire transfer Account Payments Management Source: Capgemini analysis, 2008.

20 2008 World Retail Banking Report The Single Euro Payment Area (SEPA) will lead to The price of this basket of products has stopped lower prices. We have continued last year’s effort to decreasing in Europe eurozone, and stabilised at €48. track SEPA’s impact on prices. The expected result The result would be much better except for turmoil is that a standardised payments structure across the in the Irish market, without which the price would eurozone will lead to tougher competition and lower have fallen by 6.3%—from €41 to €38 (see Figure prices. To check this hypothesis, we created the 1.14). As a comparison, outside Europe eurozone the “pan-European payments means”, which we defined price of this same basket of products has dropped as the basket of products that will progressively be by only €1, from €34 to €33 (a 3% drop). SEPA, governed by SEPA’s pan-European standards and therefore, is probably still drawing prices down in regulations. These include internal and external wire Europe eurozone. transfers, direct debits, credit and debit cards, and their underlying current accounts. This year these products accounted for 64% of the fees paid by local active users in Europe eurozone. Figure 1.1 Price of Pan-European Payment Means for the Local Active Profile, 2008 (€) 140 130.0 120 100 Average Eurozone 80 €48, similar to 2007 73.7 63.7 Average Rest of the World 60 56.7 57.1 56.8 €33 vs. €34 in 2007 50.8 50.8 39.3 40 37.3 33.0 33.4 32.4 32.0 31.9 30.6 26.2 26.2 24.3 19.3 18.1 16.5 20 14.8 12.2 8.1 3.5 0 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Europe Eurozone Rest of the World Source: Capgemini analysis, 2008.

PRICING INDEx 21 Europe Non-eurozone The fee structure in Europe non-eurozone falls between North American and Europe eurozone patterns (see Figure 1.15). This results mainly from the combination of Nordic countries, which feature US-style fees heavily dependent on payments, along with Eastern Europe countries, where banks charge relatively high prices for account management and cash utilisation. The UK, however, does not fit in either of these categories, but instead features an original pattern that relies on exceptions handling. Figure 1.15 Sources of Fees for Core Banking Services in Europe Non-eurozone (%) 100% 12% 1% 90% 33% 32% 80% 44% 43% 56% 55% 55% 58% 1% 70% 59% 4% 41% 75% 79% 75% 60% 2% 27% 50% 99% 1% 32% 21% 40% 9% 9% 9% 9% 15% 52% 30% 12% 2% 16% 16% 1% 14% 46% 20% 11% 40% 32% 32% 1% 26% 4% 19% 0% 10% 23% 18% 19% 20% 2% 1% 0%22% 10% 0% 5% 0% Czech Republic 2005 2006 2007 2008 Croatia Switzerland Denmark Romania Slovakia Sweden Norway Poland UK Edition of World Retail Banking Report Country (2008) Payments Exceptions Handling Cash Utilisation Account Management Source: Capgemini analysis, 2008.

22 2008 World Retail Banking Report In Europe non-eurozone, prices increased by 0.8% (€0.6) for local active users. In payments, banks increased credit card fees, but this was offset by cuts in the prices of external and internal wire transfers (see Figure 1.16). While call centre fees decreased, prices of the two other account management products—credit account and on-line banking—were raised across Europe non-eurozone. Figure 1.1 Product and Service Price Variations vs. Last Year for Local Active Users in Europe Non-eurozone (€) 3 1 0.5 0.4 -0.2 -0.1 -1

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