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Published on April 3, 2008

Author: rcorrigan

Source: slideshare.net

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Westminster eForum: IP and the Future of Copyright
UK Copyright: How it compares internationally and who are the winners and losers

Westminster eForum: IP and the Future of Copyright UK Copyright: How it compares internationally and who are the winners and losers March 2008 Ray Corrigan Open University

Outline UK Background History Gowers International comparisons WWW Term, TPM, P2P Winners, losers and evidence Creators Agents (business) Public

UK

Background

History

Gowers

International comparisons

WWW

Term, TPM, P2P

Winners, losers and evidence

Creators

Agents (business)

Public

Background Types of copyright Literary, dramatic, artistic, musical works Books, music, software, films, databases, packaging, tickets, lists of rules, ads… Protects expression of “idea”, not idea itself Creators use earlier work

Types of copyright

Literary, dramatic, artistic, musical works

Books, music, software, films, databases, packaging, tickets, lists of rules, ads…

Protects expression of “idea”, not idea itself

Creators use earlier work

UK Copyright Context History Statute of Anne (1709) Macaulay – tax on readers to benefit writers Berne Convention (1886… 1908… 1951… 1971…) UK Copyright Acts (1911 & 1956) Rome Convention (1961) CDPA 1988 TRIPS (GATT/WTO 1994/’95) 1996 WIPO Treaties EU directives - IPRED, e-commerce, EUCD, databases, sw, semiconductors, cr term…

History

Statute of Anne (1709)

Macaulay – tax on readers to benefit writers

Berne Convention (1886… 1908… 1951… 1971…)

UK Copyright Acts (1911 & 1956)

Rome Convention (1961)

CDPA 1988

TRIPS (GATT/WTO 1994/’95)

1996 WIPO Treaties

EU directives - IPRED, e-commerce, EUCD, databases, sw, semiconductors, cr term…

Gowers Review UK 2006 IP enforcement IP crime – police and trading standards 10 years jail Reform of copyright Balance – fair dealing & exceptions for private format shifting Libraries, archives, education No term extension on sound recordings - economics Patent Office -> IPO Advisory Board on IP Policy

IP enforcement

IP crime – police and trading standards

10 years jail

Reform of copyright

Balance – fair dealing & exceptions for private format shifting

Libraries, archives, education

No term extension on sound recordings - economics

Patent Office -> IPO

Advisory Board on IP Policy

WWW Mid 1990s WWW Copyright upheaval Many changes internationally US DMCA, CTEA 1998 EU EUCD, IPRED, ECD Mexico life + 100 France: 3 strikes Antigua: Gambling + WTO = Infringement

Mid 1990s WWW

Copyright upheaval

Many changes internationally

US DMCA, CTEA 1998

EU EUCD, IPRED, ECD

Mexico life + 100

France: 3 strikes

Antigua: Gambling + WTO = Infringement

Term, ISPs EU & US life + 70 Mexico life + 100 Others Berne norm life + 50 US CDA s230 + DMCA s512 safe harbours E-commerce directive – protect ISPs? UK 2002 ecommerce directive regulations s17-19 But +EUCD in SABAM v Tiscali/Scarlet Belgian court Nov. 2007 Mandate filters for CR? China notice and takedown law 2005

EU & US life + 70

Mexico life + 100

Others Berne norm life + 50

US CDA s230 + DMCA s512 safe harbours

E-commerce directive – protect ISPs?

UK 2002 ecommerce directive regulations s17-19

But +EUCD in SABAM v Tiscali/Scarlet

Belgian court Nov. 2007

Mandate filters for CR?

China notice and takedown law 2005

ISPs, P2P Ireland: music cos. v Eircom Israel court: ISPs must block torrent site Canada BMG v Doe 2005: ISP can’t ID Irish High Court: ISPs must ID users 2006 English High Court: ISPs must ID users 2006 German court: ISP can’t ID p2p users 2008 France 3 strikes memorandum

Ireland: music cos. v Eircom

Israel court: ISPs must block torrent site

Canada BMG v Doe 2005: ISP can’t ID

Irish High Court: ISPs must ID users 2006

English High Court: ISPs must ID users 2006

German court: ISP can’t ID p2p users 2008

France 3 strikes memorandum

Stakeholders (winners & losers) Public (Consumers) Creators Agents* * Business e.g. Music, film, software, media companies, publishers

Creators Z depends on i) term ii) scope iii) penalties iv) case law v)enforcement

Consumers Societal welfare equals (weighted) sum of consumers, creators & agents

Societal welfare equals (weighted) sum of consumers, creators & agents

Agents of creators Music, film, software, media companies and publishers Za > Zc

Music, film, software, media companies and publishers

Lined up Possibly Z a > Z c > Z consumers

Evidence Optimal strength varies for creators, agents and consumers Possibly Z a > Z c > Z consumers We don’t know Very little empirical evidence Case study of specific firms Surveys of creators, firms, lawyers, etc Data & econometrics National or sector trends/comparisons Sales of CDs, films, etc Collecting society data Legal cases matched to firm-level data

Optimal strength varies for creators, agents and consumers

Possibly Z a > Z c > Z consumers

We don’t know

Very little empirical evidence

Case study of specific firms

Surveys of creators, firms, lawyers, etc

Data & econometrics

National or sector trends/comparisons

Sales of CDs, films, etc

Collecting society data

Legal cases matched to firm-level data

Recent proposed changes 3 strikes Winners - agents & creators Losers - agents & creators & public Term extension Winners - agents & creators Losers - agents & creators & public 4% > 20 years old available 96% locked up Public Creators Agents

3 strikes

Winners - agents & creators

Losers - agents & creators & public

Term extension

Winners - agents & creators

Losers - agents & creators & public

4% > 20 years old available

96% locked up

When regulating… Audience 15 million Radio 40 years TV 15 years www 3 years (600 million+ in 7 years) Law can’t keep up Reed – doctrine of creative inertia Empirical work/evidence needed On creators, agents and consumers

Audience 15 million

Radio 40 years

TV 15 years

www 3 years (600 million+ in 7 years)

Law can’t keep up

Reed – doctrine of creative inertia

Empirical work/evidence needed

On creators, agents and consumers

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