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Published on December 5, 2007

Author: lebahiep

Source: slideshare.net

Dr. Alvin Fox The external layers of vegetative cells and spores

KEY WORDS Cell envelope Teichoic acid Cell wall Teichuronic acid Cell membrane Lipoteichoic acid Outer membrane Mycolic acid Peptidoglycan Undecaprenol (bactoprenol) Braun lipoprotein Endospore (spore) Porins Cell division Lipopolysaccharide

Topics: Structure of vegetative cell envelopes unique cell envelope molecules biosynthesis of cell wall constituents Endospores (dormant cells) Cell division

Structure of vegetative cell envelopes

unique cell envelope molecules

biosynthesis of cell wall constituents

Endospores (dormant cells)

Cell division

Cell Envelope C ell membrane + cell wall (+ plus outer membrane) Cell wall peptidoglycan attached structures .

C ell membrane + cell wall (+ plus outer membrane)

Cell wall

peptidoglycan

attached structures .

Bacterial cell envelopes Gram stain (+ or -) correlates with structure

Gram positive Gram negative

Peptidoglycan single macromolecule highly cross-linked surrounds cell provides rigidity

single macromolecule

highly cross-linked

surrounds cell

provides rigidity

Peptidoglycan glycan backbone muramic acid glucosamine peptide side chain peptide cross-bridge D- and L- amino acids diaminopimelic acid

glycan backbone

muramic acid

glucosamine

peptide side chain

peptide cross-bridge

D- and L- amino acids

diaminopimelic acid

Muramic acid , D-amino acids diaminopimelic acid not synthesized by mammals

Muramic acid , D-amino acids diaminopimelic acid

not synthesized by mammals

Peptidoglycan Muramic acid Glucosamine L-alanine D-glutamic acid L-lysine/Diaminopimelic acid D-alanine D-alanine

Gram Positive Cell Envelope Teichoic acid polymer ribitol phosphate or ribitol glycerol backbone Teichuronic acid polymer no phosphorus glucuronic acid

Teichoic acid

polymer

ribitol phosphate or ribitol glycerol backbone

Teichuronic acid

polymer

no phosphorus

glucuronic acid

Teichoic and teichuronic acids Metal ion uptake Direct autolytic enzymes holes punched in cell wall allows insertion cell wall (synthesis)

Metal ion uptake

Direct autolytic enzymes

holes punched in cell wall

allows insertion cell wall (synthesis)

Lipoteichoic acids cell membrane autolysins kept from cell wall

cell membrane

autolysins kept from cell wall

Gram Positive Cell Envelope Cytoplasm Lipoteichoic acid Peptidoglycan-teichoic acid Cytoplasmic membrane r r r r r r r r r r

Braun lipoprotein binds cell wall to outer membrane Gram Negative Peptidoglycan

Braun lipoprotein

binds cell wall to outer membrane

Outer Membrane lipopolysaccharide phospholipids Proteins porins

lipopolysaccharide

phospholipids

Proteins

porins

Lipopolysaccharide Lipid A Glucosamine disaccharide Beta hydroxy fatty acids Core Heptoses Ketodeoxyoctonic acid O-antigen Highly variable n

Lipid A

Glucosamine disaccharide

Beta hydroxy fatty acids

Core

Heptoses

Ketodeoxyoctonic acid

Gram Negative Cell Envelope Cytoplasm Inner (cytoplasmic) membrane Outer Membrane Lipopolysaccharide Porin Braun lipoprotein Peptidoglycan

Acid Fast Cell Envelope Cytoplasm Peptidoglycan-mycolic acid-arabinogalactan Cytoplasmic membrane Mycolic acid lipids r r r r r r r r r r

Peptidoglycan synthesis Cytoplasm Cell wall undecaprenol sugar amino acid Cell Membrane 1 2 3

Lipopolysaccharide synthesis similar to peptidoglycan also on undecaprenol carrier

synthesis similar to peptidoglycan

also on undecaprenol carrier

Spore Modified Gram positive bacteria cell unusual cell envelope cell membrane outer membrane

Modified Gram positive bacteria cell

unusual cell envelope

cell membrane

outer membrane

Spore Peptidoglycan layer cortex between two membranes less cross-linked dehydrated muramic acid (lactam)

Peptidoglycan layer

cortex

between two membranes

less cross-linked

dehydrated muramic acid (lactam)

Vegetative cell division Sporulation

The endospore cortex exosporium coat Inner membrane outer membrane

 

 

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