vsv3

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Information about vsv3

Published on December 5, 2007

Author: lebahiep

Source: slideshare.net

Dr. Alvin Fox Nutrition, Growth and Metabolism

KEY TERMS Obligate aerobe Obligate anaerobe Aerotolerant anaerobe Facultative anaerobe Microaerophilic Siderophore Mesophile Thermophile Psychrophile Generation time Growth curve Glycolysis Fermentation Anaerobic respiration Aerobic respiration Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or Krebs cycle Oxidative phosphorylation Ubiquinone Glyoxylate pathway

Bacterial requirements for growth oxygen (or absence) energy nutrients optimal temperature optimal pH

oxygen (or absence)

energy

nutrients

optimal temperature

optimal pH

Obligate aerobes grow in presence of oxygen no fermentation oxidative phosphorylation

grow in presence of oxygen

no fermentation

oxidative phosphorylation

Obligate anaerobes no oxidative phosphorylation fermentation killed by oxygen lack certain enzymes: superoxide dismutase O 2 - +2H + H 2 O 2 catalase H 2 O 2 H 2 0 + O 2 peroxidase H 2 O 2 H 2 0 /NAD NADH

no oxidative phosphorylation

fermentation

killed by oxygen

lack certain enzymes:

superoxide dismutase

O 2 - +2H + H 2 O 2

catalase

H 2 O 2 H 2 0 + O 2

peroxidase

H 2 O 2 H 2 0 /NAD NADH

Aerotolerant anaerobes respire anaerobically not killed by oxygen

respire anaerobically

not killed by oxygen

Facultative anaerobes fermentation aerobic respiration survive in oxygen

fermentation

aerobic respiration

survive in oxygen

Microaerophilic bacteria grow low oxygen killed high oxygen

grow

low oxygen

killed

high oxygen

Optimal growth temperature Mesophiles: human body temperature pathogens opportunists pyschrophile close to freezing thermophile close to boiling

Mesophiles:

human body temperature

pathogens

opportunists

pyschrophile

close to freezing

thermophile

close to boiling

pH Many grow best at neutral pH Some can survive/grow - acid - alkali

Many grow best at neutral pH

Some can survive/grow

- acid

- alkali

Nutrient Requirements Carbon Nitrogen Phosphorus Sulfur Metal ions (e.g. iron)

Carbon

Nitrogen

Phosphorus

Sulfur

Metal ions (e.g. iron)

Siderophores (S) Fe 2+ / S Receptor Fe 2+ / S

Measuring bacterial mass (live + dead) in liquid culture Turbidity (Cloudiness)

Measuring viable bacteria colony Colony forming units

Growth Curve COLONY FORMING UNITS TIME Lag Log Stationary Death

Growth Curve TURBIDITY (cloudiness) TIME Lag Log Stationary Autolysis

Generation time time for bacterial mass to double Example 100 bacteria present at time 0 If generation time is 2 hr After 8 hr mass = 100 x 2 4

time for bacterial mass to double

Example

100 bacteria present at time 0

If generation time is 2 hr

After 8 hr mass = 100 x 2 4

SUGAR CATABOLISM Glycolysis Embden Meyerhof Parnas Pathway most bacteria also animals and plants

Glycolysis

Embden Meyerhof Parnas Pathway

most bacteria

also animals and plants

Other pathways for catabolizing sugars Pentose phosphate pathway (hexose monophosphate shunt) generates NADPH common in plants and animals Entner Doudoroff Pathway a few bacterial species

Pentose phosphate pathway (hexose monophosphate shunt)

generates NADPH

common in plants and animals

Entner Doudoroff Pathway

a few bacterial species

Glycolysis NAD NADH Glucose Pyruvate C6 C3 ADP ATP

Fermentation Pyruvate (C3) NADH NAD Short chain alcohols , fatty acids (C2-C4)

Anaerobic Respiration = Glycolysis + Fermentation NAD NADH NADH NAD ATP

Krebs Cycle (C4-C6 intermediate compounds ) Pyruvate 3CO 2 (C3) NAD NADH NADH NAD Oxidative phosphorylation O 2 H 2 O ADP ATP (C1)

Aerobic Respiration = Glycolysis + Krebs Cycle/oxidative phosphorylation Pyruvate to CO 2 NAD to NADH glycolysis Krebs cycle Oxidative phosphorylation NADH to NAD ADP to ATP

Pyruvate to CO 2

NAD to NADH

glycolysis

Krebs cycle

Oxidative phosphorylation

NADH to NAD

ADP to ATP

Oxidative phosphylation converts O 2 to H 2 0 (oxidative) converts ADP to ATP (phosphorylation) electron transport chain ubiquinones/cytochrome intermediates

converts O 2 to H 2 0 (oxidative)

converts ADP to ATP (phosphorylation)

electron transport chain

ubiquinones/cytochrome intermediates

The Krebs cycle Citrate Isocitrate Alpha-keto glutarate Succinate Fumarate Malate Oxaloacetate Pyruvate -CO 2 Acetate + -CO 2 NADH -CO 2 NADH C2 C C C4 X x C6

Krebs Cycle - sugar as sole carbon source Pyruvate Acetate -CO 2 C4 Pyruvate + CO 2 + Citrate C C3 Oxalo acetate Oxaloacetate -2CO 2 Aspartic acid Krebs cycle ENERGY STORAGE BIOSYNTHESIS C3 C C2 C6 C4 Oxalo acetate X

Krebs Cycle – fatty acids as sole carbon source Fatty acids Acetate + Citrate Oxalo acetate -2CO 2 Aspartic acid Krebs cycle ENERGY BIOSYNTHESIS Isocitrate Succinate Glyoxylate + Acetate + Malate Oxalo acetate x C4 C2 C2 C4 C6 -2CO 2

The Glyoxylate and Krebs cycles Citrate Isocitrate Alpha-keto glutarate Succinate Fumarate Glyoxylate Acetate Malate Oxaloacetate 1 2

Krebs Cycle biosynthetic energy storage Removal of intermediates must be replenished Unique enzymatic replenishment pathways sugars fatty acids

Krebs Cycle

biosynthetic

energy storage

Removal of intermediates

must be replenished

Unique enzymatic replenishment pathways

sugars

fatty acids

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