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Published on December 5, 2007

Author: lebahiep

Source: slideshare.net

Dr. Alvin Fox The Bacterial Cell

Key Words Prokaryotic Outer membrane Eubacteria (Bacteria) Periplasmic space Oxidative phosphorylation Eukaryotic Spheroplast/protoplast Plasmid Flagella Chromosome Chemotaxis Ribosome Axial filament Peptidoglycan (murein, mucopeptide) Periplasmic binding protein Gram stain Permeases Gram negative Storage Granules Gram positive Pili (fimbriae) Cell envelope Capsule (slime layer, glycocalyx) Cell membrane Endospore (spore) Cell wall Archaebacteria ( Archaea )

PROKARYOTES BACTERIA ARCHAEA EUKARYOTES

Prokaryotes (Bacteria) Eubacter "True" bacteria human pathogens clinical or environmental one kingdom Archaea Environmental organisms second kingdom

Eubacter "True" bacteria

human pathogens

clinical or environmental

one kingdom

Archaea

Environmental organisms

second kingdom

Eukaryotes Other cell-based life e.g. plants animals fungi

Other cell-based life e.g.

plants

animals

fungi

Prokaryotic Cell (versus Eukaryotic Cell) Not compartmentalized Cell membranes lack sterols (e.g. cholesterol) Single circular chromosome Ribosomal are 70S - subunits 30S (16S rRNA) 50S (5S & 23S rRNA)

Not compartmentalized

Cell membranes lack sterols (e.g. cholesterol)

Single circular chromosome

Ribosomal are 70S

- subunits

30S (16S rRNA)

50S (5S & 23S rRNA)

Bacteria versus Archaebacteria Eubacteria peptidoglycan (murein) muramic acid Archaebacteria pseudomurein no muramic acid

Eubacteria

peptidoglycan (murein)

muramic acid

Archaebacteria

pseudomurein

no muramic acid





Bacteria versus Archaebacteria 16S rRNA sequence very different

16S rRNA

sequence very different

Eukaryotic cell Prokaryotic cell Gram + Gram - Cell wall Cell (inner) membrane Outer membrane Ribosomes Rough endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondria Granule (e.g . animal) Cell wall Nucleoid Nucleus Cell membrane Capsule Cytoplasm Flagellum Pili

Bacteria Plasmids Extra-chromosomal DNA multiple copy number coding pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance factors bacterial replication

Plasmids

Extra-chromosomal DNA

multiple copy number

coding pathogenesis and antibiotic

resistance factors

bacterial replication

The Cell Envelope Gram Stain Gram Positive Gram Negative

Cytoplasm Oxidative phosphorylation occurs at cell membrane (since there are no mitochondria). Cell membrane The cell wall is outside of cell membrane rigid, protecting cell from osmotic lysis. Cell Wall

The cell wall is outside of cell membrane

rigid, protecting cell from osmotic lysis.

GRAM POSITIVE GRAM NEGATIVE Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Lipoteichoic acid Peptidoglycan-teichoic acid Cytoplasmic membrane Inner (cytoplasmic) membrane Outer Membrane Lipopolysaccharide Porin Braun lipoprotein Periplasmic space

Outer Membrane Gram negative bacteria major permeability barrier space between inner and outer membrane periplasmic space store degradative enzymes Gram positive bacteria no periplasmic space

Gram negative bacteria

major permeability barrier

space between inner and outer membrane

periplasmic space

store degradative enzymes

Gram positive bacteria

no periplasmic space

GRAM NEGATIVE CELL ENVELOPE Cytoplasm Inner (cytoplasmic) membrane Outer Membrane (Major permeability barrier) Lipopolysaccharide Porin Braun lipoprotein Periplasmic space Degradative enzyme Periplasmic binding protein Permease

GRAM POSITIVE CELL ENVELOPE Cytoplasm Lipoteichoic acid Peptidoglycan-teichoic acid Cytoplasmic membrane Degradative enzyme

FLAGELLA Some bacteria are motile Locomotory organelles- flagella Taste environment Respond to food/poison chemotaxis

Some bacteria are motile

Locomotory organelles- flagella

Taste environment

Respond to food/poison

chemotaxis

Flagella embedded in cell membrane project as strand Flagellin (protein) subunits move cell by propeller like action

Flagella

embedded in cell membrane

project as strand

Flagellin (protein) subunits

move cell by propeller like action

Axial filaments spirochetes similar function to flagella run lengthwise along cell snake-like movement

spirochetes

similar function to flagella

run lengthwise along cell

snake-like movement

Making Wall-less forms Result from action of: enzymes lytic for cell wall antibiotics inhibiting peptidoglycan biosynthesis Usually non-viable Wall-less bacteria that don’t replicate: spheroplasts (with outer membrane) protoplasts (no outer membrane). Wall-less bacteria that replicate L forms

Result from action of:

enzymes lytic for cell wall

antibiotics inhibiting peptidoglycan biosynthesis

Usually non-viable

Wall-less bacteria that don’t replicate:

spheroplasts (with outer membrane)

protoplasts (no outer membrane).

Wall-less bacteria that replicate

L forms

Naturally Wall-less Genus Mycloplasma

Mycloplasma

Pili (fimbriae) hair-like projections of the cell sexual conjugation adhesion to host epithelium

hair-like projections of the cell

sexual conjugation

adhesion to host epithelium

Capsules and slime layers outside cell envelope well defined: capsule not defined: slime layer or glycocalyx usually polysaccharide often lost during in vitro culture protective in vivo

outside cell envelope

well defined: capsule

not defined: slime layer or glycocalyx

usually polysaccharide

often lost during in vitro culture

protective in vivo

Endospores (spores) Dormant cell Produced when starved Resistant to adverse conditions - high temperatures - organic solvents contain calcium dipicolinate Bacillus and Clostridium

Dormant cell

Produced when starved

Resistant to adverse conditions

- high temperatures

- organic solvents

contain calcium dipicolinate

Bacillus and Clostridium

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