Published on March 8, 2014
Design of a learning tool in Immersive VR for understanding projection and section of solids Guide: (Dr.) Prof. Pradeep Yammiyawar By: Vikas Luthra-10020544 Maulishree Pandey-10020524
Quick Recap Recap Design Project 3
Design Project III Quick Recap Project Objectives • Identify and Determine the concepts which requires student difficult to visualize in 3D in Architectural and allied fields. • Design a learning tool using immersive virtual reality to aid them in understanding and measure it • Evaluate the learning tool with the students through user testing and experiment design.
Design Project III Quick Recap What all is Done: Literature Study 1 User Study Keywords: Architecture, Constructivist Learning, 3D Visualization, Virtual Reality Affinity Map
Design Project III Quick Recap What all is Done: Literature Study 1 User Study User Research: Contextual Inquiry and Interviews with First and Third year Architecture Students, Interviews with first year Engineering Drawing Students. Interviews with instructors of Architectural Graphics and Engineering Drawing
Design Project III Quick Recap What all is Done: Literature Study 1 User Study PROBLEMS & NEEDS Research Analysis and Ideation SOLUTION TO HAVE... . Lack of 3D perception Teaching content Constructivist Learning to be a part Student should be made an observer Engaging students through gamification Give the freedom of manipulation Design Brief To design a learning tool that aids in teaching complex engineering drawing topics like projection of solids, sections of solids,, in immersive VR for first semester architecture, engineering and design students.
Design Project III Quick Recap What all is Done: Literature Study 1 User Study Prototype Development for Simple Solid: Projection of Square Pyramid with rotation possible only around Y-axis. Research Analysis and Ideation Prototyping Initiation
Design Project 4 Prototyping
Design Project 4 Prototyping Changes In Prototypes: Adding Projection of Simple Solids: Hexagonal Pyramid, Cube Projection of Complex Solids :Heptagonal Prism
Design Project 4 Fig 1 Prototyping Angle with: X-axis:30 Degrees Y-axis-0 Degrees Z-axis-0 Degrees Rotation : Adding Rotation around X (fig3),Y (fig 1),Z axis (fig 3)and adding angular feedback. Angular Feedback Fig 2 Angle with: X-axis:30 Degrees Y-axis-0 Degrees Z-axis-0 Degrees Fig 3
Design Project 4 Prototyping Showing View : Another Feedback was added by showing all the viewsTop,Front,Side View Angle with: X-axis:0 Degrees Y-axis-45 Degrees Z-axis-0 Degrees Fig 3
Design Project 4 Literature Study 2
Design Project 4 Literature Study Aim: identify tests and methods used in related projects to measure the usability of a VR learning tool in enhancing 3D visualization and learning of engineering drawing Fig 3 Classification: Research Goals. What was measured, How it was measured. Classification of Projects
Design Project 4 Literature Study Spatial Visualization Standard Test: Proposed by (CEEB,1939) a)Mental Cutting Test Mental Cutting Test - Subjects have to mentally cut 3D geometrical figures which are hollow. The figures are to be cut using a plane or another geometrical figure and resulting cross section is to be determined.. Fig 3 Examples of Mental Cutting Test
Design Project 4 Literature Study Spatial Visualization Standard Test: Proposed by (Vandenberg & Kuse, 1978) a)Mental Rotation Test Mental Rotation Test - the subject is asked to compare among options of rotated 3D objects to tell which option matches the object in the question. Fig 3 Example of Mental Rotation Test
Design Project 4 Literature Study Technology Acceptance Model: Proposed by (Davis, 1989) Models how users come to accept and use a technology. When users are presented with a new technology, a number of factors influence their decision about how and when they will use it, notably: •Perceived usefulness (PU) - This was defined by Fred Davis as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance". •Perceived ease-of-use (PEOU) - Davis defined this as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free from effort" Fig 3
Design Project 4 Literature Study Suggested Changes in Technology Acceptance Model: Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have been extensively investigated in a number of studies, which proved that they are important factors positively influencing computer acceptance . Perceived enjoyment -Studies proved that has a significant positive influence on attitude toward using, thus, it should be included in the TAM model Fig 3
Design Project 4 Design of Empirical Study
Design Project 4 Empirical Study Research Aim: 1)To measure the effect of the VR learning tool on the performance of the students for the topics of Projection and section of solids. 2)To find out the attitude of students towards using this tool for their learning based on TAM. Fig 3
Design Project 4 Empirical Study Controlled Experiment Design: Hypothesis: Immersive VR significantly improves the performance of students in learning projection and section of solids. Treatment Group: Student using Immersive VR for Learning. Control Groups: Student taught only through conventional methods. Independent Variable: Use of Immersive VR Dependent Variables: Score on given Quiz, Time Fig 3
Design Project 4 Empirical Study Experiment Procedure: Making the clusters of students having the similar academic performance in their Engineering Drawing Exam. Random Assignment: Assigning 20 students each randomly to both treatment group and the control group. Pre Test Questionnaire: Collect biographical information from students prior to the experiment. Apart from background details, this includes questions about their grades, 3 Fig gaming habits and past experience with gestural + virtual interfaces A small spatial visualization test would also be given to them.
Design Project 4 Empirical Study Experiment Procedure: Instruction: The treatment group would be taught the topic using the VR tool, the control group would be taught with the instructional content used in the course i.e. animated videos and lectures. Performance Evaluation :After the instruction, they would be asked to take a quiz which would include multiple choice questions based on mental cutting test, mental rotation test and 5 informal sketching questions. Time for doing the test would also be evaluated Measuring Acceptance: They treatment group would also be asked to fill up the post-questionnaire to measure their attitude towards using Immersive VR as a learning tool Think Out aloud and qualitative question being asked to understand the actions of students more deeply. Fig 3
Design Project 4 Empirical Study Sample Quiz Questions: Fig 3
Design Project 4 Empirical Study Sample Quiz Questions: Fig 3
Design Project 4 Empirical Study Sample Quiz Questions: Fig 3
Design Project 4 Empirical Study Questionnaire Based On TAM: Perceived usefulness (PU) • The use of such a system improves learning in the classroom. • Using the system during lessons would facilitate understanding of certain concepts. (5 point Likert scale items with results from strongly disagree to strongly agree) • I believe that the system is helpful when learning. Perceived ease of use (PEU) • I think the system is easy to use. • Learning to use the system is not a problem. • Operation with the system is clear and understandable. Perceived enjoyment (PE) • I think the system allows learning by playing. • I enjoyed using the system. • Learning with such a system is entertainment. Fig 3
Design Project 4 Empirical Study Questionnaire Based On TAM: Attitude toward using (ATU) • The use of such a system makes learning more interesting. • Learning through the system was boring (reversed item). • I believe that using such a system in the classroom is a good idea. Intention to use (ITU) • I would like to use the system in the future if I had the opportunity. • Using such a system would allow me to learn projection and section of solids on my own. • I would like to use the system to learn engineering drawing and other subjects. Other questions would be regarding content and motivation to learn Fig 3
Design Project 4 Next Steps
Design Project 4 Next Steps • Conducting the Pilot study with students to Improve the Internal validity of the instruments being used . • Conducting the Experiment Study with Students. • Statistical Analysis of data from experimental study • Final Conclusion and Publication of the outcomes. Fig 3
Thank You By: Vikas Luthra-10020544 Maulishree Pandey-10020524
References Wrzesien, Maja, David Pérez López, and Mariano Alcañiz Raya. "E-Junior: A Serious Virtual World for natural science and ecology learning." Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Computer Enterntainment Technology. ACM, 2009. Wojciechowski, Rafał, and Wojciech Cellary. "Evaluation of learners’ attitude toward learning in ARIES augmented reality environments." Computers & Education 68 (2013): 570-585. Németh, Brigitta. "Measurement of the development of spatial ability by Mental Cutting Test." Annales Mathematicae et Informaticae. Vol. 34. No. 123-128. 2007. Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia. "The Mental Cutting Test" Schnitte" and the Picture Rotation Test-Two New Measures to Assess Spatial Ability." International Journal of Testing 3.3 (2003): 219-231. HALIM, LILIA, RUHIZAN M. YASIN, and AZAMAN ISHAR. "CAMED: An Innovative Communication Tool in Teaching Engineering Drawing." WSEAS Transactions on Information Science & Applications 9.2 (2012). Fig 3 Monahan, Teresa, Gavin McArdle, and Michela Bertolotto. "Virtual reality for collaborative e-learning." Computers & Education 50.4 (2008): 1339-1353. Lee, EA-L., Kok Wai Wong, and Chun Che Fung. "Learning effectiveness in a desktop virtual reality-based learning environment." (2009): 832-839. Sorby, Sheryl A. "Developing 3-D spatial skills for engineering students."Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference of the Australasian Association for Engineering Education: Creativity, Challenge, Change; Partnerships in Engineering Education. Australasian Association for Engineering Education, 2006.
References Mizell, David W., et al. "Comparing immersive virtual reality with other display modes for visualizing complex 3D geometry." University College London, technical report (2002). Tsutsumi, Emiko. "A Mental Cutting Test using drawings of intersections."Journal for Geometry and Graphics 8.1 (2004): 117-126. Olkun, Sinan. "Making connections: Improving spatial abilities with engineering drawing activities." International Journal of Mathematics Teaching and Learning3.1 (2003): 1-10. Upadhye, S. N., S. M. Shaikh, and T. B. Yalsangikar. "New Teaching Method To Teach Projection & Development Of Solids." International Journal of Engineering 2.2 (2013). Henry, Daniel, and Tom Furness. "Spatial perception in virtual environments: Evaluating an architectural application." Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, 1993., 1993 IEEE. IEEE, 1993. Contero, Manuel, et al. "Learning support tools for developing spatial abilities in engineering design." International Journal of Engineering Education 22.3 (2007): 470. Fig 3 Ai-Lim Lee, Elinda, Kok Wai Wong, and Chun Che Fung. "How does desktop virtual reality enhance learning outcomes? A structural equation modeling approach." Computers & Education 55.4 (2010): 1424-1442. Mikropoulos, Tassos A., and Antonis Natsis. "Educational virtual environments: A ten-year review of empirical research (1999–2009)."Computers & Education 56.3 (2011): 769-780. Salzman, Marilyn C., et al. "A model for understanding how virtual reality aids complex conceptual learning." Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 8.3 (1999): 293-316.
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