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Diese Programmpunkte erwarten Sie heute: • Begrüßung und Vorstellung access, Claus Huber und GMAT-workshop.de • GMAT • • Verbal Section / Examples • Reading Comprehension / Examples • • Introduction Quant Section /Examples Ihre Fragen 2
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Über GMAT-Workshop.de "Unser Ziel ist es, eine faire, preisgünstige Alternative zu teuren GMAT-Kursen großer kommerzieller Anbieter zu schaffen. Von Ex-MBA Studenten für zukünftige MBA-/Master-Studenten! Wir wollen dem GMAT das Erschreckende nehmen, um die "Hürde GMAT" für Deine Bewerbung so tief wie möglich zu legen!" Coach: Claus Huber ist aktuell in verantwortungsvoller Position innerhalb der Automobilentwicklung (großer dt. Hersteller) im In- und Ausland beschäftigt. Zuvor studierte er Physik an der TU München und arbeitete in dieser Zeit über Jahre als Tutor im Bereich Mathematik. Er absolvierte sein MBA Studium an der Universität St. Gallen und der ESADE Business School (HSG class of 2010). Claus hat langjährige Erfahrung als GMAT-Coach in Kursen für GMAT-Workshop.de und an verschiedenen Hochschulen. Aktuelle GMAT-Workshop Termine auf www.GMAT-Workshop.de: • • • 1-Tages Intensivkurs (8:00 – 18:30 Uhr) 160-seitiges Skript Geeignet für GMAT Anfänger und Fortgeschrittene • Kursgebühr 200€ (Studenten: 150€) 5
GMAT - Introduction A computer based language and mathematics/logics test. Duration: incl. breaks 3:40h Can be done in different test centers worldwide. Application via www.mba.com Parts of the test: Analytical Writing: (1 Essay, 30 min) Analysis of an argument 30 min individually graded (1 -6 highest) Integrated Reasoning: (12 Question, 30 min) individually graded (1 -8 highest) Multi-Source Reasoning, Table Analysis, Graphics Interpretation, Two-Part Analysis Quantitative Part: (37 multiple choice questions, 75 min)graded (0-51) Problem Solving Data Suffiency Verbal Part: (41 multiple choice questions, 75 min) Reading Comprehension Critical Reasoning Sentence Correction Powered by: graded (0-46) 6
GMAT - Introduction How GMAT evaluates your score. Difficulty Hard question are good signs ! Small adaption steps (~ 5 points) Maybe only a “try out” question Big adaption steps (~30 points) First 13-15 questions are crucial. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 31 GMAT score is a combination of your individual Quant and your Verbal score: Q: 47 V: 39 Powered by: 680 32 33 34 35 36 37 # question Always finish the question sets! One point more in Verbal is weighted higher than one point in Quant., because harder to reach. 7
GMAT - Introduction What to know to prepare. Focus on weaknesses, but keep working steadily on everything. Always mark practice questions you had wrong and repeat / learn them! Repetitivness of test, do a lot of practice questions. Pace yourself (i.e. sets of 10). If you are getting better, try to “overpace”. Also to improve educated guessing. Try to “overshoot”: Safe 700 in Manhattan Prep → safe 650 in real test. Set yourself timing milestones during the test. Quantitative Part: 75 min, 37 Questions 60 min Start Q7 45 min Q 15 30 min Q 21 15 min Q 30 Q 37 Verbal Part: 75 min, 41 Questions 60 min Start Q8 45 min Q 16 30 min Q 25 15 min Q 33 Q 41 8
GMAT - Introduction GMAT - Official Review “The Bible”! Absolutely necessary!!! Official Guide with former GMAT Questions. Crucial to learn how the original questions are phrased, what vocabulary the use.. Huge collection of Questions, sorted by increasing difficulty. Essential to start with. Use to establish a certain base. BUT: Practice Questions are too EASY TO ACHIEVE A SAFE 650+ !!! Manhattan GMAT – Specialized Editions. One shorter practice book for every category. Good explanations. Access to 6 very good, very tough online practice tests! Others…. Powered by: 9
GMAT - Introduction Official Practice Tests. Absolutely crucial for a successful preparation. You get them for free with your GMAT application. Two practice tests that are EXACTLY like the real test. Same software. Let you simulate real test conditions at home. Big question pool. Repeat over and over again until you score 800 and got all the questions right. Good for checking your status. Giving you hints where to focus while practicing. Problem: Test-Scores might be too high! Powered by: 10
GMAT - Introduction Grade of improvement / Workload How to plan your preparation Time. 2nd practice test 1st time 1st practice test 2nd time 6th Prep test Manhattan 3rd Prep test Manhattan 2nd Prep test Manhattan 1st Prep test Manhattan >700 1st Prep test Workshop Preparation time Minimum preparation time should be 4-6 weeks, but is depending on your target score and the time per day you are able to invest. Create a preparation plan according the material you want to work through. Plan more GMAT prep time exponentially, meaning invest more time towards the test date. Use prep tests for checking where you stand and where you have weaknesses. Consistency over Intensity: Try to work every day at least a little bit instead of only two days a week but hard. Try to do 5-10 questions of every category / day as a basis. 11 Powered by:
Verbal Section 12
Critical Reasoning Every Critical Reasoning question contains three separate parts: Shelby Industries manufactures and sells the same gauges as Jones lndustries. Employee wages account for 40 percent of the cost of manufacturing gauges at both Shelby Industries and Jones Industries. Shelby Industries is seeking a competitive advantage over Jones Industries. Therefore, to promote this end, Shelby Industries should lower employee wages. Text Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument above? Question Stem (A) Because they make a small number of precision instruments, gauge manufacturers cannot receive volume discounts on raw materials. (B) Lowering wages would reduce the quality of employee work, and this reduced quality would lead to lowered sales. (C) Jones Industries has taken away 20 percent of Shelby Industries' business over the last year. (D) Shelby Industries pays its employees, on average, 10 percent more than does Jones lndustries. (E) Many people who work for manufacturing plants live in areas in which the manufacturing plant they work for is the only industry' Answer Choices Powered by: 13
Critical Reasoning The Answer Choices – How to approach. Always read all five answer choices. Critical Reasoning asks you for the best answer. This means, that if you spotted an answer that already works in the right way, you never know if something better comes along. Do a quick ranking of the answer choices. Filer out the clearly wrong and improbable ones. Rank the rest. Pace yourself in training. Take sets of 5 or 10 and consider 1:50 min per question. Pacing not only gets you used to the time pressure you face during the test, but also teaches you to let loose of question you cannot answer in time. Get suspicious if an argument is based on surveys or investigated data. Very often the answer shoots at the representativeness of this data. If question considers the information in the text as “true” or “correct”, then the correct answer must be 100% approved by the text. Try to spot weaknesses in the argumentation already when reading the text, before jumping to the answer choices. Powered by: 14
Critical Reasoning The Text – Strong or weak arguments. If stimulus contains an argument, see if it is strong or weak. Weak arguments contain a sweet spot where to attack or defend. Weak argument Atlanta has 3 mio inhabitants. Florida has 100 mio inhabitants. Therefore we should better move to Atlanta. Strong Argument Bees prefer blossoms with a bright color. Lillies are white colored. Therefore lillies are prefered by bees. Most common question types. All have slightly different strategic approaches. Top 6 Critical Reasoning Question Types 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Powered by: Must be true Main Point Assumption Strengthen / Support Resolve the Paradox Weaken 15
Reading Comprehension Example of Reading Comprehension question. 1) The author’s stance on the possibility of life on Mars can best be described as … A) Optimistic B) Disinterested C) Skeptical D) Simplistic E) Cynical Powered by: 16
Reading Comprehension What to know, when approaching Reading Comprehension ? Content focused on physical science, biological science, social science, history and business. Expect to see four Reading Comprehension passages with three to four questions. Passages are either “short” or “long”. Short: 200 – 250 words in two or three paragraphs, with three questions in most cases. Long: >300 words in three to five paragraphs, with four questions assigned. You cannot afford to give up an entire reading comprehension question!!! Look for the simple story: Every GMAT passage has a “simple story”, a core meaning of the passage. Rephrase the story for yourself in a simple way. There are two sorts of questions: General Questions: Deal with main idea, purpose, organization, structure of a passage. Specific Questions: Deal with details, assumptions, arguments, certain paragraphs. Powered by: 17
Reading Comprehension The right approach to reading. „The Cherry Picker“ Does not read the entire text. Is only looking for the answers for the questions. Problem: Takes too much time to look for answers. Does not get the general understanding. NOT RECOMMENDED!!! „Big Picture Reader“ „The Researcher“ Reads first question. Reads whole passage with an eye on structure. Goes slowly at the beginning and quicker at the end. Does not get into details with first reading, might come back later with the questions. Reads the entire text very detailed and carefully. Pays attention to every detail. Problem: Takes far too much time for reading. Misses big pictures by getting into details. READ ACTIVELY BUT EFFICIENTLY!!! NOT RECOMMENDED!!! Quick reading is essential: 2 ½ - 3 minutes for a short paragraph, 3 ½ - 4 minutes for a long passage. 18
Reading Comprehension Answer Strategies. Justify every word in the answer choices. Avoid extreme words if possible: GMAT prefers moderate language and ideas. Avoid answers that use words like “never” or “all”. Sometimes they might be true, but the extreme case must be backed up 100% by the passage. Stay as close to the passage as possible. Preview the first question: Read it before you start reading the paragraph and have it in mind while reading it. It helps to spot details when needed. Try to answer General Questions without rereading them. For Specific Questions in most cases you have to reread certain passage. Powered by: 19
Sentence Correction – Sample Question Eating saltwater fish may significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and also aid for sufferers of rheumatoid arthritis and asthma, according to three research studies published in the NEW England Journal of Medicine. (A) significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and also aid for (B) be significant in reducing the risk of heart attacks and aid for (C) significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and aid (D) cause a significant reduction in the risk of heart attacks and aid to (E) Significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks as well as aiding Powered by: 20
Sentence Correction Strategies for Sentence Correction Pace yourself in training. Take sets of 5 or 10 and consider 1:50 min per question. Sentence correction is good to prepare for, since some major grammar topics are asked over and over again. In general 2 or even sometimes up to 3 failure areas are constructed into the question. If you spot one, get an idea of the correct solution and use this to quickly separate out wrong answers. Skip to read the first answer choice, it is always exactly what you have read in the text. A quick overview of some golden rules: Grammar over Concision over Meaning. “being” marks wrong answers in 95% of cases. Check immediately if you see one of these indefinite pronouns: it, its, they, them, their. Check if the subject and verb make sense in terms of singular / plural and sense. Check for same verb forms in logical parallel sentences. Avoid passive forms. Powered by: 21
Quant Section 22
Quant Section General strategies for Quant Section. Good to prepare in order to learn and practice all possible mathematic concepts. Mathematics might look easy (school level), but do not underestimate. It is not only about how to solve but also how to solve in time! Train with time limit of 2 min / question. Train use of drawing board you get. Try to avoid decimals if you have to calculate further, use fractional expressions instead. Crucial to be secure and very quick calculation “by hand”. The following main areas are used in mathematical problems: Rates & Velocity, Ratio, Percentage, Combinatorics, Overlapping Sets, Average, Number Properties, Geometry, Divisibility and Primes, Coordinate Systems, Arithmetics 23
Data Sufficiency – Sample Question If 75 percent of the guests at a certain banquet ordered dessert, what percent of the guests ordered coffee? 1) 60 percent of the guests who ordered dessert also ordered coffee. 2) 90 percent of the guests who ordered coffee also ordered dessert. A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient to answer the question asked. B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient to answer the question asked. C) BOTH statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are sufficient to answer the question asked, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked. D) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked. E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient to answer the question asked, and additional data specific to the problem are needed. Powered by: 24
Data Sufficiency Strategies for Data Sufficiency. Know the answer sequence by mind. Do not calculate the exact result. Calculate as little as possible. Use the following sequence in order to sort out answer choices. Check if information set 1 is sufficient. Check if information set 2 is sufficient. Only if no set for itself is sufficient, check for combination. In a time crunch, evaluate the easier statement and guess. Symmetry (meaning both sets with same information) amongst statements (1) and (2) --> D or E. Powered by: 25
Problem Solving – Sample Question 1) If x is a positive integer, what is the remainder when 7 (12x+3) +3 is divided by 5? A) B) C) D) E) 0 1 2 3 4 • Remainder when division by 5 ? -> only unit digit necessary to know. • Calculating unit digits -> only multiply unit digit of factors. • Check certain right triangle side ratios. 2) What is the area of the triangle? 105° A) 9 9 2 B) 9 9 3 C) 9 2 9 3 D) 18 18 2 6 45° 30° E) 18 18 3 Powered by: 26
Quant Section – Geometry Triangles: The right Triangle: a b c 2 Pythagorean theorem: 2 2 c a b Length ratios of certain right triangles: 90° 1 1 45° 60° 2 1 45° 90° 2 3 30° Common in GMAT: Possible side ratios in a right triangles. 3 , 4 , 5 Powered by: 5 , 12 , 13 27
Quant Section – Prime Numbers Definition: Prime Numbers Definition Prime Number: Any number that is divisible only by 1 and itself Memorize: Primes up to 30 (100) 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97, 101, … Important facts for GMAT: „2“ is the only even prime. Square of a prime has exactly three factors. Prime Factorization is a very important and powerful tool in GMAT. Definition: Write a number as the product of its prime factors: Powered by: Examples: 54 = 2 * 27 = 2 * 3 * 9 = 2 * 3 * 3 * 3 99 = 3 * 33 = 3 * 3 * 11 420 = 2 * 210 = 2 * 2 * 105 = 2 * 2 * 5 * 21 = 2 * 2 * 5 * 3 * 7 28
Quant Section – Divisibility Divisibility Rules: Divisibility by: 2: if number is even 3: add digits of number, if result a multiple of 3 4: if last two digits are multiple of 4 5: if last digit is 5 or 0 6: if divisible by 2 and 3 7: Routine: Double and subtract the last digit in your number from the rest of the digits. Repeat the process for larger numbers. Example: 357 (Double the 7 to get 14. Subtract 14 from 35 to get 21 which is divisible by 7 and we can now say that 357 is divisible by 7. 8: if three times divisible by 2 9: add digits of number, if result a multiple of 9 Very common in GMAT is the principle of the remainder. Meaning that if a number is divided by another number and the result is not an integer there stays a rest called “remainder”. Powered by: 12 2R2 5 29
Quant Section - Overlapping Sets Definition of Overlapping Sets: Very common on GMAT: Dividing a group of people in different overlapping subgroups. Example: Class of 100 students. 30 are male and sign up for history class. 10 are female and didn‘t sign up for history class. The history class holds 40 students. How many males students are there in the class? Solve with matrix: Non History Total Male Male h Male non h Total male Female Female h Female non h Total female Total Powered by: History (h) Total history Total non history Total 30
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