vo adams_ch27_lecture

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Published on March 11, 2014

Author: ritapeters

Source: authorstream.com

PowerPoint Presentation: Pharmacotherapy of Muscle Spasms and Spasticity 27 Learning Outcomes: Learning Outcomes Compare and contrast the etiology and pathophysiology of muscle spasms and muscle spasticity. Describe the nonpharmacologic management of muscle spasms and muscle spasticity. Identify drug classes used to treat muscle spasms and spasticity. Compare and contrast the actions of the centrally acting and direct-acting skeletal muscle relaxants. Explain the role of skeletal muscle relaxants as surgical adjuncts. Learning Outcomes: Learning Outcomes For each of the classes shown in the chapter outline, identify the prototype and representative drugs and explain the mechanism(s) of drug action, primary indications, contraindications, significant drug interactions, pregnancy category, and important adverse effects. Apply the nursing process to care for patients receiving pharmacotherapy for muscle spasms and spasticity. Etiology and Pathophysiology of Muscle Spasms: 27.1 Muscle spasms are involuntary contractions most commonly caused by injury or overuse of skeletal muscle. Obj 1 Etiology and Pathophysiology of Muscle Spasms Nonpharmacologic Therapies for Muscle Spasms: 27.2 Nonpharmacologic interventions are often successful at decreasing the pain caused by muscle spasms. Obj 2 Nonpharmacologic Therapies for Muscle Spasms Pharmacotherapy for Muscle Spasms: 27.3 Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and skeletal muscle relaxants are used to treat muscle spasms. Obj 3 Pharmacotherapy for Muscle Spasms Centrally Acting Skeletal Muscle Relaxants: 27.4 Centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxants are the drugs of choice for treating muscle spasms. Obj 4 Centrally Acting Skeletal Muscle Relaxants Prototype Drug: Cyclobenzaprine (Amrix, Flexeril): Prototype Drug: Cyclobenzaprine ( Amrix , Flexeril ) Therapeutic classification Pharmacologic classification Pregnancy category Mechanism of action Indications Contraindications Precautions Drug Interactions Obj 6 Prototype Drug: Cyclobenzaprine (Amrix, Flexeril): Prototype Drug: Cyclobenzaprine ( Amrix , Flexeril ) Adverse Effects N ursing Responsibilities Obj 7 Similar Drugs: Similar Drugs Baclofen ( Lioresal ) Carisoprodol (Soma) Chlorzoxazone ( Paraflex , Parafon Forte) Metaxalone ( Skelaxin ) Methocarbamol ( Relaxin , Robaxin ) Orphenadrine ( Banflex , Myophen , Norflex ) Tizanidine ( Zanaflex ) Obj 6 Etiology and Pathophysiology of Muscle Spasticity: 27.5 Spasticity is a condition in which certain muscle groups remain in a continuous state of contraction. Obj 1 Etiology and Pathophysiology of Muscle Spasticity Neuromuscular Diseases: Neuromuscular Diseases Spinal cord injury Advanced MS CVA Cerebral Palsy ALS Dystonia Nonpharmacologic and Pharmacologic Therapies for Spasticity: 27.6 Direct-acting skeletal muscle relaxants are often used to relieve muscle spasticity. Obj 2/3 Nonpharmacologic and Pharmacologic Therapies for Spasticity Prototype Drug: Dantrolene Sodium (Dantrium): Prototype Drug: Dantrolene Sodium ( Dantrium ) Therapeutic classification Pharmacologic classification Pregnancy category Mechanism of action Indications Contraindications Precautions Drug Interactions Obj 6 Prototype Drug: Dantrolene Sodium (Dantrium): Prototype Drug: Dantrolene Sodium ( Dantrium ) Adverse Effects Nursing Responsibilities Obj 7 Similar Drugs: Similar Drugs Botulinum toxin (Botox, Botox Cosmetic, Dysport , Myobloc , Xeomin ) Obj 6 Skeletal Muscle Relaxants as Surgical Adjuncts: 27.7 Skeletal muscle relaxants are administered during surgery in combination with anesthetic agents. Obj 5 Skeletal Muscle Relaxants as Surgical Adjuncts

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