vo adams_ch26_lecture (1)

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Education

Published on February 22, 2014

Author: ritapeters

Source: authorstream.com

PowerPoint Presentation: Pharmacotherapy of Seizures 26 Learning Outcomes: Learning Outcomes Describe how the presentation and pharmacotherapy of epilepsy change throughout the life span. 2 Compare and contrast the pharmacotherapy of generalized and partial seizures. 3. Identify factors that influence the selection of a specific antiseizure drug by the health care provider. Learning Outcomes: Learning Outcomes For each of the classes shown in the chapter outline, identify the prototype and representative drugs and explain the mechanism(s) of drug action, primary indications, contraindications, significant drug interactions, pregnancy category, and important adverse effects. 5. Apply the nursing process to care for patients receiving antiseizure drugs. Characteristics of Seizure Disorders: 26.1 Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent seizures caused by disturbances in the electrical activity of the brain. Characteristics of Seizure Disorders Characteristics of Seizure Disorders: 26.2 Seizure disorders differ throughout the life span. Characteristics of Seizure Disorders Classification of Seizure Disorders: 26.3 Most seizures are classified as generalized or partial. Classification of Seizure Disorders Characteristics of Seizure Disorders: 26.4 Some types of seizures are called special epileptic seizures or are unclassified. Characteristics of Seizure Disorders Types of Seizures: Types of Seizures Febrile Status Epilepticus Infantile Spasm Lennox- Gastaut Characteristics of Seizure Disorders: 26.5 The choice of antiepileptic drug therapy is dependent on seizure type and characteristics. Characteristics of Seizure Disorders Characteristics of Seizure Disorders: 26.6 Antiseizure drugs act by suppressing abnormal neuronal discharges. Characteristics of Seizure Disorders Antiseizure Drugs: 26.7 Barbiturates are traditional drugs for tonic–clonic seizures but have been replaced by newer and safer medications. Antiseizure Drugs Antiseizure Drugs: 26.8 Benzodiazepines are important drugs in the treatment of status epilepticus. Antiseizure Drugs Prototype Drug Diazepam (Valium): Prototype Drug Diazepam (Valium) Therapeutic classification Pharmacologic classification Pregnancy category D Prototype Drug Diazepam (Valium): Prototype Drug Diazepam (Valium) Mechanism of action Indications Contraindications Prototype Drug Diazepam (Valium): Prototype Drug Diazepam (Valium) Precautions Drug Interactions Prototype Drug Diazepam (Valium): Prototype Drug Diazepam (Valium) Adverse effects Serious adverse effects Prototype Drug Diazepam (Valium): Prototype Drug Diazepam (Valium) Nursing responsibilities Patient/Family Teaching Similar Drugs: Similar Drugs Clonazepam ( Klonopin ) Clorazepate ( Tranxene ) Lorazepam (Ativan) Antiseizure Drugs: 26.9 Hydantoins are effective in the management of most types of seizures but have many adverse effects. Antiseizure Drugs Prototype Drug: Phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek): Prototype Drug: Phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek ) Therapeutic classification Pharmacologic classification Pregnancy category D Prototype Drug: Phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek): Prototype Drug: Phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek ) Mechanism of action Indications Contraindications Prototype Drug: Phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek): Prototype Drug: Phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek ) Precautions Drug Interactions Prototype Drug: Phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek): Prototype Drug: Phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek ) Adverse effects Serious adverse effects Prototype Drug: Phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek): Prototype Drug: Phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek ) Nursing responsibilities Patient/Family Teaching Similar Drugs: Similar Drugs Fosphenytoin ( Cerebyx ) Antiseizure Drugs: 26.10 Carbamazepine is a drug of choice for many tonic‒clonic and partial seizures. Antiseizure Drugs Prototype Drug: Carbamezepine (Tegretol, Tegretol XR, Carbatrol, others): Prototype Drug: Carbamezepine ( Tegretol , Tegretol XR, Carbatrol , others) Therapeutic classification Pharmacologic classification Pregnancy category D Prototype Drug: Carbamezepine (Tegretol, Tegretol XR, Carbatrol, others): Prototype Drug: Carbamezepine ( Tegretol , Tegretol XR, Carbatrol , others) Mechanism of action Indications Contraindications Prototype Drug: Carbamezepine (Tegretol, Tegretol XR, Carbatrol, others): Prototype Drug: Carbamezepine ( Tegretol , Tegretol XR, Carbatrol , others) Precautions Drug Interactions Prototype Drug: Carbamezepine (Tegretol, Tegretol XR, Carbatrol, others): Prototype Drug: Carbamezepine ( Tegretol , Tegretol XR, Carbatrol , others) Adverse effects Serious adverse effects Prototype Drug: Carbamezepine (Tegretol, Tegretol XR, Carbatrol, others): Prototype Drug: Carbamezepine ( Tegretol , Tegretol XR, Carbatrol , others) Nursing responsibilities Patient/Family Teaching Similar Drugs: Similar Drugs Oxcarbazepine ( Trileptal ) Antiseizure Drugs: 26.11 Succinimides are often the drugs of choice for the pharmacotherapy of absence seizures. Antiseizure Drugs Prototype Drug Ethosuximide (Zarontin): Prototype Drug Ethosuximide ( Zarontin ) Therapeutic classification Pharmacologic classification Pregnancy category D Prototype Drug Ethosuximide (Zarontin): Prototype Drug Ethosuximide ( Zarontin ) Mechanism of action Indications Contraindications Prototype Drug Ethosuximide (Zarontin): Prototype Drug Ethosuximide ( Zarontin ) Precautions Drug Interactions Prototype Drug Ethosuximide (Zarontin): Prototype Drug Ethosuximide ( Zarontin ) Adverse effects Serious adverse effects Prototype Drug Ethosuximide (Zarontin): Prototype Drug Ethosuximide ( Zarontin ) Nursing responsibilities Patient/Family Teaching Similar Drugs: Similar Drugs Methsuximide ( Celontin ) Antiseizure Drugs: 26.12 Several miscellaneous drugs are important in treating epilepsy. Antiseizure Drugs Prototype Drug Gabapentin (Neurontin): Prototype Drug Gabapentin (Neurontin) Therapeutic classification Pharmacologic classification Pregnancy category D Prototype Drug Gabapentin (Neurontin): Prototype Drug Gabapentin (Neurontin) Mechanism of action Indications Contraindications Prototype Drug Gabapentin (Neurontin): Prototype Drug Gabapentin (Neurontin) Precautions Drug Interactions Prototype Drug Gabapentin (Neurontin): Prototype Drug Gabapentin (Neurontin) Adverse effects Serious adverse effects Prototype Drug Gabapentin (Neurontin): Prototype Drug Gabapentin (Neurontin) Nursing responsibilities Patient/Family Teaching Prototype Drug: Valproic Acid (Depacon, Depakene, Depakote): Prototype Drug: Valproic Acid ( Depacon , Depakene , Depakote) Therapeutic classification Pharmacologic classification Pregnancy category D Prototype Drug: Valproic Acid (Depacon, Depakene, Depakote): Prototype Drug: Valproic Acid ( Depacon , Depakene , Depakote) Mechanism of action Indications Contraindications Prototype Drug: Valproic Acid (Depacon, Depakene, Depakote): Prototype Drug: Valproic Acid ( Depacon , Depakene , Depakote) Precautions Drug Interactions Prototype Drug: Valproic Acid (Depacon, Depakene, Depakote): Prototype Drug: Valproic Acid ( Depacon , Depakene , Depakote) Adverse effects Serious adverse effects Prototype Drug: Valproic Acid (Depacon, Depakene, Depakote): Prototype Drug: Valproic Acid ( Depacon , Depakene , Depakote) Nursing responsibilities Patient/Family Teaching Other Miscellaneous Drugs: Other Miscellaneous Drugs Ezogabine (Potiga) Felbamate (Felbatol) Lamotrigine (Lamictal) Levetiracetam (Keppra) Pregabalin (Lyrica) Other Miscellaneous Drugs: Other Miscellaneous Drugs Rufinamide (Banzel) Tiagabine (Gabitril) Vigabatrin (Sabril) Zonisamide (Zonegran)

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