Published on March 12, 2014
© 2014 VMware Inc. All rights reserved. VMware Virtual SAN 5.5 Technical Deep Dive – March 2014 Alberto Farronato, VMware Wade Holmes, VMware March, 2014
Software-Defined Storage 2 Bringing the efficient operational model of virtualization to storage Virtual Data Services Data Protection Mobility Performance Policy-driven Control Plane SAN / NAS SAN/NAS Pool Virtual Data Plane x86 Servers Hypervisor-converged Storage pool Object Storage Pool Cloud Object Storage Virtual SAN
Virtual SAN: Radically Simple Hypervisor-Converged Storage 3 vSphere + VSAN … • Runs on any standard x86 server • Policy-based management framework • Embedded in vSphere kernel • High performance flash architecture • Built-in resiliency • Deep integration with VMware stack The Basics Hard disks SSD Hard disks SSD Hard disks SSD VSAN Shared Datastore
12,000+ Virtual SAN Beta Participants 95% Beta customers Recommend VSAN 90% Believe VSAN will Impact Storage like vSphere did to Compute Unprecedented Customer Interest And Validation 4
Why Virtual SAN? 5 • Two click Install • Single pane of glass • Policy-driven • Self-tuning • Integrated with VMware stack Radically Simple • Embedded in vSphere kernel • Flash-accelerated • Up to 2M IOPs from 32 nodes cluster • Granular and linear scaling High Performance Lower TCO • Server-side economics • No large upfront investments • Grow-as-you-go • Easy to operate with powerful automation • No specialized skillset
Two Ways to Build a Virtual SAN Node 6 Completely Hardware Independent 1. Virtual SAN Ready Node …with multiple options available at GA + 30 Preconfigured server ready to use Virtual SAN… 2. Build Your Own …using the Virtual SAN Compatibility Guide* Choose individual components … SSD or PCIe SAS/NL-SAS/ SATA HDDs Any Server on vSphere Hardware Compatibility List HBA/RAID Controller ⃰ Note: For additional details, please refer to Virtual SAN VMware Compatibility Guide Page ⃰ Components for Virtual SAN must be chosen from Virtual SAN HCL, using any other components is unsupported
Broad Partner Ecosystem Support for Virtual SAN 7 Storage Server / Systems Solution Data Protection Solution
Virtual SAN Simplifies And Automates Storage Management 8 Per VM Storage Service Levels From a Single Self-tuning Datastore Storage Policy-Based Management Virtual SAN Shared Datastore vSphere + Virtual SAN SLAs Software Automates Control of Service Levels No more LUNs/Volumes! Policies Set Based on Application Needs Capacity Performance Availability Per VM Storage Policies “Virtual SAN is easy to deploy, just a few check boxes. No need to configure RAID.” — Jim Streit IT Architect, Thomson Reuters
Virtual SAN Delivers Enterprise-Grade Scale 9 2M IOPS 3,200 VMs 4.4 Petabytes Maximum Scalability per Virtual SAN Cluster 32 Hosts “Virtual SAN’s allows us to build out scalable heterogeneous storage infrastructure like the Facebooks and Googles of the world. Virtual SAN allows us to add scale, add resources, while being able to service high performance workloads.” — Dave Burns VP of Tech Ops, Cincinnati Bell
High Performance with Elastic and Linear Scalability 10 80K 160K 320K 480K 640K 253K 505K 1M 1.5M 2M 4 8 16 24 32 IOPS Number of Hosts In Virtual SAN Cluster Mixed 100% Read 286 473 677 767 805 3 5 7 8 Number of Hosts In Virtual SAN Cluster Number of VDI VMs VSAN All SSD Array Notes: based on IOmeter benchmark Mixed = 70% Read, 4K 80% random Notes: Based on View Planner benchmark Up to 2M IOPs in 32 Node Cluster Comparable VDI density to an All Flash Array
Virtual SAN is Deeply Integrated with VMware Stack 11 Ideal for VMware Environments CONFIDENTIAL – NDA ONLY vMotion vSphere HA DRS Storage vMotion vSphere Snapshots Linked Clones VDP Advanced vSphere Replication Data Protection VMware View Virtual Desktop vCenter Operations Manager vCloud Automation Center IaaS Cloud Ops and Automation Site Recovery Manager Disaster Recovery Site A Site B Storage Policy-Based Management
Virtual SAN 5.5 – Pricing And Packing 12 VSAN Editions and Bundles Virtual SAN Virtual SAN with Data Protection Virtual SAN for Desktop Overview • Standalone edition • No capacity, scale or workload restriction • Bundle of Virtual SAN and vSphere Data Protection Adv. • Standalone edition • VDI only (VMware or Citrix) • Concurrent or named users Licensing Per CPU Per CPU Per User Price (USD) $2,495 $2,875 (Promo ends Sept 15th 2014) $50 Features Persistent data store Read / Write caching Policy-based Management Virtual Distributed Switch Replication (vSphere Replication) Snapshots and clones (vSphere Snapshots & Clones) Backup (vSphere Data Protection Advanced) Not for Public Disclosure NDA Material only Do not share with Public until GA Note: Regional pricing in standard VMware currencies applies. Please check local pricelists for more detail.
Virtual SAN – Launch Promotions 13 Virtual SAN with Data Protection Virtual SAN (1 CPU) vSphere Data Protection Advanced (1 CPU) VSA to VSAN upgrade Virtual SAN (6 CPUs per bundle) Register and download promo Virtual SAN (1 CPU) Beta PromoBundle Promos 20% 20% 20% Not for Public Disclosure NDA Material only Do not share with Public until GA $9,180 / bundle$2,875 / CPU $1,996 / CPU Promo Discount Promo Price End Date Terms 9/15/2014 9/15/2014 6/15/2014 • Min purchase of 10 CPUs • First purchase only Note: Regional pricing for promotions exist in standard VMware currencies. Please check local pricelists for more detail.
Virtual SAN Reduces CAPEX and OPEX for Better TCO 14 CAPEX • Server-side economics • No Fibre Channel network • Pay-as-you-grow OPEX • Simplified storage configuration • No LUNs • Managed directly through vSphere Web Client • Automated VM provisioning • Simplified capacity planning As Low as $0.50/GB2 As Low as $0.25/IOPS 5X Lower OPEX4 Up to 50% TCO Reduction As Low as $50/Desktop 1 1. Full clones 2. Usable capacity 3. Estimated based on 2013 street pricing, Capex (includes storage hardware + Software License costs) 4. Source: Taneja Group Not for Public Disclosure NDA Material only Do not share with Public until GA
Flexibly Configure For Performance And Capacity 15 Performance 2xCPU – 8-core 128GB Memory 2xCPU – 8-core 128GB Memory 2xCPU – 8-core 128GB Memory 1x 400GB MLC SSD (~15% of usable capacity) 1x 400GB MLC SSD (~10% of usable capacity) 2x 400GB MLC SSD (~4% of usable capacity) 5x 1.2TB 10K SAS 7x 2TB 7.2K NL-SAS 10x 4TB 7.2K NL-SAS IOPS1 Raw Capacity ~20-15K 6TB ~15-10K 14TB ~10-5K 40TB Capacity 1. Mix workload 70% Read, 80% Random Estimated based on 2013 street pricing, Capex (includes storage hardware + Software License costs) $0.32/IOPS $2.12/GB $0.57/IOPS $1.02/GB $1.38/IOPS $0.52/GB Not for Public Disclosure NDA Material only Do not share with Public until GA
• Compared to external storage at scale • Estimated based on 2013 street pricing, Capex (includes storage hardware + Software License costs) • Additional savings come from reduced Opex through automation • Virtual SAN configuration: 9 VMs per core, with 40GB per VM, 2 copies for availability and 10% SSD for performance Granular Scaling Eliminates Overprovisioning Delivers Predictable Scaling and ability to Control Costs VSAN enables predictable linear scaling Spikes correspond to scaling out due to IOPs requirements 16 $40 $90 $140 $190 $240 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 StorageCostPerDesktop Number of Desktops $/VDI Storage Cost Virtual SAN Midrange Hybrid Array Not for Public Disclosure NDA Material only Do not share with Public until GA
Running a Google-like Datacenter 17 Modular infrastructure. Break-Replace Operations "From a break fix perspective, I think there's a huge difference in what needs to be done when a piece of hardware fails. I can have anyone on my team go back and replace a 1U or 2U servers. … essentially modularizing my datacenter and delivering a true Software-Defined Storage architecture." — Ryan Hoenle Director of IT, DOE Fund
Hardware Requirements 18 Any Server on the VMware Compatibility Guide • SSD, HDD, and Storage Controllers must be listed on the VMware Compatibility Guide for VSAN http://www.vmware.com/resources/compatibility/search.php?deviceCategory=vsan • Minimum 3 ESXi 5.5 Hosts, Maximum Hosts ―I’ll tell you later……‖ 1Gb/10Gb NIC SAS/SATA Controllers (RAID Controllers must work in ―pass-through‖ or RAID0‖ mode SAS/SATA/PCIe SSD SAS/NL-SAS/SATA HDD At least 1 of each 4GB to 8GB USB, SD Cards
Flash Based Devices VMware SSD Performance Classes – Class A: 2,500-5,000 writes per second – Class B: 5,000-10,000 writes per second – Class C: 10,000-20,000 writes per second – Class D: 20,000-30,000 writes per second – Class E: 30,000+ writes per second Examples – Intel DC S3700 SSD ~36000 writes per second -> Class E – Toshiba SAS SSD MK2001GRZB ~16000 writes per second -> Class C Workload Definition – Queue Depth: 16 or less – Transfer Length: 4KB – Operations: write – Pattern: 100% random – Latency: less than 5 ms Endurance – 10 Drive Writes per Day (DWPD), and – Random write endurance up to 3.5 PB on 8KB transfer size per NAND module, or 2.5 PB on 4KB transfer size per NAND module 19
Flash Capacity Sizing The general recommendation for sizing Virtual SAN's flash capacity is to have 10% of the anticipated consumed storage capacity before the Number of Failures To Tolerate is considered. Total flash capacity percentage should be based on use case, capacity and performance requirements. – 10% is a general recommendation, could be too much or it may not be enough. Measurement Requirements Values Projected VM space usage 20GB Projected number of VMs 1000 Total projected space consumption per VM 20GB x 1000 = 20,000 GB = 20 TB Target flash capacity percentage 10% Total flash capacity required 20TB x .10 = 2 TB
Multi-level cell SSD (or better) or PCIe SSD SAS/NL-SAS HDD Select SATA HDDs Any Server on vSphere Hardware Compatibility List * Note: For additional details, please refer to Virtual SAN VMware Compatibility Guide 6Gb enterprise-grade HBA/RAID Controller 1 2 Build your ownVSAN Ready Node …with 10 different options between multiple 3rd party vendors available at GA Preconfigured server ready to use VSAN… …using the VSAN Compatibility Guide* Choose individual components … Two Ways to Build a Virtual SAN Node Radically Simple Hypervisor-Converged Storage
Virtual SAN Implementation Requirements • Virtual SAN requires: – Minimum of 3 hosts in a cluster configuration – All 3 host MUST!!! contribute storage • vSphere 5.5 U1 or later – Locally attached disks • Magnetic disks (HDD) • Flash-based devices (SSD) – Network connectivity • 1GB Ethernet • 10GB Ethernet (preferred) 22 esxi-01 local storage local storage local storage vSphere 5.5 U1 Cluster esxi-02 esxi-03 cluster HDDHDD HDD
Virtual SAN Scalable Architecture 23 • Scale up and Scale out architecture – granular and linearly storage, performance and compute scaling capabilities – Per magnetic disks – for capacity – Per flash based device – for performance – Per disk group – for performance and capacity – Per node – for compute capacity disk group disk group disk group VSAN network VSAN networkVSAN network vsanDatastore HDD disk group HDD HDD HDD disk group VSAN network HDD scaleup scale out
Oh yeah! Scalability….. 24 vsanDatastore 4.4 Petabytes 2 Million IOPS 32 Hosts
Storage Policy-based Management • SPBM is a storage policy framework built into vSphere that enables virtual machine policy driven provisioning. • Virtual SAN leverages this new framework in conjunction with VASA API’s to expose storage characteristics to vCenter: – Storage capabilities • Underlying storage surfaces up to vCenter and what it is capable of offering. – Virtual machine storage requirements • Requirements can only be used against available capabilities. – VM Storage Policies • Construct that stores virtual machine’s storage provisioning requirements based on storage capabilities. 25
Storage Policy Wizard SPBM VSAN object VSAN object manager virtual disk VSAN objects may be (1) mirrored across hosts & (2) striped across disks/hosts to meet VM storage profile policies Datastore Profile Virtual SAN SPBM Object Provisioning Mechanism
Virtual SAN Disk Groups • Virtual SAN uses the concept of disk groups to pool together flash devices and magnetic disks as single management constructs. • Disk groups are composed of at least 1 flash device and 1 magnetic disk. – Flash devices are use for performance (Read cache + Write buffer). – Magnetic disks are used for storage capacity. – Disk groups cannot be created without a flash device. 27 disk group disk group disk group disk group Each host: 5 disk groups max. Each disk group: 1 SSD + 1 to 7 HDDs disk group HDD HDDHDDHDDHDD
Virtual SAN Datastore • Virtual SAN is an object store solution that is presented to vSphere as a file system. • The object store mounts the VMFS volumes from all hosts in a cluster and presents them as a single shared datastore. – Only members of the cluster can access the Virtual SAN datastore – Not all hosts need to contribute storage, but its recommended. 28 disk group disk group disk group disk group Each host: 5 disk groups max. Each disk group: 1 SSD + 1 to 7 HDDs disk group VSAN network VSAN network VSAN network VSAN networkVSAN network vsanDatastore HDD HDDHDDHDDHDD
Virtual SAN Network • New Virtual SAN traffic VMkernel interface. – Dedicated for Virtual SAN intra-cluster communication and data replication. • Supports both Standard and Distributes vSwitches – Leverage NIOC for QoS in shared scenarios • NIC teaming – used for availability and not for bandwidth aggregation. • Layer 2 Multicast must be enabled on physical switches. – Much easier to manage and implement than Layer 3 Multicast 29 Management Virtual Machines vMotion Virtual SAN Distributed Switch 20 shares 30 shares 50 shares 100 shares uplink1 uplink2 vmk1 vmk2vmk0
Virtual SAN Network • NIC teamed and load balancing algorithms: – Route based on Port ID • active / passive with explicit failover – Route based on IP Hash • active / active with LACP port channel – Route based on Physical NIC load • active / active with LACP port channel Management Virtual Machines vMotion Virtual SAN Distributed Switch 100 shares 150 shares 250 shares 500 shares uplink1 uplink2 vmk1 vmk2vmk0 Multi chassis link aggregation capable switches
VMware Virtual SAN Interoperability Technologies and Products
VMware Virtual SAN Configuration Walkthrough
Configuring VMware Virtual SAN • Radically Simple configuration procedure 33 Setup Virtual SAN Network Enable Virtual SAN on the Cluster Select Manual or Automatic If Manual, create disk groups
Configure Network 34 • Configure the new dedicated Virtual SAN network – vSphere Web Client network template configuration feature.
Enable Virtual SAN • One click away!!! – Virtual SAN configured in Automatic mode, all empty local disks are claimed by Virtual SAN for the creation of the distributed vsanDatastore. – Virtual SAN configured in Manual mode, the administrator must manually select disks to add the the distributed vsanDatastore by creating Disk Groups. 35
Virtual SAN Datastore • A single Virtual SAN Datastore is created and mounted, using storage from all multiple hosts and disk groups in the cluster. • Virtual SAN Datastore is automatically presented to all hosts in the cluster. • Virtual SAN Datastore enforces thin-provisioning storage allocation by default. 36
Virtual SAN Capabilities • Virtual SAN currently surfaces five unique storage capabilities to vCenter. 37
Number of Failures to Tolerate • Number of failures to tolerate – Defines the number of hosts, disk or network failures a storage object can tolerate. For ―n‖ failures tolerated, ―n+1‖ copies of the object are created and ―2n+1‖ host contributing storage are required. 38 vsan network vmdkvmdk witness esxi-01 esxi-02 esxi-03 esxi-04 ~50% of I/O ~50% of I/O Virtual SAN Policy: ―Number of failures to tolerate = 1‖ raid-1
Number of Disk Stripes Per Object • Number of disk stripes per object – The number of HDDs across which each replica of a storage object is distributed. Higher values may result in better performance. 39 vsan network stripe-2b witness esxi-01 esxi-02 esxi-03 esxi-04 stripe-1b stripe-1a stripe-2a raid-0raid-0 VSAN Policy: ―Number of failures to tolerate = 1‖ + ―Stripe Width =2‖ raid-1
Managing Failure Scenarios Through policies, VM’s on Virtual SAN can tolerate multiple failures – Disk Failure – degraded event – SSD Failure – degraded event – Controller Failure – degraded event – Network Failure – absent event – Server Failure – absent event VM’s continue to run Parallel rebuilds minimize performance pain – SSD Fail – immediately – HDD Fail – immediately – Controller Fail – immediately – Network Fail – 60 minutes – Host Fail – 60 minutes 40
Virtual SAN Storage Capabilities • Force provisioning – if yes, the object will be provisioned even is the policy specified in the storage policy is not satisfiable with the resources currently available. • Flash read cache reservation (%) – Flash capacity reserved as read cache for the storage object. Specified as a percentage of logical size of the object. • Object space reservation (%) – Percentage of the logical size of the storage object that will be reserved (thick provisioned) upon VM provisioning. The rest of the storage object is thin provisioned. 41
VM Storage Policies Recommendations • Number of Disk Stripes per object – Should be left at 1, unless the IOPS requirements of the VM is not being met by the flash layer. • Flash Read Cache Reservation – Should be left at 0, unless there is a specific performance requirement to be met by a VM. • Proportional Capacity – Should be left at 0, unless thick provisioning of virtual machines is required. • Force Provisioning – Should be left disabled, unless the VM needs to be provisioned, even if not in compliance. 42
Failure Handling Philosophy Traditional SANs – Physical drive needs to be replaced to get back to full redundancy – Hot-spare disks are set aside to take role of failed disks immediately – In both cases: 1:1 replacement of disk Virtual SAN – Entire cluster is a ―hot-spare‖, we always want to get back to full redundancy – When a disk fails, many small components (stripes or mirrors of objects) fail – New copies of these components can be spread around the cluster for balancing – Replacement of the physical disk just adds back resources
Understanding Failure Events Degraded events are responsible to trigger the immediate recovery operations. – Triggers the immediate recovery operation of objects and components – Not configurable Any of the following detected I/O errors are always deemed degraded: – Magnetic disk failures – Flash based devices failures – Storage controller failures Any of the following detected I/O errors are always deemed absent: – Network failures – Network Interface Cards (NICs) – Host failures 44
Maintenance Mode – planned downtime 3 Maintenance mode options: Ensure accessibility Full data migration No data migration
For more information, visit: http://www.vmware.com/products/virtual-san
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