Viticulture

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Information about Viticulture
Education

Published on February 14, 2009

Author: Derek

Source: authorstream.com

Viticulture : Viticulture Spur Pruning : Spur Pruning There are two fruiting canes (this years growth) originating from each spur (a cane shortened, usually to two nodes, although it may be between one and four nodes, in the previous years pruning). The cane furthest away from the cordon is completely removed, the one nearest is shortened to two nodes to produce next years spur, which will generate the two new fruiting canes. There are a number of spurs along the cordon, providing sufficient quantity of fruit. Cane pruning : Cane pruning Here the vine has a two year old cane which generates many more fruiting canes during the growing season, and a spur giving origin to two canes. At pruning the two year old cane, and consequently much of this years growth, are completely removed. Of the two canes originating from the spur, the one closest to the cordon is pruned to leave a replacement two node spur, whereas the cane further away is left intact, although shortened. This is next years two year old cane. Gobelet : Gobelet This ancient method of vine training involves no wires or other system of support, and results in a goblet shaped growth Best suited to warm, dry climates, without fertile soil Found in southern parts of Burgundy, the Rhône Valley, Provence and Languedoc Guyot : Guyot Named after Dr. Jules Guyot, a 19th century French scientist, this system is essentially cane pruning In Single Guyot, each vine has one cane preserved each year, for the generation of next years many fruiting canes, and one spur, which is for the generation of the replacement cane. In Double Guyot, which is a system widely used in Bordeaux, each vine has two canes and two spurs, the canes being trained in opposite directions along wires Cordon training : Cordon training The vines have a short trunk, about 0.5m, similar to the gobelet style The cordon, which is never pruned away, bears a number of spurs (how many often depends on appellation laws in France) which are subject to spur pruning Vertical Trellis : Vertical Trellis Also known as vertical shoot positioning or simply VSP The canes are supported by securing them to a number of trellis wires running the length of the row of vines. The canes may be trimmed off at the top, and consequently the row takes on a hedge-like appearance. It may be spur or cane pruned Viticultural Hazards : Viticultural Hazards Botrytis Cinerea : Botrytis Cinerea A fungus that gives rise to two different kinds of infections on grapes; Grey Rot and Noble Rot Grey Rot is the result of consistently wet or humid conditions Noble Rot occurs when drier conditions follow wetter Powdery Mildew : Powdery Mildew Fungal disease High atmospheric humidity is a major cause This mildew can be treated with sulfur or fungicides, especially Strobilurines AKA Oidium Downy Mildew : Downy Mildew Fungal disease Spring storms and heavy rain are significant causes, followed by warmth and humidity The ‘oil spot’ is and initial indicator Plasmopara viticola Phomopsis : Phomopsis AKA Dead Arm; Excoriosis Canes display pale patches, fissures and lesions after winter pruning Rain and cool spring temperatures can also be a factor Rotbrenner : Rotbrenner Fungal disease which colors the leaves brown and yellow Mainly effects steep vineyards (Mosel) Esca : Esca A chronic infection found mainly on older vineyards Vines in a plot show leaf degeneration and stunted growth, and eventually die off the following year This pathogen complex disease does not yet have a cure Eutypa Dieback : Eutypa Dieback Fungal virus affecting grapevines as well as fruit vines Vines die off, similar to Esca Cankers and small leaves are symtoms Esca infections can lead to Eutypa Dieback Feared Vineyard Pests : Feared Vineyard Pests Grape Berry Moths Vine Leafhoppers Willow Beauty Caterpillars Black Vine Weevil Nematodes Phylloxera Nematodes : Nematodes Microscopic worms that attack the roots of a vine Treatment is near impossible; prevention is the only real cure Grafted vines are usually used to combat this problem Phylloxera : Phylloxera A louse that damages the roots of vines They disrupt the nutrition of the vines, leading to gradual death Phylloxera is combated by grafting onto resistant rootstocks: Vitis berlandieri, Vitis riparia and Vitis rupestris Hybrid rootstock AxR1, commonly used in California, is also prone to phylloxera, just at a later period of life Obviously one of the major crisis of wine producers in modern wine producing era Phylloxera Lifecycle : Phylloxera Lifecycle

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