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Information about vitamins

Published on March 4, 2008

Author: bruce


Vitamins:  Vitamins Slide2:  Dietary Supplement Use (USA) $ 4,300,000,000 for vit/min in 1995 $ 1,400,000,000 for herbs $ 31,000,000,000 total for dietary supplements and functional foods in 1999 (GAO, 2000) 42% adults regular users (27% 1989) females > males 66% multi-vit/min 37% vitamin C 19% vitamin E 23% herbal supplements (13% 1995) Slide3:  Dietary Supplement Use: Pros Supplements prevents dietary deficiencies calcium folic acid Amounts used in some studies not attainable with dietary sources antioxidants Relatively low cost Slide4:  Dietary Supplement Use: Cons False sense of security folic acid and pregnancy Does not contain all potentially useful chemicals in foods plant phytochemicals Toxicity almost only due to supplement use Costs significant to low income Slide5:  Vitamin/Mineral Deficiency Worldwide 1 in 5 adults malnourished 1 in 4 children malnourished 3 million children severe vitamin A deficiency blindness stunted growth 275 million with mild deficiency Slide6:  Vitamins: Definition Organic compound found in foods Required in small amounts Required in the diet (essential) Proven to be required for health, growth, and reproduction deficiency syndrome identified Water Soluble Vs. Fat Soluble:  Water Soluble Vs. Fat Soluble Water Soluble: Vitamin C, and the B vitamins Fat Soluble Vitamins A,D,E,K Vitamins: Support Staff:  Vitamins: Support Staff What can’t they do? They can’t be used as an energy source. What can they do? They are usually in supporting roles in the body. e.g.: many of the B vitamins are co-enzymes that help breakdown glucose for energy The differences between water and fat soluble vitamins:  The differences between water and fat soluble vitamins Absorption from digestive system fat soluble: into the lymph with chylomicrons H20 soluble: into blood Transport fat sol: carried by lipoproteins water sol: free in blood Water Vs Fat Soluble:  Water Vs Fat Soluble Storage and Excretion Fat Sol: stored with fat in cells and adipose tissue, excesses stored Water sol: not held firmly by cells, excesses excreted Potential for Fat soluble to build up and perhaps reach toxic levels Potential for water soluble to excrete extra amounts, not as prone to toxicity Fat soluble Toxicity:  Fat soluble Toxicity Fat soluble vitamins may be toxic with too high of an intake Water soluble vitamins are less likely to be toxic with high intake Slide12:  B Vitamins Correct names and common names Thiamin B1 Riboflavin B2 Niacin nicotinic acid B6 pyridoxine folacin folate, folic acid B12 cobalamin Slide13:  B vitamins: Correct names pantothenic acid no other biotin no other B vitamins act as coenzymes Help to complete the correct shape of the molecule Many help to metabolize glucose to release energy B Vitamins:  B Vitamins Coenzyme function Prosthetic Group: physically become part of an enzyme complex Others are more loosely attached May be part of the active site in the enzyme. Vitamins and Metabolism:  Vitamins and Metabolism B Vitamins:  B Vitamins Thiamin Riboflavin Vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine) Folate B vitamin deficiencies:  B vitamin deficiencies Thiamin: beriberi symptoms: mental confusion, muscle weakness and wasting, edema, enlarged heart Slide19:  Riboflavin: symptoms: personality changes, cracks at the corners of your mouth(cheilosis), tender tongue(glossitis) Slide20:  Folacin: Symptoms: megaloblastic, macrocytic anemia, Niacin:  Niacin Part of NAD+ helps metabolize glucose without Niacin, this breakdown of glucose stops Slows energy release: 4 D’s of Niacin deficiency (called pellagra: Dermatitis: skin inflammation Diarrhea: poor absorption Dementia: no energy to think Death: if untreated Pellagra:  Pellagra Vitamin B 12:  Vitamin B 12 Blood formation Homocysteine Nerve damage Deficiency Atrophic gastritis Pernicious anemia Megaloblastic anemia:  Megaloblastic anemia Vascular Disease:  Vascular Disease Folate and vitamin B12 are required for the breakdown of the amino acid homocysteine. Low folate and vitamin B12 intake may cause an increased level of homocysteine. High homocysteine levels are associated with greater risk of cardivascular and cerebrovascular disease. B vitamin Toxicities: Rare:  B vitamin Toxicities: Rare B6 Symptoms: with very high doses sensory nerve disorders; may interfere with nerve impulses and heart beat Niacin Symptoms: skin flushing, nausea, jaundice, liver dysfunction Some individuals with high serum cholesterol are treated with pharmacological doses of niacin Oxidation:  Oxidation Oxidation: the loss of electrons from a molecule. Reduction: the gain of electrons by a molecule. Oxidation and reduction usually occur together as an exchange reaction. Oxidation:  Oxidation Stable atoms contain an even number of paired electrons. Free radical: an atom that has lost an electron and is left with an unpaired electron. Free radicals are highly reactive and can cause damage to molecules in the cell. Slide30:  Free Radicals and Diseases Antioxidants:  Antioxidants Substances that are able to neutralize reactive molecules and reduce oxidative damage Result of metabolic processes and environmental sources Vitamin C, Vitamin E, beta-carotene, Vitamin A, selenium, iron, zinc, copper and manganese Vitamin C Functions:  Vitamin C Functions Collagen Formation antioxidant reduce cancer risk helps absorb iron from food Reduces risk of colds????? probably not Linus Pauling’s study NutraIngredients Vitamin C:  Vitamin C Deficiency: called scurvy poor formation of collagen in blood vessels weak vessels result in hemorrhages can be severe and result in lots of blood loss and death Toxicity: may result in kidney stones rebound scurvy Destruction of B12 Problems with acid/base balance Vitamin C: RDA 90/75 mg/day:  Vitamin C: RDA 90/75 mg/day Foods rich in vitamin C: 1 cup fresh squeezed orange juice: 124 mg 1 cup canned o.j.: 84 mg Smoker’s RDA = +35 mg/day Some of vitamin C is sacrificed in reducing the oxidants of cigarette smoke Vitamin C intake offers protection against stomach cancer Slide36:  Vitamin C Deficiency: called scurvy poor formation of collagen in blood vessels weak vessels result in hemorrhages can be severe and result in lots of blood loss and death Toxicity: may result in kidney stones rebound scurvy Destruction of B12 Problems with acid/base balance Slide37:  Vitamin C: RDA 60 mg/day Foods rich in vitamin C: 1 cup fresh squeezed orange juice: 124 mg 1 cup canned o.j.: 84 mg Smoker’s RDA = 100 mg/day Some of vitamin C is sacrificed in reducing the oxidants of cigarette smoke Vitamin A Functions:  Vitamin A Functions Vision: helps with conversion of light energy to electrical energy in eye Cell differentiation-maintenance of linings: helps produce the CHO normally found in mucous Bone growth: helps with remodeling growing bones Vitamin A Deficiency:  Vitamin A Deficiency One year supply in fat and liver of most people: So deficiencies are rare Bone growth and remodeling problems shape changes Linings deteriorate GI tract: diarrhea Respiratory tract: infections urogenital tract: infections, kidney stones Impaired night vision and day vision Vitamin A Toxicities:  Vitamin A Toxicities Bones: decalcification, joint pain Nervous system loss of appetite, irritability, muscle weakness Liver enlargement jaundice Blood: RBCs loose hemoglobin Bleeding induced easily Beta-Carotene-provitamin:  Beta-Carotene-provitamin Functions Weak antioxidant Enhance immune system Protect skin and eyes Deficiency/toxicity Beta-Carotene-provitamin:  Beta-Carotene-provitamin No RDA Sources Beta carotene and Vitamin A:  Beta carotene and Vitamin A Vitamin A RDA= 700 RE for females; 900 RE for males.:  Vitamin A RDA= 700 RE for females; 900 RE for males. RE= Retinol Equivalent Retinol is the active form of vitamin A Other molecules can be metabolized to make Retinol, thus retinol equivalents e.g.: beta carotene can be modified to make retinol beta carotene is found in carrots and other deep orange and green vegetables 1 RE= 1 microgram of retinol 1 RE= 3.3 IU retinol 1 RE = 12 micrograms of beta carotene Slide46:  Vitamin A and Beta Carotene Rich Foods 1 medium carrot = 2025 REs; about 2.5 times the RDA 1 cup butternut squash = 1400 REs 1 sweet potato = 2000 REs 1/2 cup cooked spinach = 700 REs 1 cup cooked broccoli = 250 REs 1 cup milk = 140 REs Slide47:  Vitamin D Functions: Helps bone grow Works in three ways: 1. Increases Calcium Absorption from the G.I. tract 2. Helps to withdraw calcium from bone 3. Increases calcium retention in the kidney. Sources of Vitamin D:  Sources of Vitamin D Body makes it own: Dehydrocholesterol in the skin exposed to sunlight Energy transforms it into a pre-vitamin D molecule Body heat provides energy to change pre-vitamin D into inactive Vitamin D Inactive Vitamin D activated in two steps First, in the Liver Second in the Kidney Netrition Home Page Vitamin D:  Vitamin D Sources of Vitamin D RDA = 5 ug-15 ug:  Sources of Vitamin D RDA = 5 ug-15 ug In foods: Fortified milk: 2.5 mcg/cup 1 egg = 0.7 mcg 3 oz shrimp = 3 mcg 1 tsp margarine = 0.5 mcg - How to get vitamin D? Vitamin D Deficiencies:  Vitamin D Deficiencies In children: Rickets malformed bones, bow legs In adults: osteomalaciaVitamin D improves symptoms of knee osteoarthritis most often occurs in women with low Ca intake, repeated pregnancies, low sun-exposure, and long breastfeeding with infants loss of Calcium from bone and change of shape - Vitamin D reserach may have doctors prescribing sunshine Vitamin D Toxicity::  Vitamin D Toxicity: Most potentially toxic of all vitamins!!!! As little as 4 to 5 X RDA can be associated with toxic symptoms minor: diarrhea, headache, nausea major: calcium deposits in soft tissues of heart, kidney, arteries Major concern: those who take Vitamin D supplements If some is good, more is NOT better!!!!! Slide53:  Sources of Vitamin D: RDA = 5 - 10 micrograms in adults In foods: Fortified milk: 2.5 mcg/cup 1 egg = 0.7 mcg 3 oz shrimp = 3 mcg 1 tsp margarine = 0.5 mcg Vitamin K:  Vitamin K Blood coagulation coenzyme Deficiency Toxicity Vitamin E:  Vitamin E Functions: Anti-oxidant Guards against damage to membranes from oxidizing compounds Deficiency: Rare (premature infants under 3.5 pounds, people unable to absorb fat or metabolize fat properly Suppresses the immune system because vitamin E protects White Blood Cells Vitamin E:  Vitamin E Toxicity: Rare Sources: Vegetable oils, nuts and green leafy vegetables, fortified cereals

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