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Vital Water

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Information about Vital Water

Published on January 6, 2009

Author: lwolberg

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Water
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Vital Water Alice Newton University of Algarve Joint Master in Water and Coastal Management University of Bergen 2005-2006

Bibliography Books : Philip Ball 1999: H 2 O A biography of Water ISBN 0 75381 092 1 Peter H. Gleick 1993: Water in Crisis Oxford University Press Open University course team 1997 : Seawater: its composition, properties and behaviour Frank J. Millero 1996 : Chemical Oceanography, CRC Press

Books :

Philip Ball 1999: H 2 O A biography of Water ISBN 0 75381 092 1

Peter H. Gleick 1993: Water in Crisis Oxford University Press

Open University course team 1997 : Seawater: its composition, properties and behaviour

Frank J. Millero 1996 : Chemical Oceanography, CRC Press

Bibliography 2 Web United Nations Environment Program www.unep.org Vital Water Graphics Global International Water Assessment www.giwa.net Intergovernemntal Panel on Climate Change www.IPCC.org

Web

United Nations Environment Program www.unep.org Vital Water Graphics

Global International Water Assessment www.giwa.net

Intergovernemntal Panel on Climate Change www.IPCC.org

Objectives Vital water is an introductory lecture that relates both to integrated river basin management or integrated coastal zone management It also links up with many other modules in the course

Vital water is an introductory lecture that relates both to integrated river basin management or integrated coastal zone management

It also links up with many other modules in the course

Requirements No special skills are required for this lecture A knowledge of basic inorganic and environmental chemistry is useful.

No special skills are required for this lecture

A knowledge of basic inorganic and environmental chemistry is useful.

Programme The constituents of water The water molecule Properties of water The origin of water The hydrological cycle Composition of natural waters Ice and glaciation Water and life Water the destroyer Water and society, resources, uses and abuses

The constituents of water

The water molecule

Properties of water

The origin of water

The hydrological cycle

Composition of natural waters

Ice and glaciation

Water and life

Water the destroyer

Water and society, resources, uses and abuses

Learning outcomes After completing this module you should know: that although water is a very common substance on Earth, it has strange properties and is a scarce resource After completing this module you should be able to: Explain why water is so special and what some consequences are for water and coastal management

After completing this module you should know: that although water is a very common substance on Earth, it has strange properties and is a scarce resource

After completing this module you should be able to: Explain why water is so special and what some consequences are for water and coastal management

Other skills Consult scientific literature and websites

Consult scientific literature and websites

The Constituents of Water… a little chemistry Hydrogen (H ) Oxygen (O) H 2 O is the basic unit of water Ratio 2:1 is a consequence of the atomic structure

Hydrogen (H )

Oxygen (O)

H 2 O is the basic unit of water

Ratio 2:1 is a consequence of the atomic structure

Hydrogen (H) About ¾ of the mass of the Universe is Hydrogen! H atom has 1 proton H usually has no neutrons, so the atomic mass is 1 0.000015 % of H has 1 neutron, so atomic mass is 2 (1 proton + 1 neutron) This isotope (different number of neutrons) is called “heavy” water, Deuterium, or Hydrogen-2

About ¾ of the mass of the Universe is Hydrogen!

H atom has 1 proton

H usually has no neutrons, so the atomic mass is 1

0.000015 % of H has 1 neutron, so atomic mass is 2 (1 proton + 1 neutron)

This isotope (different number of neutrons) is called “heavy” water, Deuterium, or Hydrogen-2

Oxygen (O) O atom has 8 protons Mass of O is about 16 x mass of H (different isotopes and neutons) O can have 7, 8 , 9 or 10 neutrons O is the third most abundant element in the Universe (the second most abundant element in the Universe is Helium, relatively unreactive)

O atom has 8 protons

Mass of O is about 16 x mass of H (different isotopes and neutons)

O can have 7, 8 , 9 or 10 neutrons

O is the third most abundant element in the Universe

(the second most abundant element in the Universe is Helium, relatively unreactive)

The Origin of H and O… a little cosmo-chemistry Current scientific theory Protons (H + ) formed a millionth of a second after Big Bang, T~ a trillion degrees Nucleosynthesis started one hundredth of a second later (protons+neutrons), T~ three billion degrees Hydrogen atoms form, T~ 4000 ° C

Current scientific theory

Protons (H + ) formed a millionth of a second after Big Bang, T~ a trillion degrees

Nucleosynthesis started one hundredth of a second later (protons+neutrons), T~ three billion degrees

Hydrogen atoms form, T~ 4000 ° C

The Origin of H, O and Water Gravity leads to formation of Galaxies and Stars Hans Bethe 1939 Elements (C-N- O) formed in stars by fusion Mainly generates 15 O but also 16 O 17 O Burbridge,Burbridge, Fowler and Hoyle 1957 Water formed by reaction of H and O

Gravity leads to formation of Galaxies and Stars Hans Bethe 1939

Elements (C-N- O) formed in stars by fusion

Mainly generates 15 O but also 16 O 17 O Burbridge,Burbridge, Fowler and Hoyle 1957

Water formed by reaction of H and O

From “Element” to compound Water classically was thought of as an Element Lavoisiers’ experiments 1784 prove that water is formed by burning Hydrogen in the presence of oxygen. Hydrogen means “water former” Nicholson and Carlisle split water by electrolysis to form hydrogen and oxygen Berzelius recognized the fixed ratios H=2, O=1

Water classically was thought of as an Element

Lavoisiers’ experiments 1784 prove that water is formed by burning Hydrogen in the presence of oxygen. Hydrogen means “water former”

Nicholson and Carlisle split water by electrolysis to form hydrogen and oxygen

Berzelius recognized the fixed ratios H=2, O=1

Water as a Liquid

Liquid water At present most of the water on Earth is in the liquid phase Most liquid water (~97%) is in seawater Water is the main component (~96%) of seawater

At present most of the water on Earth is in the liquid phase

Most liquid water (~97%) is in seawater

Water is the main component (~96%) of seawater

The Water Molecule Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O) H 2 O is the basic unit of water Ratio 2:1 Consequence of atomic and molecular structure

Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O)

H 2 O is the basic unit of water

Ratio 2:1

Consequence of atomic and molecular structure

Molecular Structure of Water Hydrogen atoms have a partial positive charge. Oxygen has 2 unbonded pairs of electrons with partial negative charges. Tetrahedral, distorted by charges to minimize repulsion Molecular structure is "bent" to yield a 104.5° angle between the hydrogen atoms instead of 109.5° for a regular tetrahedron .

Hydrogen atoms have a partial positive charge.

Oxygen has 2 unbonded pairs of electrons with partial negative charges.

Tetrahedral, distorted by charges to minimize repulsion

Molecular structure is "bent" to yield a 104.5° angle between the hydrogen atoms instead of 109.5° for a regular tetrahedron .

Hydrogen bonds A partly positive hydrogen atom of one water molecule attracts the partly negative unbonded electron pair in the oxygen atom, forming a hydrogen bond.

A partly positive hydrogen atom of one water molecule attracts the partly negative unbonded electron pair in the oxygen atom, forming a hydrogen bond.

Hydrogen bonds The oxygen atom of a water molecule is the hydrogen bond acceptor for two hydrogen atoms . Each O-H group serves as a hydrogen bond donor.

The oxygen atom of a water molecule is the hydrogen bond acceptor for two hydrogen atoms .

Each O-H group serves as a hydrogen bond donor.

4 Hydrogen bonds Leads to the formation of 4 hydrogen bonds by water The tetrahedral structure of the water hydrogen bonds is a consequence of the sp3 hybridization of the oxygen's electrons. The two hydrogen bonds between the oxygen and the hydrogen atoms on another water molecule utilize the two partly-negative pairs of unbonded electrons on oxygen.

Leads to the formation of 4 hydrogen bonds by water

The tetrahedral structure of the water hydrogen bonds is a consequence of the sp3 hybridization of the oxygen's electrons.

The two hydrogen bonds between the oxygen and the hydrogen atoms on another water molecule utilize the two partly-negative pairs of unbonded electrons on oxygen.

Structure of liquid water The hydrogen bonding pattern of water is more irregular than that of ice. The absolute structure of liquid water has not been determined . Many theories e.g. Frank and Wen flickering cluster model : as a liquid, water has partly crystalline “clusters” but some “loose molecules”

The hydrogen bonding pattern of water is more irregular than that of ice.

The absolute structure of liquid water has not been determined .

Many theories e.g. Frank and Wen flickering cluster model : as a liquid, water has partly crystalline “clusters” but some “loose molecules”

Properties of Water The Strange Liquid

Density anomaly Most substances are denser in the solid than in the liquid phase The structure of ice at 0 o C is less dense than that of liquid water at 0 o C because ice has a more rigid lattice. Density maximum at 4 o C Ice forms at surface and floats Enormous implications for climate

Most substances are denser in the solid than in the liquid phase

The structure of ice at 0 o C is less dense than that of liquid water at 0 o C because ice has a more rigid lattice.

Density maximum at 4 o C

Ice forms at surface and floats

Enormous implications for climate

High Specific Heat Capacity Very high energy required to change the temperature of water Water is slow to heat and slow to cool Warm ocean currents can therefore transport huge amounts of heat Gulf Stream transports more heat daily than would be produced by burning global quantity of coal mined annually

Very high energy required to change the temperature of water

Water is slow to heat and slow to cool

Warm ocean currents can therefore transport huge amounts of heat

Gulf Stream transports more heat daily than would be produced by burning global quantity of coal mined annually

Latent Heat Capacity Energy to change phase without changing temperature When water is heated to 100ºC, is doesn’t all instantly evaporate to steam. A lot of heat has to be supplied to transform all the liquid into vapour. When ice is reaches 0ºC, is doesn’t all instantly melt. A lot more heat must be applied to transform all the ice into liquid water

Energy to change phase without changing temperature

When water is heated to 100ºC, is doesn’t all instantly evaporate to steam. A lot of heat has to be supplied to transform all the liquid into vapour.

When ice is reaches 0ºC, is doesn’t all instantly melt. A lot more heat must be applied to transform all the ice into liquid water

Specific Heat and Latent Heat Heat Energy Supplied 100 ºC 0 ºC T ºC Boiling Point Freezing Point Specific Heat of Water Specific Heat of Ice Latent Heat of Water Latent Heat of Ice

Phase transitions solid-liquid-gas Boundaries of phases are controlled by temperature and pressure Phase diagram plots phases on a graph of temperature and pressure T P

Boundaries of phases are controlled by temperature and pressure

Phase diagram plots phases on a graph of temperature and pressure

Phase diagram of water

Triple Point Solid, Liquid and Gas phases can co-exist Below Triple Point , solid sublimes to gas Gas and Solid extend throughout T and P Liquid is a “contigent” state, not always necessary

Solid, Liquid and Gas phases can co-exist

Below Triple Point , solid sublimes to gas

Gas and Solid extend throughout T and P

Liquid is a “contigent” state, not always necessary

Critical Point Boundary between Liquid and Solid stops at Critical Point Supercritical region: gas and liquid behave in same way Gas and Liquid are both Fluids phases

Boundary between Liquid and Solid stops at Critical Point

Supercritical region: gas and liquid behave in same way

Gas and Liquid are both Fluids phases

More anomalous properties Excellent solvent , especially of ionic compounds Highly reactive and therefore corrosive Viscosity increases with pressure High boiling point and freezing point Low dissociation, but can act as an Acid or Alkali and is an electrolyte

Excellent solvent , especially of ionic compounds

Highly reactive and therefore corrosive

Viscosity increases with pressure

High boiling point and freezing point

Low dissociation, but can act as an Acid or Alkali and is an electrolyte

Water as Ice

Molecular structure of ice Water molecules in ice form an open hexagonal lattice in which every water molecule is hydrogen bonded to four others. The geometric regularity of these hydrogen bonds contributes to the strength of the ice crystal. All hydrogen bonds are satisfied in ice. Structure of Ice I “ normal” ice

Water molecules in ice form an open hexagonal lattice in which every water molecule is hydrogen bonded to four others.

The geometric regularity of these hydrogen bonds contributes to the strength of the ice crystal.

All hydrogen bonds are satisfied in ice.

“ Normal” ice Ice I has hexagonal symmetry that we associate with snowflakes Dendritic ( branching ) growth from a “seed” particle

Ice I has hexagonal symmetry that we associate with snowflakes

Dendritic ( branching ) growth from a “seed” particle

Many types of ice Under pressure, Ice I can change to other forms e.g. ice II and ice III. 1998 Ice XII was discovered! Some forms are very unstable e.g. ice IV and ice XII I-V the hexagonal lattice is buckled VI-XII several interlocking lattices

Under pressure, Ice I can change to other forms e.g. ice II and ice III.

1998 Ice XII was discovered!

Some forms are very unstable e.g. ice IV and ice XII

I-V the hexagonal lattice is buckled

VI-XII several interlocking lattices

“ Weird” ice At ~ 3500 atm, Ice I can change to other forms e.g. ice II and ice III. Ice VI will remain solid up to 80ºC, but melts at pressures less than 6500 atm ! Ice VII is formed at 22000 atm, is twice as dense as ice I and melts at 100 ºC ! Ice IX cannot exist at temperatures above -100 ºC !

At ~ 3500 atm, Ice I can change to other forms e.g. ice II and ice III.

Ice VI will remain solid up to 80ºC, but melts at pressures less than 6500 atm !

Ice VII is formed at 22000 atm, is twice as dense as ice I and melts at 100 ºC !

Ice IX cannot exist at temperatures above -100 ºC !

Amorphous, glassy ice Low density amophous ice forms by rapid freezing to -140 ºC There is no “time” to form the lattice Can only exist between -140 ºC and -120 ºC Behaves like very viscous liquid High density amorphous ice is formed from ice I at 10 000 atm and -196 ºC

Low density amophous ice forms by rapid freezing to -140 ºC

There is no “time” to form the lattice

Can only exist between -140 ºC and -120 ºC

Behaves like very viscous liquid

High density amorphous ice is formed from ice I at 10 000 atm and -196 ºC

Supercooled water Liquid water can also be supercooled High altitude, low temperatures and pressures e.g. cirrus clouds ~38 ºC Solutes also decrease the freezing point, e.g. seawater freezes at – 1.9 ºC

Liquid water can also be supercooled

High altitude, low temperatures and pressures e.g. cirrus clouds ~38 ºC

Solutes also decrease the freezing point, e.g. seawater freezes at – 1.9 ºC

Where did the water on Earth come from?

Water in the Universe “ Excited” molecules of water radiate MASERS (Microwave Amplified Stimulated Emission of Radiation) Water is common in the Universe e.g. Orion’s Horse Head Nebula Townes 1969

“ Excited” molecules of water radiate MASERS (Microwave Amplified Stimulated Emission of Radiation)

Water is

common in

the Universe

e.g. Orion’s

Horse Head

Nebula

Townes 1969

Solar Systems Material orbiting stars can form a planetary solar system (such as ours) Our solar system consists of Inner “rock” planets e.g. Earth and Mars Outer “gas” planets e.g. Jupiter and Saturn Planetesimals such as asteroids, meteorites and comets that maybe rich in water, CO 2 and NH 3

Material orbiting stars can form a planetary solar system (such as ours)

Our solar system consists of

Inner “rock” planets e.g. Earth and Mars

Outer “gas” planets e.g. Jupiter and Saturn

Planetesimals such as asteroids, meteorites and comets that maybe rich in water, CO 2 and NH 3

Our Solar System

Water in our Solar System Carbonaceous Chondrites (type of meteorite) contain 20% water as ice or in the structure of consitutent minerals Common meterorites (Chondrites) contain 0.1% water Comets contain huge amounts of water, typically one thousand trillion kgs!

Carbonaceous Chondrites (type of meteorite) contain 20% water as ice or in the structure of consitutent minerals

Common meterorites (Chondrites) contain 0.1% water

Comets contain huge amounts of water, typically one thousand trillion kgs!

e.g. Halley’s Comet Size 8km x 16km Mass 100 trillion Kg Mostly ice

Size 8km x 16km

Mass 100 trillion Kg

Mostly ice

Origins of Water on Planet Earth Collisions with Planetesimals such as asteroids, meteorites and comets brought water, CO 2 and NH 3 to the Earth

Collisions with Planetesimals such as asteroids, meteorites and comets brought water, CO 2 and NH 3 to the Earth

Formation of Lithosphere As Earth cooled, a rocky surface, the lithosphere, formed on the molten magma

As Earth cooled, a rocky surface, the lithosphere, formed on the molten magma

Formation of early Atmosphere Cooling magma released volatiles by degassing to form early atmosphere Early atmosphere was mainly CO 2 , N 2 and water vapour

Cooling magma released volatiles by degassing to form early atmosphere

Early atmosphere was mainly CO 2 , N 2 and water vapour

Formation of Hydrosphere Between 4.4 and 4.0 billion years ago Temperature low enough for condensation of water Formation of clouds and rain Formation of oceans

Between 4.4 and 4.0 billion years ago

Temperature low enough for condensation of water

Formation of clouds and rain

Formation of oceans

The Blue Planet

Water controls our Planet Geological change : erosion by rivers, glaciers and coastal erosion Short term climate : El Niño, North Atlantic Oscillation Climate change : Ice-ages El Niño

Geological change : erosion by rivers, glaciers and coastal erosion

Short term climate : El Niño, North Atlantic Oscillation

Climate change : Ice-ages

El Niño mechanism http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/elnino/nino-home.html#

Some facts and figures… Planet Water would be more appropriate as a name than planet Earth! More than 2/3 of planet surface is water More than 1/20 of planet surface is ice Only tiny proportion, 1/10000, is freshwater

Planet Water would be more appropriate as a name than planet Earth!

More than 2/3 of planet surface is water

More than 1/20 of planet surface is ice

Only tiny proportion, 1/10000, is freshwater

 

The Hydrological Cycle

Hydrological cycle Very dynamic cycling, main mechanisms are evaporation and condensation / precipitation Balance between water in 3 states : solid, liquid, gas; ice, water and vapour Hydrological cycle regulates and controls many other biogeochemical cycles

Very dynamic cycling, main mechanisms are evaporation and condensation / precipitation

Balance between water in 3 states : solid, liquid, gas; ice, water and vapour

Hydrological cycle regulates and controls many other biogeochemical cycles

Water in the Sky… Clouds Volume equal to all the oceans passes through atmosphere ~3100 years Atmosphere only contains about 0.001% of total water at any one time as clouds Represents only 0.035% of all freshwater Equivalent to about 2.5 cm of rain over all surface of globe

Volume equal to all the oceans passes through atmosphere ~3100 years

Atmosphere only contains about 0.001% of total water at any one time as clouds

Represents only 0.035% of all freshwater

Equivalent to about 2.5 cm of rain over all surface of globe

Formation of Clouds Process of condensation Condensation nuclei Airborne particles e.g. dust, soot, DMS

Process of condensation

Condensation nuclei

Airborne particles e.g.

dust,

soot,

DMS

Dimethyl Sulphide (DMS) Produced by phytoplankton In atmosphere forms sulphate Coalesces with sodium and magnesium ions from sea-salt Forms crystalline particles that are condensation nuclei

Produced by phytoplankton

In atmosphere forms sulphate

Coalesces with sodium and magnesium ions from sea-salt

Forms crystalline particles that are condensation nuclei

Clouds Cumulus Stratus Alto-cumulus Alto-stratus Cirrus Cumulo-nimbus

Cumulus

Stratus

Alto-cumulus

Alto-stratus

Cirrus

Cumulo-nimbus

Cumulus low altitude formed by convection of air “ warm clouds“ mostly above 0ºC fluffy and billowing Image ID: wea00079, Historic NWS Collection Photo Date: September 1980 Photographer: Ralph F. Kresge #1126

low altitude

formed by convection of air

“ warm clouds“ mostly above 0ºC

fluffy and billowing

Stratus low altitude, formed by convection of air meeting a stable layer mostly above 0ºC static typical of overcast sky Image ID: wea02051, Historic NWS Collection Location: Oahu, Hawaii Photo Date: March, 1976 Photographer: Ralph F. Kresge

low altitude,

formed by convection of air meeting a stable layer

mostly above 0ºC

static

typical of overcast sky

Alto-cumulus At higher altitudes Formed at a lower temperature (0 to -39ºC) Also Alto-stratus Image ID: wea00039, Historic NWS Collection Photographer: Ralph F. Kresge #1201

At higher altitudes

Formed at a lower temperature (0 to -39ºC)

Also Alto-stratus

Cirrus high altitude temperature below -39ºC feathery Image ID: wea00062, Historic NWS Collection Location: Looking SSW at Rossmoor, Maryland Photo Date: 10:45 A.M., January 29, 1976 Photographer: Ralph F. Kresge

high altitude

temperature below -39ºC

feathery

Alto-stratus At higher altitudes formed at a lower temperature (0 to -39ºC)

At higher altitudes

formed at a lower temperature (0 to -39ºC)

Cumulo-nimbus cumulus topped by cirrus storm cloud Image ID: wea00094, Historic NWS Collection Location: Mauna Kea, Hawaii Photo Date: February 1976 Photographer: Ralph F. Kresge #0221

cumulus topped by cirrus

storm cloud

 

Water Vapour and Global Change Water vapour is a greenhouse gas Global warning may cause positive feedback : warming puts more water-vapour into atmosphere which causes further warming Alternately more water-vapour into atmosphere may cause more, violent precipitation Also consider albedo effect versus greenhouse effect

Water vapour is a greenhouse gas

Global warning may cause positive feedback : warming puts more water-vapour into atmosphere which causes further warming

Alternately more water-vapour into atmosphere may cause more, violent precipitation

Also consider albedo effect versus greenhouse effect

Evaporation and Transpiration ~ 875 cubic km of water evaporate from the oceans every day Equivalent to about 1m of the oceans annually ~ 160 cubic km of water evaporate from land and plants ( transpiration ) every day

~ 875 cubic km of water evaporate from the oceans every day

Equivalent to about 1m of the oceans annually

~ 160 cubic km of water evaporate from land and plants ( transpiration ) every day

 

Residence times Biospheric water Atmospheric water River channels Swamps Lakes and reservoirs Soil moisture Ice caps and glaciers Ocean and seas Groundwater 1 week 1.5 weeks 2 weeks 1-10 years 10 years 2 weeks-1 year 1000-100 000 years 4000 years 2 weeks-10 000 years

Biospheric water

Atmospheric water

River channels

Swamps

Lakes and reservoirs

Soil moisture

Ice caps and glaciers

Ocean and seas

Groundwater

1 week

1.5 weeks

2 weeks

1-10 years

10 years

2 weeks-1 year

1000-100 000 years

4000 years

2 weeks-10 000 years

Runoff Precipitation on land - Evaporation on land = Runoff ~100 cubic km per day Deserts: precipitation = evaporation Amazon: precipitation >> evaporation 1/5 of freshwater input into oceans

Precipitation on land - Evaporation on land = Runoff

~100 cubic km per day

Deserts: precipitation = evaporation

Amazon:

precipitation >> evaporation

1/5 of freshwater input into oceans

 

Oceans and Seas are all interconnected basins Atlantic Pacific Indian Southern (Antarctic) 2/3 in South Hemisphere Mediterranean Sea Black Sea North Sea Red Sea Arabian Sea East and South China Seas Arctic

Atlantic

Pacific

Indian

Southern (Antarctic)

2/3 in South Hemisphere

Mediterranean Sea

Black Sea

North Sea

Red Sea

Arabian Sea

East and South China Seas

Arctic

Oceans … a little oceanography ½ of the globe is 3 000-6 000m deep! Ocean trenches reach 11 000m, mountains only 8000m Mid-ocean ridges are the greatest mountain chains

½ of the globe is 3 000-6 000m deep!

Ocean trenches reach 11 000m, mountains only 8000m

Mid-ocean ridges are the greatest mountain chains

Topography of Ocean Basins

Surface Currents wind rotation (gyres) N. Equatorial S. Equatorial West wind drift Norway North Atlantic Canary Brazil Agulhas Alaska Oyashio Kuroshio Peru

wind

rotation (gyres)

N. Equatorial

S. Equatorial

West wind drift

Norway

North Atlantic

Canary

Brazil

Agulhas

Alaska

Oyashio

Kuroshio

Peru

Global Ocean Surface Currents http://web.uvic.ca/~rdewey/eos110/webimages.html

Deep Circulation, Global Conveyor thermohaline Density driven (T and S) http://web.uvic.ca/~rdewey/eos110/webimages.html

thermohaline

Density driven

(T and S)

Tidal currents Up to 14m! Gravitational pull (moon + sun) 24 h and 50 min cycle Semi diurnal (High-Low-High-Low) Lunar cycle (Spring-Neap-Spring-Neap)

Up to 14m!

Gravitational pull (moon + sun)

24 h and 50 min cycle

Semi diurnal (High-Low-High-Low)

Lunar cycle (Spring-Neap-Spring-Neap)

 

 

 

River basins

 

Nile Length: 6650 km Catchment: ~ 3 million km 2

Length: 6650 km

Catchment: ~ 3 million km 2

Amazon Length: 6450 km Catchment: ~ 7 million km 2

Length: 6450 km

Catchment:

~ 7 million km 2

Volume of water transported Different climatic regions ( e.g. Nile and Amazon) Dams Aswan: Lake Nasser 500km, +900 000 acres of arable land, ¼ of Egypt’s power Itaipu Three gorges estimate 18200 megawatts, reservoir ~660 km long

Different climatic regions ( e.g. Nile and Amazon)

Dams

Aswan: Lake Nasser 500km, +900 000 acres of arable land, ¼ of Egypt’s power

Itaipu

Three gorges estimate 18200 megawatts, reservoir ~660 km long

Aswan Dam Lake Nasser

 

 

River basins Different geomorphology Different size of flood plains Erosion of rocks Sediment transport Dams

Different geomorphology

Different size of flood plains

Erosion of rocks

Sediment transport

Dams

 

Groundwater Some rain permeates through ground ( aquifer ) until it reaches impermeable bedrock or clay. Upper limit is water table

Some rain permeates through ground ( aquifer ) until it reaches impermeable bedrock or clay.

Upper limit is water table

Groundwater quality Depends on rocks of aquifer Hard water: chalk and limestone Soft water: slate and granite Mineral water: high concentration of dissolved minerals. Maybe volcanically heated, thermal. Maybe contaminated by pesticides, fertilizers from agriculture or leachates from landfills

Depends on rocks of aquifer

Hard water: chalk and limestone

Soft water: slate and granite

Mineral water: high concentration of dissolved minerals. Maybe volcanically heated, thermal.

Maybe contaminated by pesticides, fertilizers from agriculture or leachates from landfills

Characterization of Water by Mineral Composition … a little hydrochemistry

 

 

Ca 2+ Rain is acidic (~pH 5.5) Dissolves carboniferous rocks Ca CO 3 Temperature is important ( solubility decreases with increasing temperature) K= [Ca 2+ ] [CO 3 2- ] = 10 -8,3 (1:1) P CO2 in soil < a P CO2 in the atmos ( P CO2 in soil ≈ 3 x 10 -4 atm.) K= [Ca 2+ ] [HCO 3 - ] 2 = 10 -5,8 P CO2 (1:2)

Rain is acidic (~pH 5.5)

Dissolves carboniferous rocks Ca CO 3

Temperature is important ( solubility decreases with increasing temperature)

K= [Ca 2+ ] [CO 3 2- ] = 10 -8,3

(1:1)

P CO2 in soil < a P CO2 in the atmos ( P CO2 in soil ≈ 3 x 10 -4 atm.)

K= [Ca 2+ ] [HCO 3 - ] 2 = 10 -5,8 P CO2

(1:2)

Bicarbonate HCO 3 - H 2 CO 3 Equilibrium Controlled by pH Normally HCO 3 - is dominant specie Determine alkalinity of water

H 2 CO 3 Equilibrium

Controlled by pH

Normally HCO 3 - is dominant specie

Determine alkalinity of water

How do we represent the composition of water? Bar charts or Collins diagram Pie charts Kite or stiff diagrams Radial diagrams Triangular or Piper diagrams Semi-logarithmic or Schoeller diagrams

Bar charts or Collins diagram

Pie charts

Kite or stiff diagrams

Radial diagrams

Triangular or Piper diagrams

Semi-logarithmic or Schoeller diagrams

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exploitation of aquifers Over exploitation may cause land subsidence e.g. London and Mexico In coastal regions, seawater intrusion

Over exploitation may cause land subsidence e.g. London and Mexico

In coastal regions, seawater intrusion

Ice… the cryosphere

Ice Ages Thought to be caused by astronomical variations called Milankovitch cycles Obliquity Precession Eccentricity

Thought to be caused by astronomical variations called Milankovitch cycles

Obliquity

Precession

Eccentricity

Milankovitch cycles The ice ages were due to the so-called Milankovitch cycles, that is a combination of the Earths eccentricity (the difference in distance to the sun throughout the year), the tilt of the Earth relative to the Earth-sun plane (difference summer – winter) and the time of the year when the Earth is closest to the sun. Milutin Milankovitch

The ice ages were due to the so-called Milankovitch cycles, that is a combination of the Earths eccentricity (the difference in distance to the sun throughout the year), the tilt of the Earth relative to the Earth-sun plane (difference summer – winter) and the time of the year when the Earth is closest to the sun.

The 3 Milankovitch cycles Precession : Orientation of the rotation axis with respect to Sun, 20 000 year cycle Obliquity : tilt of rotation axis currently at 23.5º to plane of orbit, 40 000 year cycle Eccentricity : elliptical shape of orbit, 100 000 year cycle

Precession : Orientation of the rotation axis with respect to Sun, 20 000 year cycle

Obliquity : tilt of rotation axis currently at 23.5º to plane of orbit, 40 000 year cycle

Eccentricity : elliptical shape of orbit, 100 000 year cycle

Precession Orientation of the rotation axis with respect to Sun 20 000 year cycle

Orientation of the rotation axis with respect to Sun 20 000 year cycle

Obliquity : tilt of rotation axis currently at 23.5º to plane of orbit 40 000 year cycle Eccentricity : elliptical shape of orbit, 100 000 year cycle

Last Ice Age 18 000 years ago Sea-level 120 m below present Water bound up as continental icesheets Laurentide ice sheet of N.America Fennoscandinavian ice sheet of N.Europe

18 000 years ago

Sea-level 120 m below present

Water bound up as continental icesheets

Laurentide ice sheet of N.America

Fennoscandinavian ice sheet of N.Europe

Present Occurrence of Ice Water bound up in ice as: Continental icesheets Sea ice: iceshelves or pack-ice and icebergs Mountain glaciers

Water bound up in ice as:

Continental icesheets

Sea ice: iceshelves or pack-ice and icebergs

Mountain glaciers

Present cryosphere Includes permafrost in tundra and snow at high altitudes 2% of total water volume ¾ of Earth’s freshwater 5.7% of surface of globe (seasonal fluctuations) Most ice is stored in Antarctica High albedo

Includes permafrost in tundra and snow at high altitudes

2% of total water volume

¾ of Earth’s freshwater

5.7% of surface of globe (seasonal fluctuations)

Most ice is stored in Antarctica

High albedo

Antarctic Icesheets and ice-shelves Mean thickness 2100m Maximum thickness 4800m East Antarctic icesheet is larger than West Antarctic icesheet East Antarctic icesheet on bedrock above sea level West Antarctic icesheet on rock below sealevel Also Ross and Ronne ice-shelves over sea

Mean thickness 2100m

Maximum thickness 4800m

East Antarctic icesheet is larger than West Antarctic icesheet

East Antarctic icesheet on bedrock above sea level

West Antarctic icesheet on rock below sealevel

Also Ross and Ronne ice-shelves over sea

Ice cores Icesheets are maintained by application of new coats of ice compressing previous layers East Antarctic icesheet at 3000m is 250 000 years old Analysis of cores of polar ice reveal previous composition of atmosphere

Icesheets are maintained by application of new coats of ice compressing previous layers

East Antarctic icesheet at 3000m is 250 000 years old

Analysis of cores of polar ice reveal previous composition of atmosphere

Greenland Plateau and Vostok, Antarctica Ice plateau on Greenland Vostok

Antarctic temperatures – during the last 400 000 years

Last four ice ages recorded in Antarctica http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/fig2-22.htm                                                                                            

Icestreams and Icebergs Melting of icesheets can form icestreams or icebergs

Melting of icesheets

can form icestreams

or icebergs

Mountain Glaciers Frozen rivers Flow slowly down with gravity

Frozen rivers

Flow slowly down with gravity

Glacial features U-shaped valleys Truncated spurs Hanging valleys Moraines Fjords

U-shaped valleys

Truncated spurs

Hanging valleys

Moraines

Fjords

Glacier melt water Discharged into rivers, or directly into sea at high latitudes

Discharged into rivers, or directly into sea at high latitudes

Cryosphere and global change Seasonal glacial retreat Retreat over several years maybe symptom of global change and warming Increase number of icebergs in N. Atlantic Decrease thickness of pack-ice in Arctic

Seasonal glacial retreat

Retreat over several years maybe symptom of global change and warming

Increase number of icebergs in N. Atlantic

Decrease thickness of pack-ice in Arctic

Glacier retreat

 

The Nigard valley. The picture shows the retreat of the glacier. Photo: Bjørn Wold, NVE.

Changes in sea-ice thickness in the Arctic United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) –Grid Arendal Overall change -1.3 m (40%) Positions with comparison USS Archerfish Measurements ’60s and ’90s

The destructive forces of Water

Floods River floods and ice jams Coastal floods Hurricanes and cyclones Tsunamis

River floods and ice jams

Coastal floods

Hurricanes and cyclones

Tsunamis

Floods and mortalities 40% of deaths from natural disasters are due to floods 1965-85 half of Federal disasters in USA due to floods Hurricane Agnes: 3.5 billion US, 120 lives In USA, floods cost 2-4 Billion US dollars annually and about 200 lives Figures much higher in some other parts of world

40% of deaths from natural disasters are due to floods

1965-85 half of Federal disasters in USA due to floods

Hurricane Agnes: 3.5 billion US, 120 lives

In USA, floods cost 2-4 Billion US dollars annually and about 200 lives

Figures much higher in some other parts of world

River floods 1992 Pakistan and India: 2000 lives China: 2297 BC 1332 AD 7 000 000 lives 1887 6 000 000 lives Bangladesh: Ganges, Bramaputra and Megna rivers, low elevation frequent floods Egypt: historical flooding of Nile

1992 Pakistan and India: 2000 lives

China: 2297 BC

1332 AD 7 000 000 lives

1887 6 000 000 lives

Bangladesh: Ganges, Bramaputra and Megna rivers, low elevation frequent floods

Egypt: historical flooding of Nile

1993 Mississipi flood: 15 billion U$ 487 lives

1993 Mississipi flood: 15 billion U$ 487 lives

Ice jams and melts 1936 New England: 107 lives

1936 New England: 107 lives

Coastal floods High tides and storm surges 1953 North Sea Tropical cyclones Hurricanes (Caribbean) Typhoons (W. Pacific) Tsunami

High tides and storm surges 1953 North Sea

Tropical cyclones

Hurricanes (Caribbean)

Typhoons (W. Pacific)

Tsunami

Hurricanes 1900 Galveston 10 000 lives Hugo 1989 and Andrew 1992 30 billion US dollars Formed over warm seas

1900 Galveston 10 000 lives

Hugo 1989 and Andrew 1992 30 billion US dollars

Formed over warm seas

Hurricane Hugo http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/historic/nws/hugo1.html Digitized Charleston WSR-57 radar image of Hugo with superimposed winds Real-time winds measured onboard NOAA research aircraft flying into Hugo Wind velocity transmitted to NHC through a satellite link as eyewall hit coast Sustained winds of 155 mph at 10,000 feet and 135 mph at surface Higher gusts were estimated in area of landfall Image ID: wea00455, Historic NWS Collection Photographer: Dr. Frank Marks, AOML Hurricane Research Division

Hurricane Andrew http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/historic/nws/andy1.html Hurricane Andrew - visible satellite image taken by METEOSAT 3 This picture depicts Andrew during period of maximum intensity over Bahamas August 23,1992                             Image ID: wea00520, Historic NWS Collection

Hurricane Katrina, USA August 2005 Levee holding back lake Pontchartrain breeched New Orleans flooded Science , Vol 309, Issue 5741, 1656-1659 , 9 September 2005 Scientists' Fears Come True as Hurricane Floods New Orleans John Travis Katrina held few surprises for hurricane experts, who have repeatedly warned about the potential catastrophic consequences for New Orleans if such a storm were to make landfall nearby.

August 2005

Levee holding back lake Pontchartrain breeched

New Orleans flooded

Science , Vol 309, Issue 5741, 1656-1659 , 9 September 2005

Scientists' Fears Come True as Hurricane Floods New Orleans

John Travis

Katrina held few surprises for hurricane experts, who have repeatedly warned about the potential catastrophic consequences for New Orleans if such a storm were to make landfall nearby.

Lake Pontchartrain and New Orleans

New Orleans flooded

Breeched Levee

Breeched Levee

Loss of Wetlands An ambitious $14 billion plan known as Coast 2050 attempts to protect more than 10,000 square kilometers of Louisiana's wetlands, which are disappearing at a rate of up to 90 square kilometers per year, one of the highest rates of land loss in the world. But a number of unanswered scientific questions swirl around the plan. And it could run afoul of powerful interests in the shipping, petroleum, and fishing industries. Louisiana's Vanishing Wetlands: Going, Going ... Joel Bourne Science 2000 290: 456. (in Letters) [Full Text]

Altered Delta

Tropical cyclones in Indian Ocean Bangladesh: large areas only 3m altitude 1737: 1 000 000 lives 1876 1970: 200 000 lives 1991: 100 000 lives

Bangladesh: large areas only 3m altitude

1737: 1 000 000 lives

1876

1970: 200 000 lives

1991: 100 000 lives

The 1998 flood in Bangladesh

Floods in Bangladesh

Tsunami caused by: Earthquakes and Sea-floor displacement : e.g. 26 December 2004 Aceh Landslides : e.g. Alaska 1957 Volcanoes : e.g. Krakatau 1883

caused by:

Earthquakes and Sea-floor displacement : e.g. 26 December 2004 Aceh

Landslides : e.g. Alaska 1957

Volcanoes : e.g. Krakatau 1883

Tsunami 1792 Japan: 15 000 lives 1896 Japan: 27 000 lives 1957 Alaska: wave 60m devasted trees upland to 530m 1883 Krakatau: 36 000 lives 2004 Aceh and Indian Ocean: 300 000+ lives

1792 Japan: 15 000 lives

1896 Japan: 27 000 lives

1957 Alaska: wave 60m devasted trees upland to 530m

1883 Krakatau: 36 000 lives

2004 Aceh and Indian Ocean: 300 000+ lives

26 December 2004 off Aceh, Indonesia

Indonesia: lhoknga_iko_2004364

Sri Lanka_qbd_2004361

Sea Level Change Linked to climate change and ice ages Last ice age, sea level 120m below present Still enough ice in ice-sheets and glaciers to raise sea level by 66m! A rise of only 5m would be catastrophic for Pacific Islands, Bangladesh, the Netherlands, Vietnam, Florida Current estimates vary 20cm-1m by 2100 Thermal expansion is main cause of rise

Linked to climate change and ice ages

Last ice age, sea level 120m below present

Still enough ice in ice-sheets and glaciers to raise sea level by 66m!

A rise of only 5m would be catastrophic for Pacific Islands, Bangladesh, the Netherlands, Vietnam, Florida

Current estimates vary 20cm-1m by 2100

Thermal expansion is main cause of rise

Water and Society Religions: water Gods, creation, floods Ceremonies: baptism, cleansing before worship, sacred and holy water

Religions: water Gods, creation, floods

Ceremonies: baptism, cleansing before worship, sacred and holy water

Ancient Civilizations and Waterways Mesopotamia India China Egypt Tigris and Euphates Ganges Yellow River Nile

Mesopotamia

India

China

Egypt

Tigris and Euphates

Ganges

Yellow River

Nile

Water and Health Cholera Typhoid Dysentry Hepatitis A Maleria and other mosquito-borne diseases (Dengue, West Nile fever)

Cholera

Typhoid

Dysentry

Hepatitis A

Maleria and other mosquito-borne diseases (Dengue, West Nile fever)

Water as a Resource

The uses of water Domestic Drinking Hygiene Cleaning Industrial Heavy industry Light industry Food industry Power generation Recreation Bathing Sailing Agricultural Irrigation Aquaculture Fisheries

Domestic

Drinking

Hygiene

Cleaning

Industrial

Heavy industry

Light industry

Food industry

Power generation

Recreation

Bathing

Sailing

Agricultural

Irrigation

Aquaculture

Fisheries

Water and Energy Hydroelectric power Water as a “fuel” by splitting Electolysis, Photolysis, Photosynthesis H-O fuel cells Tidal mills and barrages Ocean currents

Hydroelectric power

Water as a “fuel” by splitting

Electolysis,

Photolysis,

Photosynthesis

H-O fuel cells

Tidal mills and barrages

Ocean currents

Water as a scarce resource Uneven distribution of rainfall

Uneven distribution of rainfall

2/3 of rainfall flows to sea

2/3 of rainfall flows to sea

Global use of water Tripled between 1950-90 Half of available runoff used by 1996

Tripled between 1950-90

Half of available runoff used by 1996

 

 

 

Use of water by sector differs

Use of domestic water differs… Uganda and Burundi 5-25 Liters per day per person Europe 100 to 260 liters per day per person USA 400-500 liters per day Same water quality for brushing teeth, flushing toilet and washing car

Uganda and Burundi 5-25 Liters per day per person

Europe 100 to 260 liters per day per person

USA 400-500 liters per day

Same water quality for brushing teeth, flushing toilet and washing car

Agriculture Most increases in crop production due to irrigation

Most increases in crop production due to irrigation

 

Increasing water stress

Abuses of water Wastage in distribution, leaks e.g. UK Inefficient irrigation e.g. Middle East Over extraction and salinization e.g. Mediterranean Desertification e.g. MidWest dust bowl Sahel Pollution

Wastage in distribution, leaks e.g. UK

Inefficient irrigation e.g. Middle East

Over extraction and salinization e.g. Mediterranean

Desertification e.g. MidWest dust bowl Sahel

Pollution

Pollution Drinking water can be affected Pesticides, Herbicides, Fungicides Fertilizers Industrial PCBs (paints, plastics, adhesives) Metals from mines and industry Hydrocarbons and Crude oil Sewage pathogens Organic Matter Detergents Acid rain

Drinking water can be affected

Pesticides, Herbicides, Fungicides

Fertilizers

Industrial PCBs (paints, plastics, adhesives)

Metals from mines and industry

Hydrocarbons and Crude oil

Sewage pathogens

Organic Matter

Detergents

Acid rain

New or recycled water Recycle grey water for agriculture Desalination Shipping water from countries where it is abundant e.g. Alaska to China, Norway to S. Europe

Recycle grey water for agriculture

Desalination

Shipping water from countries where it is abundant e.g. Alaska to China, Norway to S. Europe

The Global International Waters Assessment GIWA Comprehensive strategic assessment Designed to identify priorities for remedial and mitigatory actions in international waters.

GIWA

Comprehensive strategic assessment

Designed to identify priorities for remedial and mitigatory actions in international waters.

GIWA's assessment tools Incorporate 5 major environmental concerns and application of the DPSIR framework.

DPSIR framework Driving forces Pressures Impacts State Responses

Driving forces

Pressures

Impacts

State

Responses

Black Sea, Amazon, Gr. Barrier Reef, Agulhas Current GIWA Case Studies

Black Sea,

Amazon,

Gr. Barrier Reef,

Agulhas Current

Water and Life

Carbon life-forms… All known life-forms are C-based Many other elements essential for organic (C) life, e.g. N, P All known life-forms also require water Many organisms more than 70% water, some more than 90% Humans require min. 1 liter per day

All known life-forms are C-based

Many other elements essential for organic (C) life, e.g. N, P

All known life-forms also require water

Many organisms more than 70% water, some more than 90%

Humans require min. 1 liter per day

The Beginning of Life ~3.8 billion years ago. Atmosphere contained N, CO 2 and water as well as H 2 S and CH 4 from volcanoes Very little oxygen, anoxic, reducing Current scientific theory: first life-forms were aquatic in shallow lagoons, or hydrothermal vents

~3.8 billion years ago.

Atmosphere contained N, CO 2 and water as well as H 2 S and CH 4 from volcanoes

Very little oxygen, anoxic, reducing

Current scientific theory: first life-forms were aquatic in shallow lagoons, or hydrothermal vents

Early life forms Oldest fossils: Rocks in SW Greenland Australian Stromatolites 3.5 billion years First life-forms: anaerobic heterotrophs using simple organic molecules available by glycolysis or fermentation chemosynthetic autotrophs using H 2 S photosynthetic autotrophs using H 2 S

Oldest fossils:

Rocks in SW Greenland

Australian Stromatolites 3.5 billion years

First life-forms:

anaerobic heterotrophs using simple organic molecules available by glycolysis or fermentation

chemosynthetic autotrophs using H 2 S

photosynthetic autotrophs using H 2 S

Oxygen and early life-forms Oxygen produced by one type of photosynthesis Uses H 2 O as a proton donor instead of H 2 S Oxygen is oxidating, reactive, corrosive gas Oxygen is TOXIC to aerobic life-forms Oxygen accumulated slowly in the atmosphere Permited the evolution of facultative anerobes and aerobic heterotrophs and Aerobic respiration is far more energetic than fermentation

Oxygen produced by one type of photosynthesis

Uses H 2 O as a proton donor instead of H 2 S

Oxygen is oxidating, reactive, corrosive gas

Oxygen is TOXIC to aerobic life-forms

Oxygen accumulated slowly in the atmosphere

Permited the evolution of facultative anerobes and aerobic heterotrophs and

Aerobic respiration is far more energetic than fermentation

Aquatic life-forms Aquatic life-forms usually restricted in their distribution to fresh or salt water Osmotic pressure one of the colligative properties of water Special adaptations needed for estuarine organisms to survive salinity changes and migratory organisms such as eels and salmon

Aquatic life-forms usually restricted in their distribution to fresh or salt water

Osmotic pressure one of the colligative properties of water

Special adaptations needed for estuarine organisms to survive salinity changes and migratory organisms such as eels and salmon

Terrestrial plant-forms Photosynthetic cyanobacteria probably first organisms to survive on land 460 million years ago bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) and ferns 325 million years ago tropical forests Vascular plants “higher” supported by water-based fluids xylem and phloem Depend on properties of water such as osmosis and capillary action Transpiration from plants is important in Hydrological cycle

Photosynthetic cyanobacteria probably first organisms to survive on land

460 million years ago bryophytes (mosses and liverworts) and ferns

325 million years ago tropical forests

Vascular plants “higher” supported by water-based fluids xylem and phloem

Depend on properties of water such as osmosis and capillary action

Transpiration from plants is important in Hydrological cycle

Terrestrial animal-forms Many land-based animals need special adaptations to live out of water such e.g. Molluscs such as gastropod snails Crustacea such as crabs Amphibians first vertebrates on land Animals also have many water based fluids such as cytoplasm, blood plasma and lymph

Many land-based animals need special adaptations to live out of water such e.g.

Molluscs such as gastropod snails

Crustacea such as crabs

Amphibians first vertebrates on land

Animals also have many water based fluids such as cytoplasm, blood plasma and lymph

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