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Visualization and Theories of Learning in Education

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Information about Visualization and Theories of Learning in Education

Published on September 16, 2007

Author: ldorland

Source: slideshare.net

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Presentation at the fall 2007 American Chemical Society meeting in Boston.
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(and use) Design of computer-based visualization and animation: What theories of learning apply? Liz Dorland Washington University in St. Louis [email_address]

Liz Dorland

Washington University in St. Louis

[email_address]

Multiple Representations What do students see? Google Images: “DNA”

Representational Competency & Visual Literacy “ Modular mental structures for non-traditional hyperliving.” http://www.tomorrowland.org/slime/data_visualization

“ Modular mental structures for non-traditional hyperliving.”

Newer Developments in Educational Theory “ Contextual Turn” in ed/ed psych research The Learning Sciences - trans-disciplinary Design-based research - defining context Situated Cognition Transformative Learning Computer-Supported Collaborative Work New models of and for learning…

“ Contextual Turn” in ed/ed psych research

The Learning Sciences - trans-disciplinary

Design-based research - defining context

Situated Cognition

Transformative Learning

Computer-Supported Collaborative Work

Kolodner, J. L., C. E. Hmelo, et al. (1996) “Problem-Based Learning Meets Case-Based Reasoning” Journal of the Learning Sciences, Vol. 12, No. 4: pages 495-547. Short version: www.cc.gatech.edu/projects/lbd/pdfs/pblcbr.pdf “ The modern education community agrees that deep and effective learning is best promoted by situating learning in authentic activity.” “ Many in the education community have put in place constructivist classroom practices…” * Do you agree?

“ The modern education community agrees that deep and effective learning is best promoted by situating learning in authentic activity.”

“ Many in the education community have put in place constructivist classroom practices…”

* Do you agree?

Learning Paradigms (oversimplified) www.health-hacker.com/ Behaviorist (e.g. Skinner) vs Cognitivist vs Constructivist

Three Paradigms? Multiple theories? How many? Which one is right?

TIP: 50+ Theories of Learning http://tip.psychology.org/theories.html ACT (Anderson) Adult Learning Theory (Cross) Algo-Heuristic Theory (Landa) Andragogy (Knowles) Anchored Instruction (Bransford-CTGV) Aptitude-Treatment Interaction (Cronbach & Snow) Attribution Theory (Weiner) Cognitive Dissonance (Festinger) Cognitive Flexibility (Spiro) Cognitive Load Theory (Sweller) Component Display (Merrill) Conditions of Learning (Gagne) Connectionism (Thorndike) Constructivist Theory (Bruner) Contiguity Theory (Guthrie) Conversation Theory (Pask) Criterion Referenced Instruction (Mager) Double Loop Learning (Argyris) Drive Reduction Theory (Hull) Dual Coding Theory (Paivio) Elaboration Theory (Reigeluth) Experiential Learning (Rogers) Functional Context (Sticht) Genetic Epistemology (Piaget) Gestalt Theory (Wertheimer) GOMS (Card, Moran & Newell) GPS (Newell & Simon)

ACT (Anderson)

Adult Learning Theory (Cross)

Algo-Heuristic Theory (Landa)

Andragogy (Knowles)

Anchored Instruction

(Bransford-CTGV)

Aptitude-Treatment Interaction (Cronbach & Snow)

Attribution Theory (Weiner)

Cognitive Dissonance (Festinger)

Cognitive Flexibility (Spiro)

Cognitive Load Theory (Sweller)

Component Display (Merrill)

Conditions of Learning (Gagne)

Connectionism (Thorndike)

Constructivist Theory (Bruner)

Contiguity Theory (Guthrie)

Conversation Theory (Pask)

Criterion Referenced Instruction (Mager)

Double Loop Learning (Argyris)

Drive Reduction Theory (Hull)

Dual Coding Theory (Paivio)

Elaboration Theory (Reigeluth)

Experiential Learning (Rogers)

Functional Context (Sticht)

Genetic Epistemology (Piaget)

Gestalt Theory (Wertheimer)

GOMS (Card, Moran & Newell)

GPS (Newell & Simon)

tip.psychology.org - page 2 Information Pickup (Gibson) Information Processing (Miller) Lateral Thinking (DeBono) Levels of Processing (Craik & Lockhart) GOMS (Card, Moran & Newell) Mathematical Learning Theory (Atkinson) Mathematical Problem Solving (Schoenfeld) Minimalism (Carroll) Model Centered Instruction & Design Layering (Gibbons) Modes of Learning (Rumelhart & Norman) Multiple Intelligences (Gardner) Operant Conditioning (Skinner) Originality Theory (Maltzman) Phenomenonography (Marton & Entwistle) Repair Theory (VanLehn) Script Theory (Schank) Sign Theory (Tolman) Situated Learning (Lave) Soar (Newell et al.) Social Development (Vygotsky) Social Learning (Bandura) Stimulus Sampling (Estes) Structural Learning (Scandura) Structure of Intellect (Guilford) Subsumption Theory (Ausubel) Symbol Systems (Salomon) Triarchic Theory (Sternberg)

Information Pickup (Gibson)

Information Processing (Miller)

Lateral Thinking (DeBono)

Levels of Processing (Craik & Lockhart)

GOMS (Card, Moran & Newell)

Mathematical Learning Theory (Atkinson)

Mathematical Problem Solving (Schoenfeld)

Minimalism (Carroll)

Model Centered Instruction & Design Layering (Gibbons)

Modes of Learning

(Rumelhart & Norman)

Multiple Intelligences (Gardner)

Operant Conditioning (Skinner)

Originality Theory (Maltzman)

Phenomenonography

(Marton & Entwistle)

Repair Theory (VanLehn)

Script Theory (Schank)

Sign Theory (Tolman)

Situated Learning (Lave)

Soar (Newell et al.)

Social Development (Vygotsky)

Social Learning (Bandura)

Stimulus Sampling (Estes)

Structural Learning (Scandura)

Structure of Intellect (Guilford)

Subsumption Theory (Ausubel)

Symbol Systems (Salomon)

Triarchic Theory (Sternberg)

So many theories…why? What factors are important? Do kids and adults learn differently? Different traditions… Different methodologies… Who are these theorists?

Who is this man? “ ... People with great passions, people who accomplish great deeds, people who possess strong feelings, even people with great minds and a strong personality, rarely come out of good little boys and girls.” from Educational Psychology (a practical manual for teachers) http: //marxists . anu . edu .au/archive/vygotsky/ Lev Vygotsky (1926)

Knud Illeris - A Unified Concept for Theories of Learning?

Chemical Education Research Early work was based on cognitive theories that are still evolving and remain popular. Key concept: Working memory capacity

Alex Johnstone Journal of Chemical Education, March 1997 Cognitive Theory: Information Processing Model

Alex Johnstone: JCE 1983 Miller number 7 Working memory Chunking Perception filter Long term memory Information Processing Model Organic Chem Topics After repeated attempts How many chunks?

Miller number 7

Working memory

Chunking

Perception filter

Long term memory

Information Processing Model

Ed Psych & Visualization Evolution of Cognitive Theories Miller - Magic #7 (1956) Pavio - Dual Coding (1980s) Sweller et. al. (1980s) Cognitive Load Theory Mayer & Moreno (1990s) Multimedia Principles

Evolution of Cognitive Theories

Miller - Magic #7 (1956)

Pavio - Dual Coding (1980s)

Sweller et. al. (1980s)

Cognitive Load Theory

Mayer & Moreno (1990s)

Multimedia Principles

Applied Cognitive Psychology - a Themed Issue “Emerging Topics in Cognitive Load Research: Using Learner and Information Characteristics in the Design of Powerful Learning Environments”

New Tools for Viz - e.g. Jmol “Virtual Museum of Minerals and Molecules” http://virtual-museum.soils.wisc.edu/displays.html

But is it truly interactive? How do students learn best with these new tools? Can learning theories help us to decide? Which one?

Google Search: “Dissolving NaCl” NCSSM: Flash Animation from North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics

Multimedia and Animations What do students see? Molecules? Ions? Colored balls? Does motion create understanding? How do we know?

Google Images: “NaCl dissolving”

Are we getting somewhere? Which animation is best? How much detail? How do we know?

What do students see? http://www.ccds.charlotte.nc.us/mackenzie/Chem/

NCSSM: www.dlt.ncssm.edu/TIGER/ and www.dlt.ncssm.edu/core/

Does “ Cognitive Load Theory” really work? Does it lead to better learning materials and more learning? Not everyone agrees…

“Representational Competence?” Tom Greenbowe Roy Tasker

Try “Multiple Representations!”

Google Scholar for References

Ainsworth

“ Multiple Representations” may yield better results… What about social interactions?

Collaborative Environments chemsense.org/about/papers.html

Collaborative approaches involving teachers (e.g. Design-based Research) have become common… Bell, P. L. (2004). "On the Theoretical Breadth of Design-Based Research in Education." Educational Psychologist 39 (4): 243-253. http://www.leaonline.com/toc/ep/39/4 “ Over the past decade, design experimentation has become an increasingly accepted mode of research appropriate for the theoretical and empirical study of learning amidst complex educational interventions as they are enacted in everyday settings.”

“ Over the past decade, design experimentation has become an increasingly accepted mode of research appropriate for the theoretical and empirical study of learning amidst complex educational interventions as they are enacted in everyday settings.”

Alternate Perspectives: Philosophy of Science and Technology Studies Popper Kuhn

What’s Your Theory? Use online resources to find out. AISHE: All Ireland Society for Higher Education Five free online books on teaching & learning http://www.aishe.org/readings/ Example: Emerging issues in the practice of University Learning and Teaching “ It works in practice, but will it work in theory?” http://www.aishe.org/readings/2005-1/toc.html

AISHE: All Ireland Society for Higher Education

Five free online books on teaching & learning

http://www.aishe.org/readings/

Example: Emerging issues in the practice of University Learning and Teaching

“ It works in practice, but will it work in theory?”

http://www.aishe.org/readings/2005-1/toc.html

An unusual Gordon Conference is discussed at NSF in 2001 www.grc.org

2007 GRC Viz Speaker: Donna Cox, NCSA & UIUC Artist & Computer Graphics Professor www.nsf.gov/news/mmg/ Visualization by Donna Cox, Robert Patterson, Stuart Levy, Matt Hall, Alex Betts, NCSA www.artn.com/NCSA/

Mt. Holyoke 2001 Oxford 2003, 2005 + 2009? Rhode Island 2007 + 2011? http://www.grc.org

Learn More Fast - Research Journals Ed. Technology Research & Development Journal of Science, Ed & Technology British Journal of Educational Technology Technology, Pedagogy and Education Canadian J of Learning Technology Computers & Human Behavior Learning, Media & Technology Learning & Instruction Cognition & Instruction Journal of Research in Science Teaching International Journal of Science Education Applied Cognitive Psychology Journal of the Learning Sciences Cognitive Science Liz Dorland Washington University in St. Louis [email_address]

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