VII Non Western

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Information about VII Non Western

Published on January 10, 2008

Author: Michelino


Music: An Appreciation 4th Brief Edition by Roger Kamien :  Music: An Appreciation 4th Brief Edition by Roger Kamien Unit VII Non-Western Music Presentation Development: Robert Elliott University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff Nonwestern Music:  Nonwestern Music Reflects/expresses world’s diversity Each culture has its music practice Some have all 3—folk, pop, & classical These musics influence western music Especially true in the 20th Century French composer Claude Debussy British rocker George Harrison Jazz artist John Coltrane Chpt. 1: Music in Nonwestern Cultures:  Chpt. 1: Music in Nonwestern Cultures Characteristics of Nonwestern Music It reflects its supporting culture Frequently linked with religion, dance and drama Music notation far less important than in western culture Often used to communicate messages & relate traditions Oral Tradition Frequently transmitted by oral tradition Many cultures do not have a music notation When they do, it serves as a record, not for teaching or performance Slide4:  Improvisation is frequently basic to the music Improvisation Improvisation usually based on traditional melodic phrases and rhythmic patterns Chpt. 1-Music in Nonwestern Cultures Voices Singing usually main way of making music Vocal approach, timbre, and techniques vary throughout the world Nasal sound Strained tone Throat singing Many others Slide5:  Four types based upon sound production: Instruments Chordophones—stretched string Chpt. 1-Music in Nonwestern Cultures Harp-type Aerophones—performer’s breath Flutes, trumpets, etc. Idiophones—instrument’s body is sound generator Bells, gongs, scrapers, rattles, etc. Style and application within culture causes particular types of instruments to dominate Idiophones/membranophones: rhythmic emphasis Aerophones aid in outdoor performance Geography & materials availability influences Strings allow great flexibility of pitch Religion also influences instrumentation Membranophones—stretched skin Primarily drums Slide6:  Most nonwestern musics are monophonic Melody, Rhythm, and Texture Chpt. 1-Music in Nonwestern Cultures Some cultures use heterophony Intervals between tones can be larger or smaller Much nonwestern music has very complex rhythms Sometimes accompanied by a drone Scales in nonwestern music are frequently quite different than western musical scales All perform same melody with different ornamentation Slide7:  Nonwestern music has been greatly impacted by western influences due to: Interaction between Nonwestern and Western Music Chpt. 1-Music in Nonwestern Cultures Spread of technology Increased urbanization Some governments subsidize traditional music to preserve cultural heritage Almost worldwide access to recorded music Chpt. 2: Music in Sub- Saharan Africa:  Chpt. 2: Music in Sub- Saharan Africa Africa is divided into two parts: above and below the Sahara desert Above: Moslem, Arabic-speaking, music closely related to that of the Middle East Though Sub-Saharan music is diverse, there are some similarities: Complex rhythms and polyrhythms Percussive sounds Wide variety of instrumental ensembles Vocal music usually a soloist & responding chorus Below: Extremely diverse, many religions, cultures, and languages (over 700) Slide9:  Music permeates African life from religion, entertainment, & magic to rites of passage Music in Society Chpt. 2-Music in Sub-Saharan Africa Closely associated with dancing in ceremonies, rituals, & celebrations Dancers frequently play and sing while dancing It is so interwoven into life that the abstract word “music” is not used by many peoples Music is a social activity—everyone joins in No musical notation—passed by oral tradition Slide10:  Rhythm and Percussion Elements of African Music Chpt. 2-Music in Sub-Saharan Africa The body used as an instrument Complex rhythms & polyrhythms predominate Wide variety of sounds, even within a single piece Percussion ostinato frequently accompanies singers Dancers choose to follow any of the various rhythms Vocal Music Call and response extremely common Short musical phrases repeated to different words Clapping, stamping, slapping thigh/chest Texture Often homophonic or polyphonic Same melody often sung at many pitch levels This is unlike most nonwestern musics Slide11:  Idiophones African Instruments Chpt. 2-Music in Sub-Saharan Africa Xylophones, a favorite, come in many sizes Most common African instrument Used in many ceremonial & work-pace applications Drums usually played in groups—multiple players Most are of indefinite pitch Membranophones Drum manufacture often accompanied by special rites Variety of shapes, sizes, and forms “Talking drum” w/ slit in side can produce 2-4 tones Aerophones and Chordophones Flutes & trumpets (of wood & horn) most common Chordophones plucked or struck, gourd resonators Reed instruments less widespread Listening:  Listening Song from Angola Solo male voice, chorus, drums Listening Guide: p. 393 Brief Set, CD 4:58 Note: Call and response Short repeated rhythms Vocal timbre Complex percussion rhythms Chpt. 2-Music in Sub-Saharan Africa Chpt. 3: Classical Music of India:  Chpt. 3: Classical Music of India Musical traditions date back over 3,000 years Hindustani: secular, court music from Northern India (including now-Pakistan) Karnatak: temple music from South India Absorbed many Persian elements due to Muslim Persian rulers Two main types of classical music Developed along its own lines Performers Music viewed as a spiritual discipline Oral tradition—study by apprenticeship Improvisation Very important, sophisticated, & developed Guided by melodic & rhythmic formula Must study for years before allowed improv. Slide14:  Music is based upon the human voice Elements of Indian Classical Music Chpt. 3-Classical Music of India Melodies almost always accompanied by a drone instrument Pitch range limited to about four octaves Highly embellished melody, both vocal and instrumental, is characteristic Melody exists within a framework called a raga—a defined pattern of notes Rhythm is organized into blocks or cycles, each called a tala Melodic Structure: Raga Rhythmic Structure: Tala Tala range from 3-100 beats in length 6-16 is most common Slide15:  Vocal music most important in India Instruments Chpt. 3-Classical Music of India Sitar most popular chordophone Many types of instruments Drums of many sizes Many instruments associated w/ specific gods Long necked, lute (guitar) like instrument 7 plucked strings, 9-13 sympathetically vibrating Tabla and mridangam drums most common Listening:  Listening Maru-Bihag by Ravi Shankar Listening Guide: p. 396 Brief Set, CD 3:60 Note: Raga and tala organization Heavy reliance on stringed instruments Extensive improvisation Nonwestern musical form Chpt. 3-Classical Music of India

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