Viciani Firenze Food Security Course

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Information about Viciani Firenze Food Security Course
Business-Finance

Published on April 13, 2008

Author: Samuel

Source: authorstream.com

IAO:  IAO FOOD SECURITY COURSE Florence January/March 2004 FOOD SECURITY in the context of CHANGING DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES:  FOOD SECURITY in the context of CHANGING DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES Franco Viciani Former Chief, Policy Support Service, FAO Why choose this topic?:  Why choose this topic? Because : Food Security is a primary objective of development seing the evolution of ideas and event in a historical perspective helps understand them better Purpose of presentation:  Purpose of presentation Review and discuss in parallel the evolution through time of : - the concept of Food Security with special reference to the initiatives taken by FAO (original proponent of the idea of Food Security) - the prevailing views on development by - development scholars - international organizations 1945 – ESTABLISHMENT OF FAO :  1945 – ESTABLISHMENT OF FAO FAO Constitution - raise levels of nutrition and living standards improve efficiency in production and distribution of food and agricultural products better the condition of rural populations thus contribute to an expanding world economy and - ensure humanity’s freedom from hunger FAO AND FOOD SECURITY (1):  FAO AND FOOD SECURITY (1) 1946 – First World Food Survey 1954 – Guidelines for Food Surpluses Disposal 1960 – Freedom from Hunger Campaign 1962 – Establishment of UN/FAO World Food Programme Evolution of Development Perspectives - a simplified sketch - (1) :  Evolution of Development Perspectives - a simplified sketch - (1) 1950’s – Growth through Industrialization prevalent pessimism on prospects for lower income countries risk of vicious circles Evolution of Development Perspectives - a simplified sketch – (2) :  Evolution of Development Perspectives - a simplified sketch – (2) 1950’s - proposed strategies “Big Push” “Balanced Growth” “Backward and Forward Linkages” ….”Development with unlimited labour supply” (..but..) Limited hope to solve problems of Poverty Undernutrition Food insecurity Slide9:  1960’s - More optimism for development positive experience in a number of newly independent countries discovery of HYV’s – Green revolution optimism on technology transfer growth of technical assistance Evolution of Development Perspectives - a simplified sketch – (3) IMPORTANT EVENTS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 1970’S:  IMPORTANT EVENTS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 1970’S Nixon’s decision to abolish dollar convertibility: end of stability of exchange rates greater financial uncertainty Major increase in oil prices: benefits for exporting countries difficulties for importing countries IMPORTANT EVENTS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 1970’s (cont’d) …and… 1972/74 WORLD FOOD CRISIS:  IMPORTANT EVENTS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 1970’s (cont’d) …and… 1972/74 WORLD FOOD CRISIS Fall of cereal production Massive cereal purchases on world market Reduction of grain availability Price increases …and, in general, preoccupation on future availability of primary commodities (“Limits to Growth”) FAO AND FOOD SECURITY (2):  FAO AND FOOD SECURITY (2) 1974 – WORLD FOOD CONFERENCE PRIORITY: WORLD FOOD SECURITY (first official reference) Higher production (availability) especially in developing countries Greater stability of food supplies of food prices 1974 World Food Conference (cont’d):  1974 World Food Conference (cont’d) Implications: Creation of food reserves at national level at regional level Critiques cost management of regional reserves Issue of food self/sufficiency 1974 World Food Conference (cont’d):  1974 World Food Conference (cont’d) 1975 – Establishment of IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development) Function: investment funding Priority: improve the condition of the rural poor Evolution of Development Perspectives - a simplified sketch – (4) :  Evolution of Development Perspectives - a simplified sketch – (4) 1970’s -Accentuation of extreme views: neo-marxism / neo capitalism But, in the area of development theory, an intermediate line prevailed: redistribution with growth basic needs strategy more: equity , employment less: poverty, food insecurity Evolution of Development Perspectives- a simplified sketch – (4 – cont’d):  Evolution of Development Perspectives- a simplified sketch – (4 – cont’d) In relation to food, agriculture and RD: attention to small farmers (WB) integrated rural development labour intensive technologies critique of “urban bias” FAO AND FOOD SECURITY (3):  FAO AND FOOD SECURITY (3) 1976 – Food Security Assistance Scheme 1977 – Global Information and Early Warning System 1979 – Plan of Action for World Food Security 1979 – WCARRD (World Conference for Agrarian Reform and Rural Development) …..but, meanwhile…….. …meanwhile, by end of the decade….:  …meanwhile, by end of the decade…. soaring debt (petrodollars) second oil price increase international recession higher interest rates higher debt servicing cost fear of crisis of banking system …..therefore….. Evolution of Development Perspectives- a simplified sketch (5):  Evolution of Development Perspectives- a simplified sketch (5) Prevalence of neo-conservative policies in rich countries (more market, less state) and, by international financial organizations (IMF, World Bank): CONDITIONALITY: loans and financial aid at the condition that policies be changed in the direction of: :  CONDITIONALITY: loans and financial aid at the condition that policies be changed in the direction of: STABILIZATION reduction of deficits in the state budget (cut public expenditures) balance of payments (devaluation) STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT privatization liberalization Stabilization and Structural Adjustment - Poverty reduction and food security no longer stated objectives - Faith that market forces would lead to general improvement of living standards - Stab. & S.A. were to be of a temporary character. In fact, they continued well into the 1990’s, assuming an ideological character (Washington Consensus):  Stabilization and Structural Adjustment - Poverty reduction and food security no longer stated objectives - Faith that market forces would lead to general improvement of living standards - Stab. & S.A. were to be of a temporary character. In fact, they continued well into the 1990’s, assuming an ideological character (Washington Consensus) FAO AND FOOD SECURITY (4):  FAO AND FOOD SECURITY (4) 1983 – Expanded Concept of Food Security Availability Stability Access meanwhile: Amarthya Sen: entitlements 1985 – World Food Security Compact (failed) Evolution of Development Perspectives- a simplified sketch (6):  Evolution of Development Perspectives- a simplified sketch (6) 1990’s - Elements leading to re-evaluation S.A. did not produce expected results too much dogmatism asymmetric advantages of liberalization wrong perception of supply elasticities neglect of institutions “throwing the baby with the bathwater” Transition problems in ex-communist countries Persistance and increase of poverty / food insecurity / inequality Evolution of Development Perspectives- a simplified sketch (7):  Evolution of Development Perspectives- a simplified sketch (7) Research has taken important new line Institutional economics an abstract behavioural model cannot explain everything in economics Critique to the Washington Consensus Critique to the Washington Consensus:  Critique to the Washington Consensus Stiglitz: the Washington Consensus has confused means with ends Privatization and liberalization are not ends, but means towards a sustainable, equitable and democratic development Too much emphasis on price stability and privatization Too little on institutions and sustainable growth Globalization has been inadequately managed FAO AND FOOD SECURITY (5):  FAO AND FOOD SECURITY (5) 1992 – International Conference on Nutrition (utilization) 1994 – Special Programme for Food Security (country level) 1996 – WORLD FOOD SUMMIT and its follow-up international commitment to reduce hunger and undernutrition (next session by Skoet and Smulders) Current areas of main interest for development studies relating to Food Security:  Current areas of main interest for development studies relating to Food Security Poverty Social exclusion Sustainable livelihoods Right to food Development of human capital Globalization – opportunities and risks growth and inequality Towards a Post-Washington Consensus 2000 – U.N. DEVELOPMENT MILLENNIUM:  2000 – U.N. DEVELOPMENT MILLENNIUM (following a series of initiatives by various UN agencies, all centred on the problem of poverty) Main objectives: Reduce extreme poverty and hunger Ensure primary education for all Reduce infant mortality Improve health (HIV/AIDS and other diseases) Promote gender equality Ensure a sustainable environment Promote a world partnership for development- World Bank current orientation:  World Bank current orientation Comprehensive Development Programme Poverty reduction strategies Assistance to low-income countries under stress HIPC (initiative for highly indebted countries) Education, health, drinking water World Development Report 2004: “Making services work for poor people” …but… ....in the context of which development paradigm?? (my own doubt) Noble intentions, but how to put them into effect? With which policy measures and at what cost? Is there sufficient political will? These are still open questions. Some of them will be addressed in the rest of the course. Others are beyond the scope of the course – indeed of any course. They depend on the conscience and foresightedness of political leaders of all countries in the world. :  Noble intentions, but how to put them into effect? With which policy measures and at what cost? Is there sufficient political will? These are still open questions. Some of them will be addressed in the rest of the course. Others are beyond the scope of the course – indeed of any course. They depend on the conscience and foresightedness of political leaders of all countries in the world. For the moment, let us take stock of a change of orientation in attitude by most international organizations. Besides political will and financial means, what is needed is a new, better formulated development paradigm incorporating Food Security objectives, that is - socially acceptable, - efficiently implementable and - internally consistent A good starting point: go back to the concept of development proclaimed by Dudley Seers back in the 1970’s::  For the moment, let us take stock of a change of orientation in attitude by most international organizations. Besides political will and financial means, what is needed is a new, better formulated development paradigm incorporating Food Security objectives, that is - socially acceptable, - efficiently implementable and - internally consistent A good starting point: go back to the concept of development proclaimed by Dudley Seers back in the 1970’s: There is no development if, together with economic growth, there is no reduction of:  There is no development if, together with economic growth, there is no reduction of Poverty Inequality Unemployment and, of course, of hunger and food insecurity

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