vgAlt ~ Video Games as Learning Tools

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Education

Published on March 7, 2009

Author: brock.dubbels

Source: slideshare.net

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Invited presentation for educational testing services on video games as learning tools

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www.videogamesaslearningtools.com

Video Games Learning Tools Pandora’s Xbox Brock Dubbels The Center for Cognitive Sciences, The University of Minnesota

 

 

 

Towards top sight

Building comprehension process Basic reading skills Decoding Reading Comprehension Comprehension Skills Age/ time Figure 1. Kintsch & Kintsch in Paris & Stahl (2006) Grade 4 Reading to Learn Learning to Read

Non-traditional Narrative for Assessment

Decision Trees For a decision tree to work, it must have the following qualities: Time in the game takes place in turns or other discrete units. Players make certain number of finite decisions that have knowable outcomes The game is finite, it cannot go on forever. Different, but just as good

For a decision tree to work, it must have the following qualities:

Time in the game takes place in turns or other discrete units.

Players make certain number of finite decisions that have knowable outcomes

The game is finite, it cannot go on forever.

Different, but just as good

Causal network analysis Epaminondas Story Epaminondas Story Van den Broek,P., Kendou, P., Kremer, K., Lynch, J. Butler, J., White, M., and Pugzles Lorch, E. (2005, p. 112-13)

Epaminondas Story

Epaminondas Story

Why are they important? Because a decision tree is also a diagram of the formal space of possibility in a game. Games represent the same design elements as research and curriculum design. They also represent the basis of causal network analysis in discourse processing. And conveniently can be found in walkthroughs in video games.

Because a decision tree is also a diagram of the formal space of possibility in a game.

Games represent the same design elements as research and curriculum design.

They also represent the basis of causal network analysis in discourse processing.

And conveniently can be found in walkthroughs in video games.

Video games as Learning Tools Background Developed a curriculum for teachers after using them with success at Northeast Middle School

Developed a curriculum for teachers after using them with success at Northeast Middle School

Walkthroughs and supporting documents The key to understanding the complexity of a game is knowing what to do, then knowing what you did. Examples of the genre called the walkthrough for composition for Metroid Prime. Press the picture for an example of a Walkthrough.

The key to understanding the complexity of a game is knowing what to do, then knowing what you did. Examples of the genre called the walkthrough for composition for Metroid Prime.

Press the picture for an example of a Walkthrough.

Video Walkthrough

 

 

Characteristics of readers +1 Level of fluenc Y ability to comprehend in dialogic method /create a model High comp High fluency Low comp High fluency Low comp Low fluency High comp Low fluency

The Event Indexing Model Zwann, Langston, & Graesser, 1995; Zwann & Radavansky, 1998

Situation model When a reader has well-developed comprehension skills, they can recruit prior knowledge to bootstrap lower level processes (Stanovich, 2000) and this is an important idea for making a case for using more accessible texts that are relevant and interesting to the learner. Once again, the reader can use higher-level process in order to support lower level process (Stanovich, 2000).

When a reader has well-developed comprehension skills, they can recruit prior knowledge to bootstrap lower level processes (Stanovich, 2000) and this is an important idea for making a case for using more accessible texts that are relevant and interesting to the learner. Once again, the reader can use higher-level process in order to support lower level process (Stanovich, 2000).

How do we build a comprehension model? Comprehension Model A spatial-temporal framework   spatial locations, time frames Entities people, objects, ideas, Properties of entities color, emotions, goals, shape, etc. Relational information spatial, temporal, causal, ownership, kinship, social, etc. Literary Elements Character/ Characterization diction Plot Setting Point of View Theme Tone Voice Word choice

Comprehension Model

A spatial-temporal framework  

spatial locations, time frames

Entities

people, objects, ideas,

Properties of entities

color, emotions, goals, shape, etc.

Relational information

spatial, temporal, causal, ownership, kinship, social, etc.

Literary Elements

Character/ Characterization

diction

Plot

Setting

Point of View

Theme

Tone

Voice

Word choice

Developmental Sequence of Inference Types in Narrative Comprehension Concrete physical relations that occur close together Concrete physical relations between distant events Causal relations involving the character’s goals, emotions, and desires Hierarchical and thematic relations between clusters of events Translation of the story theme into a moral or lesson

Concrete physical relations that occur close together

Concrete physical relations between distant events

Causal relations involving the character’s goals, emotions, and desires

Hierarchical and thematic relations between clusters of events

Translation of the story theme into a moral or lesson

Examples of Developmental Trends in Inference Making in Narrative Comprehension Relations between Concrete Events Relations between Abstract Events Relations between External Events Relations involving Internal Events Relations between Individual Events Relations between Clusters of Events Scoring packet for comprehension and engagement

Relations between Concrete Events Relations between Abstract Events

Relations between External Events Relations involving Internal Events

Relations between Individual Events Relations between Clusters of Events

Invoking play

Ethos of Activity

Will Games and Play Destroy Us

Maybe

16-year-old drops out of school to play Guitar Hero young Mr. Peebles is dropping out of high school... in order to focus on Guitar Hero full time. Peebles hopes to join the small but growing crew of players looking to make gaming a job. Citing his victories in Guitar Hero tournaments, which include "gift certificates, gaming equipment, and chicken sandwiches," Peebles thinks he has the chops to play competitively and earn actual money in the process. As the story notes, top gamers on the competitive circuit can earn up to $80,000 a year (though $25,000 is more common). Peebles, of course, can count his 52 Chick-fil-A combo meals toward that total.

young Mr. Peebles is dropping out of high school... in order to focus on Guitar Hero full time. Peebles hopes to join the small but growing crew of players looking to make gaming a job. Citing his victories in Guitar Hero tournaments, which include "gift certificates, gaming equipment, and chicken sandwiches," Peebles thinks he has the chops to play competitively and earn actual money in the process. As the story notes, top gamers on the competitive circuit can earn up to $80,000 a year (though $25,000 is more common). Peebles, of course, can count his 52 Chick-fil-A combo meals toward that total.

A Life Without Play Whitman had been raised in a tyrannical, abusive household.  From birth through age 18, Whitman’s natural playfulness had been systematically and dramatically suppressed by an overbearing father. A lifelong lack of play deprived him of opportunities to view life with optimism, test alternatives, or learn the social skills that, as part of spontaneous play, prepare individuals to cope with life stress. The committee concluded that lack of play was a key factor in Whitman's homicidal actions – if he had experienced regular moments of spontaneous play during his life, they believed he would have developed the skill, flexibility, and strength to cope with the stressful situations without violence. Dr. Brown’s subsequent research of other violent individuals concludes that play can act as a powerful deterrent, even an antidote to prevent violence. Play is a powerful catalyst for positive socialization.

Whitman had been raised in a tyrannical, abusive household.  From birth through age 18, Whitman’s natural playfulness had been systematically and dramatically suppressed by an overbearing father.

A lifelong lack of play deprived him of opportunities to view life with optimism, test alternatives, or learn the social skills that, as part of spontaneous play, prepare individuals to cope with life stress. The committee concluded that lack of play was a key factor in Whitman's homicidal actions – if he had experienced regular moments of spontaneous play during his life, they believed he would have developed the skill, flexibility, and strength to cope with the stressful situations without violence.

Dr. Brown’s subsequent research of other violent individuals concludes that play can act as a powerful deterrent, even an antidote to prevent violence. Play is a powerful catalyst for positive socialization.

And rather than fight it, we need to use it to accelerate learning and sustain engagement.

Play is a portal to Self-Determination and Work Working hard at play?

Working hard at play?

Sustained Engagement When looking to measure growth or change, or even to understand whether a learner has truly engaged, an educator should also look for evidence of commitment and positive attitudes related to the activity and subject matter. Engagement is not just doing the work, it is a connection and an affinity to an activity supported from the affective domains (Chapman, 2003). Skinner & Belmont (1993, p.572) report that engaged learners show sustained behavioral involvement in learning activities accompanied by a positive emotional tone and select tasks at the border of their competencies, initiate action when given the opportunity, and exert intense effort and concentration. Pintrich and & De Groot (1990, in Chapman) see engagement as having observable cognitive components that can be seen or elicited through exploring the learner’s use of strategy, metacognition, and self-regulatory behavior to monitor and guide the learning processes.

When looking to measure growth or change, or even to understand whether a learner has truly engaged, an educator should also look for evidence of commitment and positive attitudes related to the activity and subject matter.

Engagement is not just doing the work, it is a connection and an affinity to an activity supported from the affective domains (Chapman, 2003).

Skinner & Belmont (1993, p.572) report that engaged learners show sustained behavioral involvement in learning activities accompanied by a positive emotional tone and select tasks at the border of their competencies, initiate action when given the opportunity, and exert intense effort and concentration.

Pintrich and & De Groot (1990, in Chapman) see engagement as having observable cognitive components that can be seen or elicited through exploring the learner’s use of strategy, metacognition, and self-regulatory behavior to monitor and guide the learning processes.

 

What is really important is how we use them. Lets not forget about play and engagement.

Better Living Production

Gigaheart Performance Improvement (PI) activities describe a structured, long-term process by which a healthcare professional or team can learn about specific performance measures, retrospectively assess their practice, apply these measures prospectively over a useful interval, and reevaluate their performance. Performance Improvement is an evidence-based participatory program with emphasis on quality of care and patient safety. The Performance Improvement CME/CE process involves three separate but integrated stages of learning: Stage A) learning from active involvement in identifying and analyzing important organizational and individual performance gaps; Stage B) learning from designing interventions to close performance gaps identified in Stage A, and implementing the interventions to patient care using suitable tracking tools; and Production

Performance Improvement (PI) activities describe a structured, long-term process by which a healthcare professional or team can learn about specific performance measures, retrospectively assess their practice, apply these measures prospectively over a useful interval, and reevaluate their performance. Performance Improvement is an evidence-based participatory program with emphasis on quality of care and patient safety.

The Performance Improvement CME/CE process involves three separate but integrated stages of learning: Stage A) learning from active involvement in identifying and analyzing important organizational and individual performance gaps; Stage B) learning from designing interventions to close performance gaps identified in Stage A, and implementing the interventions to patient care using suitable tracking tools; and

HumanFIRST Lab ng Modeling

Virtual Clinic Production

How about Math and Science? Scientific Habits of mind Applied curriculum Modeling Simulation STEM Modeling 3r STEM

Scientific Habits of mind

Applied curriculum

Modeling

Simulation

STEM

Clapping Academy Design

Games Unit Inquiry Reading comprehension Composition Sustained engagement Behavioral management Planning Cooperative learning Classroom as game Outcomes Dubbels, B.R. (in press) Video games, reading, and transmedial comprehension. In R. E. Ferdig (Ed.),  Handbook of research on effective electronic gaming in education.   Information Science Reference. Artifacts

Inquiry

Reading comprehension

Composition

Sustained engagement

Behavioral management

Planning

Cooperative learning

Classroom as game

Outcomes

Rhythm & Flow High interest Role Playing Performance Technology RFOL Writing Video Music Design

High interest

Role Playing

Performance

Technology

RFOL

Writing

Video

Music

Educate me Participants design a board game to identify outcomes and the context, route, and obstacles to getting there.

Participants design a board game to identify outcomes and the context, route, and obstacles to getting there.

Dance Dance Education Because kids won’t let an education get in the way of their learning Brock Dubbels The Center for Cognitive Sciences The University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

Because kids won’t let an education get in the way of their learning

Barbell Factory Production

 

Games are structured forms of play Do we need to have definition for play? Can we only know it when we see it?

Do we need to have definition for play?

Can we only know it when we see it?

 

What this means for schools Maybe we need to motivate and engage through recruiting play for developing work-like competencies. You can go to: http//:5 th -teacher.blogspot.com www.vgalt.com/blog www.vgalt.com/moodle www.videogamesaslearningtools.com

Maybe we need to motivate and engage through recruiting play for developing work-like competencies. You can go to:

http//:5 th -teacher.blogspot.com

www.vgalt.com/blog

www.vgalt.com/moodle

www.videogamesaslearningtools.com

Where are we now? We have taken away play in school

Built like a game Graphic by Dan Cook

How about Chutes and ladders? Describe the game play mechanics

What are the elements of this game? What makes the play emergent? Is it non-linear? Games as a metaphor for instructional design

Discussion Based upon these concepts in game design and the literacies and habits of mind supported by them, how can we use these design elements to construct curriculum for our classroom? To test hypotheses? To create new media To embody learning experiences and informative assessment Do we need computers to do this?

Based upon these concepts in game design and the literacies and habits of mind supported by them, how can we use these design elements to construct curriculum for our classroom?

To test hypotheses?

To create new media

To embody learning experiences and informative assessment

Do we need computers to do this?

 

Brock Dubbels

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