vertebrate notes

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Information about vertebrate notes

Published on October 10, 2007

Author: Natalia


Animal Kingdom Vertebrates:  Animal Kingdom Vertebrates Biology 1 What is a Chordate?:  What is a Chordate? All chordates have 4 basic features that are present at some point during their life cycle Hollow Nerve Cord – Nerve cord in which nerves branch out at regular intervals Notochord – Long supporting rod that runs throughout body Pharyngeal Pouches – Paired structures in throat Muscular Tail – Extends beyond anus Only 4-5% of animals are chordates Examples = Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds Chordate Cladogram:  Section 30-1 Nonvertebrate chordates Fishes Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals Invertebrate ancestor Chordate Cladogram The Generalized Structure of a Chordate:  Section 30-1 The Generalized Structure of a Chordate Fish – Basic Facts:  Fish – Basic Facts Fish live in nearly every single aquatic habitat imaginable Fish are aquatic vertebrates characterized by fins, scales, and gills Fish were the first vertebrates to evolve. Fish bring in Oxygen rich water through gills and remove oxygen poor water through gill slits Closed circulatory system Four chambered heart Swim bladder controls buoyancy Most are egg laying Most move by contracting opposite muscles (S Shaped) Groups of Fish:  Groups of Fish Jawless Fish – Have mouths of soft tissue with no true teeth. Have no bones Only vertebrates with no vertebral column as adults Lampreys, Hagfish Chondrichthyes – Skeleton built entirely of cartilage Sharks, sea rays Osteichthyes – Bony Fish Majority of fish fall in this order Carp, sea horse, perch, etc. Slide7:  Lamprey – Jawless Fish Catfish - Osteichthyes Sea Ray - Chondrichthyes Whale Shark - Chondrichthyes Amphibians – Basic Facts:  Amphibians – Basic Facts Amphibian = “double life” Live in both water and land Most larvae are fishlike; adults are terrestrial carnivores Larvae respire through skin/gills; Adults use lungs Descendants of ancestral organisms that evolved some, not all, adaptations for life on land First appeared 360 million years ago External fertilization Closed circulatory system; three chambered heart The Life Cycle of a Frog:  Section 30-3 Adult Frog Young Frog Fertilized Eggs Tadpoles Adults are typically ready to breed in about one to two years. Frog eggs are laid in water and undergo external fertilization. The eggs hatch into tadpoles a few days to several weeks later. Tadpoles gradually grow limbs, lose their tails and gills, and become meat-eaters as they develop into terrestrial adults. The Life Cycle of a Frog Slide10:  that allow for are that provide that allow are and have special adaptations such as larvæ they live in adults they live on Section 30-3 means as Amphibians “Double life” Groups of Amphibians:  Groups of Amphibians Salamanders – Long bodies and tails Adults are carnivorous Usually live in moist woods Frogs and Toads – Lack tails Frogs have long legs and are usually tied to water Toads have shorter legs and not as closely tied to water Caecilians – Legless animals that burrow in moist soil Have fishlike scales Slide12:  Spotted Salamander Poison Dart Frog Fire Bellied Toad Caecilian Reptiles – Basic Facts:  Reptiles – Basic Facts All reptiles have: Dry, scaly skin – helps prevent loss of body water in dry environments Terestrial eggs – first animals to develop amniotic eggs that didn’t need to be deposited in water Respire using lungs Internal Fertilization; Most are egg-laying Ectotherms – cannot internally regulate body temperature; cannot live in cold climates Behavior controls body temp. (swimming, burrowing, basking, etc.) Closed circulatory system; double loop; Heart = two atria/one or two ventricles Groups of Reptiles:  Groups of Reptiles Lizards and Snakes Have legs & clawed toes (lizards) external ears, moveable eyelids Highly evolved specialized forms (venom) Crocodiles and Alligators Long, typically broad snout and squat appearance All are carnivorous Protective of young; carry hatchlings in their mouth Live in tropics and subtropics Alligators live in freshwater Crocodiles live in fresh or saltwater Groups of Reptiles (con.):  Groups of Reptiles (con.) Turtles and Tortoises – All are shelled Turtles are aquatic; tortoises are terrestrial Tuatara – Primitive reptiles found on small, remote islands Slide16:  Coral Snake Sea Turtle Galapagos Tortoise Tuatara Slide17:  Nile Crocodile North American Alligator Birds – Basic Facts:  Birds – Basic Facts Nearly 10,000 modern bird species Birds are closely related to reptiles (scales on legs) Have outer covering made of feathers, two legs used for walking or perching, and forelimbs modified into wings Feathers separate birds from all other animal species Feathers provide insulation for warmth; can generate on body heat Beak/Bills adapted to type of food they eat Highly efficient respiratory system; lungs only exposed to Oxygen rich air Internal fertilization; amniotic eggs; many mate for life Slide19:  Section 31-2 which are that also that power that provide that ensure have the following adaptations to flight Birds Groups of Birds:  Groups of Birds More than thirty orders of birds Some of the most common Perching Birds – largest order; many are songbirds (sparrows, crows, cardinals, etc.) Birds of Prey – fierce predators with hooked bills; large talons (condors, hawks, owls, eagles, etc.) Herons & Relatives – Wade in aquatic habitats (storks, herons, cranes) Ostriches & Relatives – flightless birds move by running or swimming (ostriches, emus, etc.) Slide21:  Purple Finch Red-Tailed Hawk Stork Emu Mammals – Basic Facts :  Mammals – Basic Facts First true mammals appeared 220 million years ago Mammals flourished after dinosaurs became extinct – 65 million years ago Basic characteristics Hair Mammary glands – produce milk to nourish young Breathe air Four chambered heart Endotherms – can generate own body heat Internal fertilization; care for young Slide23:  Section 32-2 Characteristics Examples Long, narrow snouts, sharp claws Water-dwelling, slow-moving Live and breed in ocean, come to surface to breathe Winged, capable of true flight Single pair of long, curved incisor teeth in upper and lower jaws Shrews, hedgehogs, moles Manatees, dugongs Whales, dolphins Bats Mice, rats, voles, squirrels, beavers, porcupines, chinchillas Slide24:  Section 32-2 Hoofed, with an odd number of toes on each foot Sharp teeth and claws Hoofed, with an even number of toes on each foot Trunks Horses, tapirs, rhinoceroses, zebras Tigers, hyenas, dogs, foxes, bears, raccoons, walruses Cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, ibex, giraffes, hippopotami, camels Asian and African elephants, mastodons and mammoths Slide25:  Section 32-2 Two pairs of incisors in upper jaw, hind legs allow leaping No teeth (or very small teeth in the back of the jaw) Highly developed cerebrum and complex behaviors Snowshoe hares, rabbits Sloths, anteaters, armadillos Lemurs, tarsiers, apes, gibbons, macaques, humans

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