veins of mediastinum

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Information about veins of mediastinum

Published on March 9, 2014

Author: rawanayman


‫بسم هللا الرحمن الرحيم‬

Big veins of the mediastinum

The mediastinum

Distribution of veins in the mediastinum Superior mediastinum -Left brachiocephalic vein. -Right brachiocephalic vein. -The upper half of superior vena cava. Inferior mediastinum anterior middle -Lower 1/2of S.V.C. -Terminal part of inferior vena cava. -Four pulmonary veins posterior -Azygos vein. Hemiazygo s vein.

Brachiocephalic veins

Brachiocephalic veins *Right brachiocephlic vein. *Left brachiocephalic vein. Beginning -Each innominate vein begins behind the corresponding sternoclavicular joint by the union of the internal jugular vein and the subclavian vein. Course Vertical Oblique Length One inch. + Two and half inches.+++ End Both veins unite behind the lower border of the 1st costal cartilage to form the (Superior vena cava). Relations *On its right side lies the phrenic nerve. *On its left side lies innominate artery. *Anteriorly:manubrium. *Posteriorly:branches of the aortic arch-trachea-left vagus and phrenic nerve. *inferiorly: arch of aorta.

Brachiocephalic veins *Right brachiocephlic vein. *Left brachiocephalic vein. tributaries Each innominate vein has the following tributaries from its own side: 1-Vertebral vein. 2-Internal thoracic vein. 3-First posterior intercostal vein. 4-Inferior thyroid vein. But… The left innominate vein receives also: 1-Left superior intercostal vein. 2-Thymic veins.

* Superior vena cava*cava* * Superior vena Beginning: At the lower border of the first costal cartilage by the union of the two innominate veins. -Course: It is three inches long (1.5 inches in the superior and 1.5 in the middle mediastinum). -termination: At the lower border of the right third costal cartilage where it enters the heart

Tributaries of S.V.C 1- Right and left innominate veins (they form the S.V.C) 2-Azygos arch (it enters the middle of the S.V.C at the level of the T.4 . So… It is considered as the main tributary

Relations of S.V.C Anterior Posterior Lateral -First two -Root of anterior the right intercostal lung. space. -Right lung and pleura. -Right phrenic nerve. Medial -Right vagus. -Right side of the trachea.

*Inferior vena cava* -Beginning : It enters the thorax by piercing the central tendon of the diaphragm the level of T.8. -Termination: It pierces the pericardium and enters the right atrium at the level of T.6. -Relations: Anteriorly:Diaphragm. Posteriorly:Azygos vein and greater .splanchnic nerve Laterally: phrenic nerve and right lung and pleura

The azygos veins are longitudinal veins on each side of the vertebral column. They drain venous blood from the posterior thoracic wall and connect the superior vena cava to the inferior vena cava.

Azygos vein Beginning: It may arise from the back of inferior vena cava at the level of the renal vein at the level of the 2nd lumbar vertebra OR by the union of the right ascending lumbar and subcostal vein. Course: It enters the thoracic cavity through the aortic opening of the diaphragm on the right side of the aorta with the thoracic duct in between. Then it ascends anterior to the bodies of the lower 8 thoracic vertebra. End: It enters the superior vena cava at its middle

*Tributaries of azygos vein* 1- All right posterior intercostal vein except the 1st vein. 2- Right subcostal and ascending lumbar veins. 3- The hemiazygos and accessory hemiazygos veins. 4- Esophageal vein. 5- pericardial vein. 6- Mediastinal vein. 7- Right bronchial vein.

*Inferior and superior hemiazygos vein* Superior hemiazygos Inferior hemiazygoz Beginning At the level of T.8 by the union of (48)posterior inter costal veins. As the azygos vein begins but it arise from left renal vein. Course It descends on the left side of the vertebral column. It enters the thorax by piercing the left crus of the diaphragm and ascends on the left side of the vertebral column. End It ends by crossing midline in front of the T.8 to end in the azygos vein. It ends by crossing the midline in front of T.9 to end in the azygos vein.

*four pulmonary veins* They carry the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium, two from each lung.

*Coronary sinus* It’s a large wide venous channel situated in the posterior part of coronary sulcus and ends in the right atrium Tributaries:1-great cardiac vein 2-small cardiac vein 3-middle cardiac vein 4-posterior vein of the left ventricle 5-oblique vein of marshal

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