Vegetarian Nutrition 101

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Information about Vegetarian Nutrition 101
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Published on March 4, 2008

Author: Techy_Guy

Source: authorstream.com

Vegetarian Nutrition 101:  Vegetarian Nutrition 101 More than 12 million people in the US are vegetarians, and 19,000 more make the switch to a meat-free diet every week Vegetarian diet facts:  Vegetarian diet facts Top three killers in U.S. right now ALL related to diet: CVD, stroke, cancer According to T. Colin Campbell, director of the largest epidemiological study in history: “The vast majority of all cancers, cardiovascular disease, and other forms of degenerative illness can be prevented simply by adopting a plant-based diet.” Heart disease, cancer, strokes, diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity, and other diseases have all been linked to meat dairy consumption More cool veg. facts:  More cool veg. facts Vegetarians live, on average, six to ten years longer than meat-eaters Only animal-derived foods have cholesterol, so a pure vegetarian diet= cholesterol free! American Dietetic Association Position on Vegetarian Diets:  American Dietetic Association Position on Vegetarian Diets Position Statement: It is the position of The American Dietetic Association (ADA) that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, are nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Other health organizations have said…:  Other health organizations have said… The American Cancer Society, the American Heart Association, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the National Institutes of Health, and the American Academy of Pediatrics all recommend choosing a diet based on a variety of plant foods—grains, vegetables, fruits, and legumes. The New Four Food Groups:  The New Four Food Groups The New Four Food Groups:  The New Four Food Groups Vegetables: 4 or more servings per day Legumes (beans, peas, lentils): 3 servings per day Whole grains: 8 small servings (or 4 normal servings) per day Fruits: 3 or more servings per day The New Four Food Groups:  The New Four Food Groups Tips for achieving these serving sizes: Let grains fill up about ½ your plate Let vegetables fill up ¼ Let beans fill up ¼ Let fruit be a dessert or snack (or pile the vegetables high; reduce the grains) Calories:  Calories Calories made of: carbohydrates, protein, and fat How many calories do you need each day? Total calories= BMR + energy for activity Calories:  Calories BMR (basal metabolic rate): BW x 10 Energy for activity: Not very active: BMR x 20% Lightly active: BMR x 30% Moderately active: BMR x 40% Very active: BMR x 50% Calories:  Calories Example: a 140-lb., lightly active woman BMR calories: 140 x 10= 1400 + Activity calories: 1400 x 30% = 420 Total calories needed to maintain current weight = 1400 + 420 = 1820 calories To lose weight/gain weight: +/- 500 calories a day (1 lb. = 3500 calories) Carbohydrates:  Carbohydrates Main source of calories in a healthy diet Primary fuel source for brain and muscles; helps maintain functioning of nervous system Approximately 55-75% of daily calories should come from carbohydrates Carbohydrates:  Carbohydrates Two types of carbs: Simple and Complex Simple carbs (sweets): quickest source of energy (lack fiber) Ex: table sugar, brown sugar, honey, maple syrup, molasses, jams/jellies, fruit juices Carbohydrates:  Carbohydrates Complex carbs: rich in fiber, high in vitamins and minerals, important for digestion and elimination Examples: vegetables, fruits, grains, potatoes, beans Key to a healthy diet: Focus on COMPLEX CARBS!!! Fiber:  Fiber AKA: “plant roughage” (the part of beans, grains, vegetables, and fruits that resists digestion) Only found in plant food Helps rid the body chemicals (including hormones); lowers cholsterol One of the reason vegetarians have significantly lower rates of cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and are usually slimmer than other people (fiber helps you fill UP so you don’t fill OUT!!) Fiber:  Fiber Studies show that every 14 grams of fiber in your daily diet reduces your calorie intake by about ten percent. Fiber:  Fiber Aim for 40 grams of fiber/ day Good sources: BEANS/LENTILS: each half-cup serving of beans or lentils ~ 7 g; one cup soymilk/ ½ cup tofu~ 3 g Vegetables: 1 cup ~ 4 g; Fruit: each medium-sized fruit ~ 3 g Grains: each piece of white bread, bagel, 1 cup white rice ~1g; 1 cup brown rice ~ 2 g; 1 cup oatmeal ~ 4 g; ready-to-eat cereals ~ 3 g; Bran ~ 8 g. FAT:  FAT Most concentrated source of calories in food you eat Should not exceed 30% of calories (2000 calorie diet: < 60 g/ day) But, research has shown that: the lower your fat intake, the better your chances of warding of heart disease, cancer, and keeping a slim waistline FAT:  FAT Made of 3 types of fatty acids: monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, saturated Goal: Minimize saturated fats and trans fats (that raise blood cholesterol levels) Saturated fat in: foods of animal origin (beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, milk, butter, cheese, sour cream, etc.) plant foods: coconuts, coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, chocolate, cocoa butter FAT:  FAT Monounsaturated fats: olives/oil, almonds/oil/butter, canola oil, hazelnuts, peanuts/oil/PEANUT BUTTER! Polyunsaturated fats: sesame seeds/oil/butter, sunflower seeds/oil, safflower oil, corn oil, walnuts/oil, soybeans and soy products (tofu, tempeh, TVP), flax seeds/oil FAT:  FAT Fat in foods (% of calories) Atlantic salmon 40 Beef, round bottom, lean 28 Chicken white meat, skinless 23 Tuna, white 21 Broccoli 12 Rice, brown 8 Apple 6 Beans, navy 3 Essential Fatty Acids:  Essential Fatty Acids There are two PUFAs that are EFAs: Linolenic acid (omega-3) Linoleic acid (omega-6) Important for vascular health: blood vessel dilation/constriction, blood clots, inflammation Lack of EFAs associated with: depression, poor immune function scaly skin, reduced growth, kidney and liver problems EFAs:  EFAs DRIs: Omega-3’s: 1-2% of calories Omega-6’s: 5-8% of calories More important: ratio Ratio of Omega-3’s: Omega-6’s should be: 1:3 (most Americans consume them in 1: 10 ratio; we need to increase Omega-3’s) EFAs:  EFAs Omega-6 sources: seeds, nuts, vegetable oils Omega-3 sources: soybean oil, canola oil, flaxseed oil, walnuts **best source: flaxseeds: 2 tablespoons/day of flaxseeds is recommended Flaxseed oil…………………………………………………53-62% Linseed oil…………………………………………….……53% Canola oil……………………………………………………11% Walnut oil…………………………………………………..10% PROTEIN:  PROTEIN Approximately 10-15% of calories should come from protein PROTEIN:  PROTEIN Myth: “I can’t get enough protein as a vegetarian.” PROTEIN:  PROTEIN Fact: The American Dietetic Association holds that a diet that includes a variety of healthy plant foods provides all the protein you need. Protein needs might be higher for those who consume protein from sources that are less well digested (cereals and legumes); however, typical protein intakes of lacto-ovo vegetarians and vegans have been shown to meet and exceed protein requirements PROTEIN:  PROTEIN Dispelling the myth: The average American consumes DOUBLE the protein his/ her body needs The main sources of protein consumed tend to be from animal products, which are also high in saturated fat and cholesterol Vegetarians do not need to combine foods at each meal to a get “complete” protein; should eat a wide variety of plant protein sources throughout the day (grains, legumes, vegetables, nuts, and seeds can provide ALL the essential amino acids) Soy= complete and high quality source of protein; contains isoflavonoids= act as antioxidants & phytoestrogens to reduce the risk of cancer, CVD, and osteoporosis Protein for Athletes:  Protein for Athletes Dispelling the myth: According to the US DRI committee, a higher RDA is not warranted for healthy adults doing resistance or endurance exercise Because Americans, on average, consume much more protein than they actually need, any increased need for athletes is most likely already being met While muscle fibers are protein, dietary protein is not needed for muscle growth (muscle growth is fueled by carbs and fat before protein even comes into play) Excess protein= excess calories= adds weight as FAT, not muscle (slows down performance) PROTEIN:  PROTEIN It’s almost IMPOSSIBLE to be deficient in protein; here’s how: Eating excess junk food/ filling diet with “empty” calories (fatty, highly refined, and processed foods, excess alcohol) Trying to live on fruit alone Not taking in enough calories PROTEIN:  PROTEIN 20 different amino acids 11 made by our body = 9 essential amino acids (must be obtained through diet) PROTEIN:  PROTEIN RDA for average sedentary adult= BW (body weight) x 0.36 Active adult: BW x 0.4-0.6 Growing athlete: BW x 0.6- 0.9 Adult building muscle mass: BW x 0.6-0.9 PROTEIN:  PROTEIN Example: A sedentary adult who weighs 15o lbs. needs 54 g/ day What does this look like? 1 bowl Raisin Bran and 1 cup Soymilk (12 g) + 1 Veggie Burger on Whole Wheat Bun (20g) + 1 cup Pasta with 1 cup assorted vegetables and beans (22 g) = 54 grams of protein! PROTEIN:  PROTEIN Protein checklist. Aim for: 5 or more servings of grain each day (1 serving= 1 slice bread; ½ cup cereal) ~3 g 3 or more servings of vegetables each day (1 serving= ½ cup cooked vegetables) ~2 g 2-3 servings of legumes (1 serving= ½ cup cooked beans, 10 oz. nuts, 1 cup soy milk) ~ 4-10 g PROTEIN:  PROTEIN 1 cup kidney beans………………………………..15 g 1 cup lentils…………………………………………..18 g ½ cup tofu……………………………………………14 g 1 cup soymilk (Silk)………………………………..6 g 1 veggie hot dog (Yves Veggie Dogs)……… 16 g 1 veggie burger (Boca burger)….................13 g 2 T peanut butter……………………………………9 g ¼ cup walnuts…………………………….............4 g 1 slice whole wheat bread………………… ……..3 g 1 cup oatmeal…………………………………………6 g 1 cup cooked brown rice…………………………..9 g 1 cup quinoa………………………………………….21g PROTEIN:  PROTEIN Problems with too much protein: Osteoporosis Kidney Disease Cancer CVD PROTEIN:  PROTEIN THE ATKINS DIET: ADA: “nightmare” How it works = ketosis Hard to sustain; complaints of: fatigue, nausea, reduced appetite Low in vitamins, minerals High in saturated fat and cholesterol Causes bad breath Weight returns quickly after cessation CALCIUM:  CALCIUM Necessary for bone health, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, blood clotting, cell metabolism Deficiencies= osteoporosis AI: 1,000 mg/day (for adults 19-50) UL: 2,500 mg/day CALCIUM:  CALCIUM Calcium retention: In order to retain calcium: Decrease animal protein: animal protein has been found to increase calcium excretion: for every gram of animal-derived protein we consume, we lose 1 mg of calcium; soy protein does not have this effect Numerous studies link increased animal protein consumption to increased risk for osteoporosis CALCIUM:  CALCIUM To retain calcium: Decrease sodium intake because sodium increases calcium losses: for every gram of salt we consume, we lose 5-10 mg of calcium Increase weight bearing exercise activity (walking, running, aerobics) to promote strong, health bones Osteoporosis: vegan diets are preventative CALCIUM:  CALCIUM Good sources: Soy products (yogurts, milk, beans, tempeh, and tofu) Green leafy vegetables (except spinach, Swiss chard, and beet greens) Legumes (beans, peas, lentils) Calcium-fortified breads, cereals, and grains CALCIUM:  CALCIUM ½ cup cultured soy yogurt, fortified………367 mg 1 cup cooked collards……………………………365 mg 1 cup cooked broccoli……………………………178 mg 1 cup navy beans…………………………………..130 mg ½ cup Tofu (Nasoya firm) …………………… 200 mg 1 cup fortified plant milk (Silk, Westsoy Plus, Rice Dream) ……………………………… 300 mg 1 cup calcium fortified orange juice………..300 mg 1 serving Total breakfast cereal…………….1000 mg 1 T blackstrap molasses………………………….170 mg Iron (Fe):  Iron (Fe) Oxygen transportation, enzyme component, immune function, brain function RDA: for men: 15 mg /day for women: 32mg/ day UL: 40 mg/day (>40= increased cancer risk) **RDA value for vegetarians is 1.8 times for non-vegetarians IRON :  IRON Myth: ANEMIA Fact: People eating vegetarian diets are no more likely to be iron deficient than people who eat meat IRON:  IRON Dispelling the myth: Two kinds of iron: heme and non-heme; non-heme is less absorbable Meat= 40% heme; 60% non-heme Vegetable sources= 100% non-heme Iron:  Iron Dispelling the myth cont’d: --BUT-- Vegetable foods have MORE Fe/calories of food than meat (ex: 340 calories of sirloin steak = 100 calories of spinach) Vitamin C increases non-heme absorption by 6-fold = absorption of non-heme iron is as good if not better than heme iron Most vegetables that are high in Fe are also high in Vitamin C; meat and dairy= no Vitamin C Iron:  Iron Good sources: Soy foods (soy beans, meats, & milks) Legumes (beans, peas, lentils) Nuts/Seeds and their butters Green leafy vegetables (except for spinach, Swiss chard, and beet greens) Dried fruits Whole grains and iron-enriched grains and cereals Iron:  Iron 1 cup cooked chickpeas……………………6.8 mg ½ cup tofu (Chang Shing firm)……..........12.6 mg ½ cup tofu (Nasoya firm)…………………...2.1 mg 1 veggie hot dog (Yves Veggie Dogs)..…...4.5mg 1 cup cooked kale…………………….........1.2 mg 10 dried apricot halves or 4 dried figs……1.7 mg ¼ cup pumpkin seeds………………………5.2 mg 1 cup Cheerios……………………………….4.5 mg 1 cup Total cereal…………………………….15 mg Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin):  Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) Decreases risk for heart disease, aids in fat metabolism, important of nerve function Lack of B-12 can result in fatigue, anemia, impaired nervous system functioning, and can increase the risk of infection B-12:  B-12 RDA: 2.4 mg/day Made by bacteria in the small intestine of animals; only meat, poultry, fish, and dairy contains B-12 Vegans: no problem! Storage: vegans who previously ate animal-based foods have B-12 stores that will not be depleted for 20-30 years or more Fortified foods: cereals, soymilks, soy meats, nutritional yeast Multi-vitamin (recommended!) **consume small amounts at frequent intervals B-12:  B-12 1 tsp. Red Star Vegetarian Support Formula Nutritional Yeast (T6635 +)………………..1.3 mg 1 cup fortified soymilk (Silk, Edensoy Extra, Soy Dream)……………………………………………..3.0 mg 1 cup fortified rice milk (Rice Dream)………1.5 mg 1 serving fortified breakfast cereals (Cheerios, Cornflakes, Grapenuts, etc.)………………..1.5 mg 1 veggie hot dog (Yves Veggie Dogs)………..1.5 mg 4 slices veggie bologna (Yves)…………………1.2 mg 1 cup Celestial Seasonings Tension Tamer herbal tea…………………………………………………….1.2 mg Vitamin D:  Vitamin D Regulates blood calcium levels, essential for bone health Deficiencies: bone diseases: rickets, osteomalacia, osteoporosis RDA: 5 mg (200 IU/day) UL: 50 mg (2000 IU/day)= toxic Vitamin D:  Vitamin D Main sources are oily fish Vegans: no problem! Fortified foods: plant milks, breakfast cereals Mushrooms SUN: for both vegans and omnivores, most Vit. D supply comes from UVB light (recommended: 20 minutes, 3 times/week) below 42 degrees latitude North of Atlanta and L.A., non-elderly white non-sunscreen using adults who spend time in the sun= OK during the winter Nutritionists recommend Vitamin D supplement for ALL Vitamin D:  Vitamin D 1 cup fortified soymilk (Silk)………….... 3 mg 1 cup fortified rice milk (Rice Dream). 2.5 mg 1 serving fortified breakfast cereal (Cheerios, Cornflakes, Grapenuts, etc.)…………… 1 mg 4 dried shitake mushrooms…………… 6.25 mg ZINC:  ZINC Important for healthy skin, a healthy immune system, and resistance to infection Deficiency causes hair loss, delayed wound healing, appetite loss (rare) ZINC:  ZINC RDA: males: 15 mg (14- adult) females: 12 mg Good sources: soy foods, legumes, green leafy vegetables, nuts and seeds, whole grains, fortified breakfast cereals Supplement: no more than 40 mg (above this= toxic) ZINC:  ZINC 1 cup cooked adzuki beans………………….4 mg ½ cup cooked tempeh……………...……..1.5 mg 1 veggie hot dog (Yves Veggie Dogs)..3.75 mg 1 cup cooked collard greens……………..0.8 mg ¼ cup peanuts……………………………....3.6 mg ¼ cup pumpkin seeds…………………….2.6 mg 1 cup Cheerios………………………………..4.5 mg 1 cup Total cereal…………………………….15 mg Penn Dining is Vegan Friendly!:  Penn Dining is Vegan Friendly! Tofu Fried Rice Eggplant & White Bean Tapas Linguine with Portobello & Arugula Black Bean Cakes with Fruit Salsa Spicy White Bean Gumbo Grilled Marinated Tofu with Chutney Vegan BBQ Riblet Sandwich Roasted Tabouli Stuffed Tomatoes Vegan Meatball Hero Vegan Nuggets Pasta with Sundried Tomato Alfredo Moroccan Stew Cajun Portabello Wrap Roasted Vegetable Sloppy Joe ^ = VEGAN V = VEGETARIAN One final note:  One final note EXERCISE, EXERCISE EXERCISE!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Boosts your immune system Gives you energy Keeps you slim Conclusion::  Conclusion: An appropriately planned vegetarian diet offers the proper nutrition to meet all dietary needs and produce healthy, vibrant individuals who are less likely to be affected by the three most common deaths in the U.S.: heart attack, stroke, and cancer For more information, contact Randi at randigs@sas.upenn.edu URL:  URL To view this presentation, visit: http://dolphin.upenn.edu/~pennstar/ Easy Stir-Fry:  Easy Stir-Fry Serves 4 1 bag "Create A Meal" frozen mixed vegetables, or 1 bag frozen stir-fry vegetables plus 1/4 cup low-fat stir-fry sauce 1 package "WOW! It's not chicken!" or 1 can of your favorite beans   Follow directions on package substituting beans or meat alternative for the suggested beef, chicken, or fish.  To reduce sodium content, use only 1/2 of the sauce package.   Serve over cous cous, brown rice, or your favorite whole grain. Creamy Spinach Dip:  Creamy Spinach Dip Serves 10 to 12   1 container Toffuti (non-dairy) sour cream 1 tablespoon lemon juice 1/2 cup salsa 1 package frozen spinach, thawed and drained 1 package vegetable soup mix (or salt to taste)   Combine all ingredients and refrigerate for 1 hour before serving.  Serve with raw vegetable pieces or chunks of crusty bread or whole wheat crackers.   Creamy Berry Smoothie:  Creamy Berry Smoothie Makes about 2 cups   1 banana (or two) 1/2 cup frozen blueberries 1 cup calcium-fortified vanilla soymilk, or other milk alternative 1 tablespoons maple syrup 2 tablespoons (or more) calcium-fortified orange juice from frozen concentrate   Place all ingredients in a blender.  Blend at high speed until smooth (You'll have to stop the blender occasionally and move the unblended fruit to the center with a spatula to get your smoothie smooth). References:  References Barnard, Neal D. and Jennifer Keller. “The Survivors Handbook.” Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. 2003. Greger, Michael. “Recommendations for Optimum Vegan Nutrition.” http://www.veganMD.org Greger, Michael. “Plant-Based Sources for Key Nutrients.” http://www.veganMD.org “Information on Vegan Diets.” The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. http://www.pcrm.org Insel, P., Turner, R.E., and Ross, D. (2004). Nutrition, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc. Sudbury, MA. Mangels, A.R., Messina, V., and V. Melina. “Vegetarian Diets.” American Dietetic Association 2003. http://www.eatright.org/Public/GovernmentAffairs/92_17084.cfm “Vegetarian Diets: position of the American Dietetic Association and the Dieticians of Canada.” Dieticians of Canada. 02 June 2003. http://www.dietitians.ca/

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