Vegetables Grown Underground and legumes

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Information about Vegetables Grown Underground and legumes

Published on December 5, 2007

Author: Ming


Vegetables Grown Underground:  Vegetables Grown Underground Objective: To learn more about importance, propagation, and cultivation of vegetables that are tubers, roots, or bulbs. Importance:  Importance For centuries, underground vegetables have been staple crops Storable for ____________ periods before the advent of refrigeration and long-distance shipping Last longest in a cool, well-ventilated place that maintains humidity and air circulation ________________ is a good range, but optimum storage temp depends on particular vegetable Root cellars were common in dwellings Today, many use garages or basement storage rooms Can still find plans for home root storage; they range from very cheap and simple to quite complex General Cultivation Requirements:  General Cultivation Requirements Soil must be: Deep, friable and well-drained Fertile Veggies that are stems or leaves need lots of ________________________ Those that are roots need lots potassium and phosphorous for synthesis of proteins, carbohydrates and ________________________ Harvesting tubers Can be harvested immature (“new potatoes”) Do not store below ________________ Prompts starch to change to sugar, which causes a sweet taste and brown color when cooked Tubers:  Tubers Potatoes ______________________: cover developing tubers with soil Promotes drainage Prevents exposure to sun which causes green skin and accumulation of toxins in the tuber ______________________ culture Can be grown under 4-6 inches of straw rather than soil Promotes cooler, more uniform temps and better shape Roots:  Roots Taproots Radishes, carrots, beets, turnips, rutabagas Cultivation hints: Plant radishes in with __________________ Emerge much more quickly to mark row Help _____________________carrot seedlings break soil crust Turnips and rutabagas cold-tolerant Brassicas Were used as a substitute for potatoes Turnips grow better farther south, rutabagas farther north Turnip Rutabagas Roots:  Roots ___________________roots Sweet potatoes Morning Glory family; can be an _____________________ Grow on trailing vines that root at the nodes Usually propagated from ________________________ (stem cuttings), but can use roots or root cuttings Easily damaged; have to “_____________________” them Let dry on the ground for several hours, store in a humid room for 10-14 days so they form a thicker outer skin, and then store them at cool temps Often called yams, but yams are actually a different species grown only in the tropics Roots:  Roots Lateral Roots (continued) Horseradish Also a Brassica (mustard family) _______________________________ comes from a volatile compound called isothiocynate Becomes apparent when oxidized by saliva or air Propagated by ___________________________ cuttings Can be stored in the fridge for several months to prevent further growth, and then planted out again Most of the world’s horseradish supply is grown in _____________________________, IL Bulbs:  Bulbs Enlarged, fleshy leaf structures that grow at the soil surface and contain a small stalk Long days promote _________________ formation Harvest when leaves are ___________% dry and fallen Garlic Fleshy leaf structures are called ___________________ Individual cloves are planted, pointy side up Hang bulbs to dry after harvest Good for companion planting with lettuce, cabbage, and beets Produces a compound called __________________________, which is a natural antifungal and pest deterrent Bulbs:  Bulbs Onions Fleshy leaves called scales make up bulb ____________________________ season onions have an intense pungent flavor, but have thick papery leaves for protection and are good for storage _____________________ season onions are sweeter and milder, but have a high water content and bruise easily Round sets form flatter bulbs; elongated sets form round bulbs Although it is trickier to plant onions from seedlings, they are likely to ___________________ longer than those started from sets Changing gears: Legumes:  Changing gears: Legumes Objective: To understand the importance of legumes in multiple capacities; food, forage, and fertility Legumes as Food:  Legumes as Food Legumes are Fabaceae or Leguminoceae More than 13,000 legume species, but humans only eat about ________________ of them Very important to human diet Protein Especially where ______________________ is hard to come by Dietary fiber Complex carbohydrates called oligosaccharides May cause gas if not eaten regularly Vitamins Second only to grasses (corn, small grains) Legumes as Food:  Legumes as Food Cultivation requirements Great diversity of species and subspecies require careful attention and planning Timing Peas are ____________________-season, beans are ____________________________-season Different times to maturity Pod use vs. seed use Fresh vs. dry use Support ________________________ types are free-standing _________________________types need to climb Trellises, fences, and even other plants (Three Sisters) Fertility Some provide all their own N, some need more Legumes Provide Fertility:  Legumes Provide Fertility _____________________________relationship between legume roots and Rhizobium bacteria allows N fixation Bacteria form root nodules and extract nutrients from plant Healthy, active nodules are 4-8mm long, elongated in shape, pinkish-red inside, and located mostly on primary roots Unhealthy nodules are smaller, rounder, and pale green inside Bacteria fix atmospheric N2 into plant-available form… N2  NH4+  NO3- …and promote an increased uptake and concentration of this protein-forming nutrient in the plant’s tissues This relationship gives legumes their _______________ and soil building properties _____________________ and __________________ reduce fixation Nodule Formation:  Nodule Formation Other Roles of Legumes in your Rotation:  Other Roles of Legumes in your Rotation _______________________________manure Plant in late summer, early fall, or early spring “Catch” remaining soil nitrogen and fix even more Kill several weeks before planting Till into soil, mow down, or kill with herbicide Increases microbial activity and improves C:N ratio Releases stored nitrogen for use by main crop Increases organic matter and improves soil friability _______________________________ crop Greatly reduce erosion by covering soil surface and holding it together with their root systems Act as ______________________ to suppress weeds and hold moisture Habitat for beneficial insects when inter-planted Common examples include clovers, vetch, cowpeas, fava beans, field peas, and alfalfa

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