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Published on February 7, 2008

Author: Dolorada

Source: authorstream.com

THE HYDROGEOMORPHIC APPROACH TO FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT FOR PIEDMONT SLOPE WETLANDS:  THE HYDROGEOMORPHIC APPROACH TO FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT FOR PIEDMONT SLOPE WETLANDS B. Vasilas, UD; L. Vasilas, NRCS; M. Wilson, NRCS Acknowledgements:  Acknowledgements Funding provided by EPA, MDE, NRCS, ACOE, and FHA. Outline:  Outline Introduction to HGM Hydrology of slope wetlands Model variables HGM Approach:  HGM Approach Procedure designed to assess the capacity of a wetland to perform functions. Functions: biological, chemical, and physical processes (e.g. water storage) HGM Approach:  HGM Approach Wetland classification Site selection Model development Identification/selection of functions Data collection Generate variables Calibrate Basic Assumption to HGM:  Basic Assumption to HGM “…the highest, sustainable functional capacity is achieved in wetland ecosystems and landscapes that have not been subject to long-term anthropogenic disturbance.” Reference Wetlands:  Reference Wetlands Data collection sites for model development Represent a range in anthropogenic disturbance Reference Standard Wetlands:  Reference Standard Wetlands Subset of reference wetlands Exhibit the least anthropogenic disturbance Represent the highest functional capacity Model Development Variables:  Model Development Variables Simple variables-presence of a surface flow outlet Complex variables-water chemistry Temporal variables-soil Eh “User Friendly” Variables:  “User Friendly” Variables Visual or easily measured No temporal restrictions Correlated to a quantitative measure of an attribute HGM Approach:  HGM Approach Function Process Attribute Variable Nutrient cycling Denitrification Organic carbon Leaf litter Hydrologic Characteristics:  Hydrologic Characteristics Hydrologic Source: Groundwater discharge Toeslope seeps Sideslope seeps Hydrodynamics One directional (downslope) Low-medium energy Groundwater Driven:  Groundwater Driven High water quality Uniform inputs Buffered Hydroperiod Classification:  Hydroperiod Classification Seasonally saturated Permanently saturated Permanently inundated Retention Time:  Retention Time Slope Surface roughness Connectivity Piedmont Slope Functions:  Piedmont Slope Functions Provide characteristic wildlife habitat Carbon export Temporary water storage Particulate retention Removal of pollutants Nutrient cycling Hydrologic Source Variable:  Hydrologic Source Variable Condition of catchment area Size Land use Disturbance Function: Nutrient Cycling:  Function: Nutrient Cycling Process: Microbial transformation Wetland attributes: Hydrologic source condition Organic carbon (energy) Aerobic/anaerobic fluctuations Function: Nutrient Cycling:  Function: Nutrient Cycling Variables: Carbon (available vs. unavailable) Soil organic matter Woody debris Leaf litter Herbaceous groundcover (roots) Aerobic/Anaerobic fluctuations Hydroperiod (temporal) Microtopography (spatial) Hydroperiod Variables:  Hydroperiod Variables Soil Presence/thickness of O horizons Color/thickness of A horizons Depth to redox features Plants Species Strata Summary:  Summary Piedmont slope wetlands show sig. variability in hydroperiods. Variability due to position of groundwater discharge sites; as opposed to disturbance. Variability sig. impacts functional capacity (esp. nutrient cycling). Function: Temporary Water Storage:  Function: Temporary Water Storage Processes: Hydrologic inputs/outputs Attributes: Hydrologic source condition Slope Surface area Microtopography Connectivity Function: Removal of Pollutants:  Function: Removal of Pollutants Process: Sequestration Attributes: SOM accretion Plant biomass Function: Removal of Pollutants:  Function: Removal of Pollutants Process: Sorption to soil particles Attributes: Hydrologic source condition Retention time Infiltration High cation exchange capacity Funtion: Removal of Pollutants:  Funtion: Removal of Pollutants Variable: Infiltration Slope Microtopography Herbaceous cover Soil porosity (texture) CEC Organic matter content Clay content (texture) HGM Model Development:  HGM Model Development Reference domain: Reference standard sites Functional Assessment:  Functional Assessment Quantify the functional capacity of individual wetlands. Functional capacity: the degree to which a function is performed. Functional capacity is judged relative to a reference standard. Functional Assessment-Why?:  Functional Assessment-Why? Evaluation of wetland quality for Federal mandates Evaluation of anthropogenic impacts Evaluation for mitigation purposes (compensation “in kind”) Site selection for wetland enhancement Identification of environmentally-sensitive areas Wetland Functions:  Wetland Functions Definition: biological, chemical, and physical processes that occur in wetlands Examples N removal through denitrification Surface water storage Soil organic matter accretion Limitations:  Limitations Model development is labor intensive. Maximum index value limited by “pristine sites”. Strengths:  Strengths Regionalized Specific to a subclass Attributes easily and quickly measured Surrounding land use considered Surrounding Land Use:  Surrounding Land Use Connectivity to other wetlands-wildlife Agricultural-sediment and nutrient loading Development-hydrologic inputs HGM Functional Categories:  HGM Functional Categories Hydrology Biogeochemical cycling Plant community Wildlife habitat Water Variables:  Water Variables Quantity Quality Residence time Function: Carbon Export:  Function: Carbon Export Processes: Organic carbon production Carbon transport (surface flow) Attributes: Carbon production Carbon transport Function: Carbon Export:  Function: Carbon Export Variables: Carbon production Woody debris Leaf litter Herbaceous cover Soil organic matter Carbon transport Slope Channelization Connectivity Function: Particulate Retention:  Function: Particulate Retention Process: Sedimentation Physical Attributes:  water Retention time = ↓ water velocity Variables: Slope Surface roughness Microtopography Herbaceous cover

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