vandergriffs future army

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Published on March 4, 2008

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The Future Personnel System Flexibility is theme Evolution is always Plug and Play:  The Future Personnel System Flexibility is theme Evolution is always Plug and Play Major Donald E. Vandergriff Assistant Professor of Military Science Georgetown University 9th Edition June 3, 2005 Purpose:  Purpose The Army is good at understanding Why, the start point, does good at developing What, the end point, but has trouble getting there, the How-to, the hard part, the details of tying Why to What. I will set the conditions for success, by: Understanding war Understanding that incremental changes won’t do anymore Understanding how to develop and nurture adaptability Providing a recommendation, how-to, to tie the two after redefining Why and briefly examining What the Army is doing now and in the near future. Administrative Notes:  Prepared for delivery, as supplement to “Minority Report,” January 2005 as well as to senior leaders, at all levels, with new ideas, editions from 1 through 9 were briefed to several groups from January to June 2005. This briefing is a detailed summary of the forthcoming book, Raising the Bar: Creating Adaptive Leaders to deal with the Changing Face of War This study reflects the observations and opinions of the author. This study in no way reflect the official policy or opinion of the United States Army Cadet Command, the United States Army, Department of Defense, of the United States Government. 6th and 7th editions were delivered to TRADOC Commanding General, General Byrnes 3 & 17 March 2005 EXSUM delivered to Symposium “The Future of the U.S. Army,” Washington, D.C., 11 April 2005 EXSUM delivered to U.S. Army Strategy Conference, Army War College, 16 April 2005 8th edition was delivered to Cadet Command Commanding General Major General Thrasher 26 April 2005 9th edition was presented to the Army G1 for LTG Hagenbeck on 27 May and 3 June 2005 for presentation to Army Chief of Staff General Schoomaker Will serve as a baseline for further development of a future personnel system DRAFT – the final version may be different. Administrative Notes Please do not cite this draft version without permission of the author. Background: Why I Took This On:  Background: Why I Took This On For seven years now, I have been asking myself these questions: Can we do it better? Frustrated by saying, briefing and publishing, but do we do it? Can we still afford to change parts of the Army in isolation? Are we preparing our future leaders to deal beyond the conventional, yet out of date view of war?: The evolution of war to Fourth Generation Warfare? Globalization? The “revolution in technology”? The Army as it evolves to an Expeditionary Army? New ways to create Leaders must evolve parallel to the culture-to succeed-to nurture them as they develop and grow “Centralized command and control systems produce methodical (i.e., predictable) Warfighting doctrines premised on the assumption that subordinates should not be free (i.e., can not be trusted) to make their own decisions while staying within the broad guidance of a commander's intent.” Colonel John Boyd, USAF "Organic Design for Command and Control“ Points of Discussion:  Points of Discussion Purpose Part I Why-The Generations of War Current and future operating environment What does it entail for leaders? Part II What-Army is doing good things, but Factors identified in earlier Army and external studies still exist, despite current great efforts Part III How-to What the CSA can do now to begin the evolution Parallel Evolution and the culture-evolving together Recommendations to move from an Industrial based system to a system that allows for trust tactics & a move to an Expeditionary Army Conclusion Purpose:  Purpose To provide a Strategic how-to, including a new personnel strategy and force structure to move Army cultural transformation from a Second Generation Force to a Third Generation Force in order to set the conditions to create, groom and nurture adaptive leaders to cope with the emerging conditions of 4th Generation Warfare Purpose-Summary:  Purpose-Summary The Army is good at: Realizing “Why” Defining “What” But does not know “How” To Make a Strategic Plan to Evolve the Culture in Order to Shape the Strategic Setting, so Other Institutional Elements can Evolve Parallel to one another, Anticipating 2nd and 3rd Order Effects Goal: An Expeditionary Army Goal: A Culture that supports a New Generation Leading an Expeditionary Army Goal: To Integrate Institutional Elements’ Efforts to Achieve Parallel Objectives Purpose: Summary What is Adaptability?:  Purpose: Summary What is Adaptability? What is Adaptability? Adaptability refers to the process of adjusting practices, processes, and systems to projected or actual changes of environment, e.g., the climate or the enemy. Adaptability includes the creation of innovative combined arms organizations, doctrine, systems, and training concepts as demanded by the environment, allies, and the enemy. Adaptive solutions to complex problems in chaotic, unpredictable situations are based more on intuition than on analysis, deliberate planning, and doctrine. “Sun Tzu’s theory of adaptability to existing situations is an important aspect of his self thought. Just as water adapts itself to the conformation of the ground, so in war one must be flexible; he must adapt his tactics to the enemy situation.” John Poole, The Last Hundred Yards Part I “Why”-The Generations of War:  Part I “Why”-The Generations of War ©Dr. Chet Richards Jaddams.com “What” type of Army & Leaders? Dr. Chet Richards “Why”-The Generations of War:  “Why”-The Generations of War Evolution into the 4th Generation of War is, Non state groups have identified U.S. strengths and weaknesses Hierarchal & Centralized units have slower decision-cycles Breadth of time and space has no boundaries Focused at retaining moral reason to continue What does it mean for Army “Transformation” “Strategic Lieutenant” (and “corporal”) becoming reality Pushing more demands/requirements to “lowest levels” Merging the traditional levels of war-decisions can impact strategy “What” does this tell the Army? Why? The Future is now:  Why? The Future is now Time/ Career Experience Exposure to And Familiarization Of Complex Problems 2GW Time line (peace) Cadet Lieutenant Captain Major LTC 2GW Time line (War) Individual Tasks Sqd & PLT Tasks Co/TM Tasks Tactical Planning Nation Building Tasks Dealing w/other Cultures Joint Operations Line equals at what point does the officer have to deal with the particular task under the given type of culture Grand Tactics Operational Art COL 3 & 4GW Time line (All) With the use of varying education and training techniques described in this briefing, we will better prepare our officers earlier to deal with complex tasks Moving Up Experience, Earlier Given our current accessions system, we act like conditions have not changed. “Why”-The Generations of War Influencing the “What”:  “Why”-The Generations of War Influencing the “What” What kind of war for the Army? Large scale operation/small scale contingency How the enemy fights/operating environment Not the same culture? Flexibility? Which level has the “freedom of action”? People-Centric Warfare Investing in people Politically tolerable to have junior “free-thinkers”? Centers of Gravity for Winning Wars Changed Culture How-to? How is the Army Reacting-with What? Why? But? “What” is incomplete?:  Why? But? “What” is incomplete? What happens when we define, “what” understand “Why”, but not “How”? The Culture Present-Strategic Reform Officer Education and Training=New ROTC Future Army Current and future operating environments Emerging technology Opponents Technology Global conditions Some lower level Leaders, Soldiers Units do adapt- this is climate, not culture change These veterans will help But full potential not tapped Due to unchanged culture Senior leaders, professional journals, and “experts”: “Change the culture” Continue to allow internal factors to impact effectiveness distract from true focus ? Personal Efforts from Below not Enough must Have support From top Go in with Less than required Part II What?-Army Doing Good Things:  Part II What?-Army Doing Good Things Most dramatic since reforms of Elihu Root (1899-1904)! Focused on more than one type of threat “17 focus areas” = parallel, systematic evolution - first time in army history Understands need to change career path progression to create ‘pentathlete’ or adaptive leader Highly exemplary – but you must simultaneously evolve the CULTURE to support the pentathlete! BUT? What?-Army Doing Good Things:  Strategic leaders understand and desire need to evolve Stabilization program will assist in changing culture Most holistic program in 12 attempts Views more than attaining unit cohesion Focused across the spectrum of the Army First time 2nd and 3rd Order effects analyzed Aligned with modularity to Establish cyclic unit program Brigade Combat Teams (copied off Breaking the Phalanx) promise more flexibility OPMS 3 attempting to Restructured to correct some old problems, but Accommodates new force structure Major challenges due to "requirements line" of officer manning by grade/length of service over future years, and the "on hand" line foreseen under present trends This gap is the result of years of severe officer losses beginning at the 5-8 years-of-service point, and it is hurting and will hurt the Army What?-Army Doing Good Things But, then “What” is the problem? What?-Army Doing Good Things – But?:  What?-Army Doing Good Things – But? Major influences barriers to Transformation Mobilization doctrine (Path to Victory) Despite Modularity: too weak, still too much overhead Stabilization Hierarchy remains reminiscent of Napoleonic and Cold War (9 levels-pushing down-IO (e-mail) accelerates this) Culture of Management Science Evolution of the training and evaluation process of Frederick Taylor Focus on “fundamentals,” “there is time to learn the rest,” “academics-first,” “crawl-walk-run”-out of box seen as “fun” or “too-advanced” not training Leadership evaluations focused on “checking-the-block” Influence of Management Science leads too? What?-Army Doing Good Things – But?:  What?-Army Doing Good Things – But? Factors identified as negative factors in past studies remain at base of culture: Such as, The “up or out” promotion system Scientific management theme in manning approaches “Production” of officers “Making-mission” Leaders and Soldiers have been conditioned to accept non-traditional Army norms by centralized, functional specialization and selection systems that will continue too Emphasize competition Individual replacements Generalist, career model What does this do to adaptive leaders? Slide18:  Research has shown that individual performance appraisal and selection systems are, Inaccurate Unscientific Prone to sub-group subversion? More than half of any rating variance is due to “idiosyncratic rater effects” such as, How much the rater likes the ratee Whether they have similar personalities Their views on performance Sterotypes on gender, race and ethnicity Self-interest Sub-group factional interests Variations in work context What?-Army Doing Good Things – But? What does this lead too? What?-Army Doing Good Things – But?:  Most importantly, centralized transfer promotion queues will continue to lead too, Frequent, expensive moves will still occur Reduce social capital Erode trust Add to careerist credentials An “annual promotion tournament” will continue too, Shift people between units, as if robbing “Peter to pay Paul,” primarily to reward the winners Team improvement suffers Legitimacy and commitment suffer because almost everyone not promoted to senior officer and non-commissioned officer rank is dissatisfied with the current system Those who are promoted and in control will dismiss the dissatisfaction as “sour grapes” What?-Army Doing Good Things – But? In Sum, the Problem? What?-Army Doing Good Things – But? The result:  “The Army “machine” equates 2LTs with ZERO years of experience to Captains with 10 years of years.” (PERSORSA) What?-Army Doing Good Things – But? The result The Army’s response to: current shortages future field grade short falls force structure changes, i.e., increase of Units of Action But in reality: Experience goes down Quality decreases Competence suffers Retention pays EXAMPLE—Non-BQ CPTs as APMS to schools To meet the cycle of decline Increase “mission” Strategic, operational & tactical impacts Mark Lewis “Army Transformation meets the junior officer exodus”” What?-Army Doing Good Things – But? In sum:  What?-Army Doing Good Things – But? In sum Army is adapting, but by climate, not culture After the need goes away, so do the positive climates? Cultural engines identified by Army Training and Leadership Development Panel (ATLDP) of 2001 remain “up or out” promotion (1916) Production line accessions=quantity trumps quality (1900) Bloated officer corps, driven by short-term measures (1947) Culture must evolve slightly ahead of other institutional changes in order to be in place, To nurture traits of desired behavior Sustain changes brought about to ensure success The hardest part to develop is the details in a Strategic how-to to move from here to there What is the Solution? What?-Army Doing Good Things – But? Conclusion:  What?-Army Doing Good Things – But? Conclusion Army is adapting, but by climate, not culture After the need goes away, so do the positive climates? Cultural engines identified by Army Training and Leadership Development Panel (ATLDP) of 2001 remain “up or out” promotion (1916) Production line accessions=quantity trumps quality (1900) Bloated officer corps, driven by short-term measures (1947) Culture must evolve slightly ahead of other institutional changes in order to be in place, To nurture traits of desired behavior Sustain changes brought about to ensure success The hardest part to develop is the details in a Strategic how-to to move from here to there Part III How to-What Do We have?:  Part III How to-What Do We have? VALUES OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLES DOD – ARMY CULTURE UNITED STATES VALUES CULTURE STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP TRANSLATION OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLES GOVERNMENT - PUBLIC SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS - PRIVATE CHANGED ARMY CULTURE ∆ How to-What Do We have? A modern, military bureaucracy:  How to-What Do We have? A modern, military bureaucracy A modern bureaucracy that is, Tends to repeat the same solutions React late under pressure Remain tied to narrow goals of cost reduction and incremental productivity Translates into a culture that will continue too Inhibit innovation Have difficulty accommodating other philosophies, such as the professional military ethos Institutional issues surrounding professional expertise, jurisdiction and legitimacy fall outside the decision making routine of military (Army) bureaucracy Translation Needed Hard to Do! How to-Translation?:  How to-Translation? Army Strategic Leaders must, Define operational principles & values apart from general society’s: humanistic, not materialistic! Be coincident– “Live along Side” general societies! Be service, not “stuff” oriented! Adapt “postmodernism professionalism” Set the example! Get at change! How-to: Suggestions to Get Started:  How-to: Suggestions to Get Started Form an Ad-hoc, but sanctioned TF to take a Holist, System’s (Not ‘Pieces’) Institutional view and define what we must DO & HOW to Implement = CSA TF Publicly Award & Assign RESPONSIBLE “Adaptive,” “Innovative” Leaders – Set the Value Example from the Top (Did they impact the Organization Positively?)! = CSA TF/G1 Shape the Executive & Legislative Branches’, Private Sector’s, and Public’s support for Army Cultural Evolution = CSA TF/PAO Shape the Internal Environment – Get the Strategic and Senior Leader Cadres behind the Movement – They must support to make progress possible = CSA Do all of these at the Same Time! = CSA TF/G3 How-to: Suggestions to Get Started:  How-to: Suggestions to Get Started Adopt “Trust tactics” — five principal facets to achieve decision cycle dominance over potential 4GW enemies through the successful and independent decision-making of subordinate commanders The first of these is scope for initiative. The second is prudent risk-taking. The third facet concerns the commander's intent to “trust tactics.” Fourth, superior-subordinate relations must be characterized by mutual trust. Fifth, directive control presupposes subordinate initiative and feedback. Now, it is time to implement changes to officer accessions How-to: Suggestions to Get Started:  How-to: Suggestions to Get Started Create the environment required to create and support adaptive leaders: Publicly praise and award signs of adaptability & innovators Work with Army Times and AUSA to highlight their actions Put on army.mil with message talking about such people Form a task force composed of such people despite the fact that their careers may not appear to be “fast-tracked” as reflected officially in their files The group advises and recommends the Army CSA on the necessary cultural changes to support the 21st Century Army Continues to search for more examples of adaptability and innovation Take these people and make them instructors in ROTC or at West Point How to-Get Δ Change?:  How to-Get Δ Change? Society's V&OP Translated into Army Policy, Doctrine, Operating Policies & Procedures = ARMY CULTURE ∆ = “How we want to do Business!” Strategic Leaders’ Stated Values & Operational Principles (V&OP) How we actually Do Business – Operational Reality Monitor Δ of Intent Vs Outcome Reinforce Statement of Values, Principles & Actions Outside Influences: Generations of War & Enemy Internal Influences: Society Support/Political Understanding of Change Resources Availability How to-Who belongs and can build? How we want to do business: Moving to the details:  How to-Who belongs and can build? How we want to do business: Moving to the details Four categories of professional and psychological maturity: Stage 1: Not yet members of the profession Stage 2: Limited members of the profession Stage 3: They are true professionals Stage 4: Lead the Army profession The personnel strategy and force structure reforms proposed here aims to stream personnel into four main roles according to their level of professional maturity. How to–Change The Way We Do Business:  How to–Change The Way We Do Business Where are WE? Such As? Zero Defects ‘More’ Stuff Technology Focus Individual Focus Error Tolerance – Surprise isn’t Bad Equal Tec & People More ‘WE’ less ‘ME’ More Service – Less Stuff Where Must WE GO? Such As? Build Bridges – How to Transition between where we are to where we MUST GO Define Present – Redefine – Build a Future “Picture” - Develop a Viable Plan to get There! Preserve the Past, Build on the Present, Create the Future Expeditionary Army Cold War – Legacy THE STRATEGIC CHANGE MODEL: What we must DO! How to: The Bridge – Parallel Evolution:  How to: The Bridge – Parallel Evolution Present Culture Evolve Officer Education and Training = New ROTC Goal: Expeditionary Army Future Culture Adaptive Leaders to Lead this Army The Bridge - How to Get There? Doctrine Personnel Force Structure Leadership Other Cultural Systemic Factors OPEN, HONEST, APPRAISAL Move Beyond Rhetoric! 17 Focus Groups Evolving Together - Must Anticipate 2nd and 3rd Order Effects! How-to: More Details What must occur simultaneously:  How-to: More Details What must occur simultaneously Information Capital (IC) Organizational Culture People CD + ED Potential Value Strategy (Map) Strategic Leaders The ‘Hidden’ Dimension of Soldiers (CD + ED) Determines How Potential Value Materializes, the Realism of the Strategy, and the Nature of Internal Strategic Processes The Three Components of Learning &Growth are NOT ‘Born Equal’ CD = Cognitive Development ED = Social-Emotional Development Minority Report Annex A of report How-to: More Details What must occur simultaneously :  How-to: More Details What must occur simultaneously New Unit of Action (within new Stabilization) Potential Value Changed Culture Strategic Leaders How Potential Value Materializes, the Realism of the Strategy, and the Nature of Internal Strategic Processes Repeat, the 17 Focused area Transformation needs to continue, with these adjustments but culture changes are guided by Operational Staff (makes changes to OPMS 3) Specialists (makes changes to OPMS 3) Institutional Staff New Accessions & Education System How-to: More Details What must occur simultaneously:  How-to: More Details What must occur simultaneously Today’s Culture Stress process Forecasting Risk aversion Bureaucratic Top-down Rank equals success Change is criticism = adherence to process ensures success Future Army Culture Stress innovation Experimentation Prudent risk-taking Agility Feedback loops Contribution valued Change is evolutionary =as long as objectives are achieved How-to: More Details The Personnel System:  How-to: More Details The Personnel System New promotion system Fill vacancies with or without a promotion Holds competitions open only to Soldiers serving in that unit Transfers and promotions not in sequence Not from central selection list Does not involve transfers from one BCT to another Personnel specialists do selecting Freedom to select, weigh and interpret complex and detailed data according to professional standards, the vacancy and circumstances of unit Local competitions may be less costly than current, counterproductive, centralized, selection and promotion systems How-to: More Details The Personnel System:  How-to: More Details The Personnel System Specialists for personnel, social science and personnel management have sole authority for selection Observers from Army have veto but cannot force selection Chain of command has no vote, veto or otherwise Based on information collected throughout career within a stable market of reputation and 360-degree view Source of information on candidates can come from: Chain of command Peers Subordinates Stakeholders in other units Information is not limited to surveys or performance reports How-to: New Combined Arms Unit:  How-to: New Combined Arms Unit All arms, all supporting brigade sized unit Known by single name No permanent unit, branches, corps occupations or affiliations that would sub-divide the BCT Reduces resistance of competing affiliations and weapons systems to innovation and evolution Provides sub-units for matrix organizations and networking for an array of mission Regional recruited and based Flexibility to assume role based on mission and campaign plan-fight one mission as infantry, rotate back and act as military police (after training and equipment switch) How-to: New BCT The people:  How-to: New BCT The people Officers and Soldiers spend entire life with BCT (Stages 1-2: see slide 27) Key is to promote learning organization, innovation and adaptability as a unit Stability brings this about by building trust Can continually experiment Accessions of officers and enlisted are by need basis, allowing for strenuous professional entrance standards Moving to more mature Soldiers-leader and led More attuned to 4GW How-to: New BCT Capabilities:  How-to: New BCT Capabilities Unit can evolve over time, can be switched to different types of mission over time Instead of specific branches, assign changing mission to cohesive, long-standing unit led by vastly better educated and experienced leaders Develops broad outlined doctrine that evolves based on lessons learned and experience of long serving members of UA Similar to German Jager Infantry culture which was foundation for Sturm units used in World War I, and then evolved to Panzer units in WWII Manages Stage 1 & 2 of Soldiers How-to: Operational Staff:  How-to: Operational Staff Not a “General Staff” Selection and entrance into after experienced gained in stages 1 & 2 Selection built upon based on reputation over time Experts and understanding of evolution of war Advise levels above BCT, such as Corps Group, to free BCT of operational and strategic concerns Are not bureaucratic staff officers How-to: Operational Staff:  How-to: Operational Staff Mid-point of career is first opportunity, equals 10-15 years of service Actual initial selection into Operational Staff, competition opened directly to members operational staff to fill vacant positions Filled with major to Major General One distinguishing badge and uniform How-to: Specialists:  How-to: Specialists Evolved from Social and Human sciences professions Military law, chaplain, IG, human resources, social work, social science, counseling and family services, medical and dental care, etc…. Stage 3 & 4 Monitor and assist BCTs so they can focus on tasks to perform effectively in 4GW Separate badge for entire corps as well How-to: Specialists:  How-to: Specialists Are not CS or CSS, these are included in BCT as one Soldier Only Stage 2 to 3 Soldiers allowed to enter to take advantage of experience (mid-service) Focused to the human and social sciences that shape the cultural assumptions and behavior of the Soldier How-to: More Details Leader Education and Accessions:  How-to: More Details Leader Education and Accessions Complexity scale Resources scale Complex Unit Tasks Education: “How to think” In sum: Favor strengths Educate early task-train as necessary to enhance decision making as cognitive skills established plug in task training Cognitive Skills education Task Training Baseline Favors Centralized Training with resources, ranges, personnel, time Favors Campus-based Education, mental resources Individual Tasks Administrative Tasks Weapon Tasks Training Learning Theory Tactical Decision Games Force-on-Force, Free-play exercises Language (s) Tasks Training: “What to think” Cognitive development Strategy How-to: More Details Education and Accessions:  How-to: More Details Education and Accessions “Learning organization” exposes cadets-classical education- they find answers Experiencing the emotional trauma of failing within a safe, face saving environment that is needed to promote ED Once cadets finds the answers themselves these lessons are emotionally marked in time CD and ED need to be developed in synchrony in order to maximize knowledge development, KD CD lays open to the individual a landscape of choices ED determines whether he or she makes the RIGHT CHOICES under prevailing circumstances Tools to assist good teachers Tactical decision games (TDGs) key Intensive confidential individual assessment, feedback, and development planning 360-degree double loop feedback Establishing the blend of instructional technologies to use, particularly in the institutional setting, is critical to promoting synchronous growth in CD, ED, and, consequently, KD Force on force, free play exercises against a thinking enemy How-to: More Details Education and Accessions:  How-to: More Details Education and Accessions Functional Training (ABN/Ranger, Scout Leader) BOLC I BOLC II BOLC III Establishes the foundation in cognitive skills “how to think” sets the foundation “Culturalize” Brings together those who passed through the “gate of commissioning,” creating bonds Specialized training, and administrative tasks Academic Rigor begins here! First tough cut comes here, needs to come earlier than later Rite of Passage Begins with tough screening These may be offered earlier First unit Cognitive Skills education Task Training Baseline Learning from the platoon sergeant/NCOs, COs, many tasks can be learned here How-to: More Details Education and Accessions:  How-to: More Details Education and Accessions “Mental Preparation” is a long term investment, “we want to plant Oak trees, not Pine trees,” CSA April 11, 2003 BOLC is good start, with Phase II bonding/building trust early; BOLC III should favor task training But…Phase I needs to develop cognitive development (CD) early, social emotional development (ED), Perceptual & Learning process (P&L), and Knowledge development (KD) is the sum of the first two. Plan must favor strengths, understand-avoid weaknesses (summary) How-to: More Details Education and Accessions:  How-to: More Details Education and Accessions Commissioning Based on forecasted UA needs not cohort numbers by law BA Decisive Leadership Army loan forgiven Contracts at end Of first year, begins Army loan MS II Foreign language Attends Army schools Or cultural experience Stage 2 Prior service/ Green-to-Gold MS III MS IV LDAC Evaluation History, Cultural, and Leader requirements MS I How-to: More Details Other Considerations-Pay:  How-to: More Details Other Considerations-Pay Supports new force structure and personnel strategy, evolve together Pay remains stratified by rank, but overlap to provide annual increases that reward accumulated military experience and commitment, regardless of degree of specialization Personnel specialists in the Specialists corps manage a local system to support each BCT, Corps Group and Operational Staff How-to: More Details Other Considerations-Career paths:  How-to: More Details Other Considerations-Career paths All into BCT At mid-point of career (after Stage 2), they can remain in BCT, acquiring additional abilities (with technology) Or they can migrate to Specialist or compete to enter Operational staff How-to: More Details Other Considerations:  How-to: More Details Other Considerations Personnel management by competencies, lead to the ability to have a matrix organization Effectiveness of BCT determines missions Specialist corps acculturate and manage supply and demand of personnel Problems must be solved, and not wait out a bad commander or passed on later BCT forced to develop human resources at hand The Results! How? Strategic Model – As I define What:  How? Strategic Model – As I define What The Cold War Army (2nd GW) ROTC trains officers for the Major Power War, where: They operate within boundaries established by fixed chains of command, fixed doctrine, fixed force structure, & known threat They train for certainty within these boundaries to fixed tasks, conditions, standards Their decision making process assumes linearity with clear cause and effect relationships Future, Expeditionary Army (3rd GW—to Deal with 4GW) Instead, ROTC needs to educate and train the new officer to deal with Small Wars, to: Operate with flexible chains of command, beyond doctrine, with variable force structure, & unknown threat Train for uncertainty with no boundaries to uncertain tasks, in uncertain conditions, with uncertain standards Solve asymmetric warfare problems that are non-linear and whose solutions lie outside the defined boundaries John Tillson “Training for Adaptability” Conclusion What this does for the Army:  Conclusion What this does for the Army In terms of the Generations of war, the Army is very good at Second Generation Warfare, but needs to move to a culture that can fight 3rd Generation Warfare in order to understand and cope with Fourth Generation Warfare. This study is not meant to imply criticism of our leaders and Soldiers, but of some of the way we do things now (culture). Expeditionary (3GW-Maneuver), is a complete culture; it cannot be effectively adopted piecemeal, and without the dislocations that necessarily accompany true paradigm shifts. Current Army doctrine is not "broken," but even "whole," it may still be improved (better supported by our military culture). Evolving doctrine will be effective, but words and goals are not as fully supported by our current "Methodical" culture as it could be. A 3GW culture could provide advantages in training, administration, logistics, and operations that would enable current doctrine to achieve its full potential on the battlefield. Countries have two very different military forces: one for peacetime, and one for war. These forces differ in size, structure, and most important of all, culture. For all of the Army’s talk of "train the way you fight" and "Battle-Focus," the Army invariably trains using "peacetime" techniques and standards. In the past mobilization and the early phases of war, we usually waste time and blood struggling to reorient ourselves to the inevitably different demands of war. This expensive process is, at its root, a cultural transformation. Wars often end before this transformation is completed. Conclusion The Army of tomorrow!:  Conclusion The Army of tomorrow! The Culture Strategic Contribution & seeking responsibility Goal: Networked Army? that works seamlessly with other services government agencies in order To perform array of missions Feed back loop: Bottom up encouraged by vertical Culture, i.e., companycommander.com Hierarchal force structure flattened To four areas: tactical, operational, Strategic and technical-Command (control taken out). 10 layers C&C Modularity UA/UE Army Transformation (2005-?) Neo-Taylorism career model replaced by Demming Action begins to replace rhetoric Tank, precision Strike, jet/helo Success=professionalism Decisiveness at right time Service oriented leaders Leaders have ability to multi-task, understand merging levels of war in a flat, matrix, networking force structure; Education & Training extensive Early rigor= common language Rank structure flattened to four areas: tactical, operational, strategic and technical, “perform or out” replaces “up or out” Future combat system fielded/non-lethal, hand-held computers, time now information, Quality over quantity Once- untouchable laws, policies & beliefs are finally addressed Doctrine is in terms of principles to enhance evolution based on feedback loop objective type orders Has ability To understand & deal with it FM 1-0 FM 3-0 FM 7-0 “Adaptive Leader” Slide56:  Back ups How? How to facilitate these traits:  How? How to facilitate these traits Future Army Culture Stress innovation Experimentation Prudent risk-taking Agility Feedback loops Contribution valued Change is evolutionary = as long as objectives are achieved How to do it Stabilization and unit manning will achieve “what right looks like” Army schools need to also become centers of experimentation evolving tactics and techniques Contributions need to be highlighted and rewarded Evaluation reports need to focus on short-term as well as long term contributions to the larger organization up to the Army How? How to facilitate these traits:  How? How to facilitate these traits In order to get here Stabilization and unit manning will allow time to get to achieve what right looks like Army schools need to also become centers of experimentation evolving tactics and techniques Contributions need to be highlighted and rewarded Evaluation reports need to focus on short-term in present duties as well as long term contributions to the larger organization up to the Army Encourage networking and matching the right teams How to Doctrine manuals are short, concise and on principles Let personnel homestead, and rotate to TDA back to unit assignments After command or primary staff positions, duty as an instructor at Army school, ROTC, or West Point is sought after, larger units even oversee these places in their regions allowing for rotation to and from and hosting Change cultural definition of success, address rank structure How? How to facilitate these traits:  How? How to facilitate these traits To get here Doctrine manuals are short, concise and on principles Let personnel homestead, and rotate to TDA back to unit assignments After command or primary staff positions, duty as an instructor at Army school, ROTC, or West Point is sought after. Larger units even oversee these places in their regions allowing for rotation to and from and hosting Now we can address how to develop our leaders How To Award innovators like those who started and run Companycommand.com as a way to network and run a feedback loop With units on cycle, they will rotate to and from places giving Soldiers array of experiences Admit that each traditional level of war is complex and takes longer and more knowledge to master Reduce bureaucratic staffs and flatten the organization see notes below How? How to facilitate these traits:  How? How to facilitate these traits To Get There Award innovators like those who started and run Company command.com as a way to network and run a feedback loop With units on cycle, they will rotate to and from places giving Soldiers array of experiences Admit that each traditional level of war is complex and takes longer and more knowledge to master Reduce bureaucratic staffs and flatten the organization see notes below How To Convince Congress to pass a Goldwater-Nichols for personnel reform Move from up or out to perform or out, but much more must be done to make that work Access far fewer officers Make it tougher to commission Raise the pay of lower ranking leaders so they can afford middle class living, focus on profession New educational and training requires a different instructional technology than that used in conventional E&T establishments

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