Using Test Triggers for Improved Defect Detection

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Published on December 15, 2008

Author: gtaio

Source: slideshare.net

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Presentation at the 2003 IEEE Latin America Test Workshop in Natal, Brazil

Using Test Triggers for Improved Defect Detection Charles P. Schultz, ASQ CSQE Global Software Group United States - Florida IEEE LATW’03

WHY DO YOU TEST? To demonstrate that the device meets its specification? - quality To find defects (non-conformance to specification) in the device as soon as possible after they are introduced?- cost To demonstrate that the device is fit to proceed (handoff) to the next stage of its development or evolution?- readiness

To demonstrate that the device meets its specification? - quality

To find defects (non-conformance to specification) in the device as soon as possible after they are introduced?- cost

To demonstrate that the device is fit to proceed (handoff) to the next stage of its development or evolution?- readiness

WHAT ARE YOUR RESULTS? The specification does not adequately or fully describe the intended or required device? Many defects escape notice until very late in the development cycle when they are the most costly? Do some defects escape the entire product development cycle and reach the customer because they are not checked for by testing?

The specification does not adequately or fully describe the intended or required device?

Many defects escape notice until very late in the development cycle when they are the most costly?

Do some defects escape the entire product development cycle and reach the customer because they are not checked for by testing?

SOME POSSIBLE REASONS... Specification are written mostly from the perspective of “normal” or “intended” use of the device Device capabilities are added incrementally so finding defects related to interactions gets “postponed” until late in the project Testers will sometimes think of “tricky” or “unusual” scenarios, but do not have a method for doing this regularly and consistently

Specification are written mostly from the perspective of “normal” or “intended” use of the device

Device capabilities are added incrementally so finding defects related to interactions gets “postponed” until late in the project

Testers will sometimes think of “tricky” or “unusual” scenarios, but do not have a method for doing this regularly and consistently

SOME ADDITIONAL CLUES... The attention of requirements, developers, and testers also tends to concentrate on the operation of the device once it has reached a static operating state Diagramming the possible operating spaces of a device may give some clues as to why some defects are missed and what can be done about it...

The attention of requirements, developers, and testers also tends to concentrate on the operation of the device once it has reached a static operating state

Diagramming the possible operating spaces of a device may give some clues as to why some defects are missed and what can be done about it...

DEVICE OPERATING SPACE Initialization Activate Post-Init Deactivate Pwrdn/Reset

DEVICE OPERATING SPACE Attention is focused here Initialization Activate Post-Init Deactivate Pwrdn/Reset

HOW CAN WE DO BETTER? The Orthogonal Defect Classification system defines a set of categories to classify how defects are triggered, which includes the following: CONFIGURATION STARTUP NORMAL RESTART

The Orthogonal Defect Classification system defines a set of categories to classify how defects are triggered, which includes the following:

CONFIGURATION

STARTUP

NORMAL

RESTART

WHY IS THIS SIGNIFICANT? These Defect Triggers map to the different regions of the Device Operating Space CONFIGURATION ALL STARTUP Initialization NORMAL Post-Initialization RESTART Powerdown/Reset

These Defect Triggers map to the different regions of the Device Operating Space

CONFIGURATION ALL

STARTUP Initialization

NORMAL Post-Initialization

RESTART Powerdown/Reset

HOW DOES THIS APPLY TO ME? Each test can be classified by which Defect Trigger(s) it uses. Mapping the test “coverage” of each trigger will reveal opportunities to improve the test set coverage of the Operating Space ability to find more defects Defining these additional tests may also reveal missing or ambiguous requirements

Each test can be classified by which Defect Trigger(s) it uses.

Mapping the test “coverage” of each trigger will reveal opportunities to improve the test set

coverage of the Operating Space

ability to find more defects

Defining these additional tests may also reveal missing or ambiguous requirements

TRIGGER COVERAGE MAP EXAMPLE 33% untested (12 of 36 possibilities) Boxes with low numbers may be undertested

33% untested (12 of 36 possibilities)

Boxes with low numbers may be undertested

TEST EXAMPLE - CONFIGURATION SERIAL I/O Device works correctly at default Baud Rate Device cannot properly decode received date when operating at the lowest possible Baud Rate configuration Is device also being tested at high Baud Rate, or Baud Rates that use “unusual” clock multipliers?

SERIAL I/O

Device works correctly at default Baud Rate

Device cannot properly decode received date when operating at the lowest possible Baud Rate configuration

Is device also being tested at high Baud Rate, or Baud Rates that use “unusual” clock multipliers?

IS THAT ALL THERE IS? Further examination of device behavior and Defect Trigger test results reveals that some faults cannot be revealed by test cases using one trigger These faults may be masked by “repairs” that occur in different parts of the operating space Such a fault can only be detected by operating in the space where the defect is revealed, and without the presence of the repair

Further examination of device behavior and Defect Trigger test results reveals that some faults cannot be revealed by test cases using one trigger

These faults may be masked by “repairs” that occur in different parts of the operating space

Such a fault can only be detected by operating in the space where the defect is revealed, and without the presence of the repair

FAULT MASKING EXAMPLE In order to detect Fault F , the device must go through a Restart, and then be operated during Initialization, before Repair R occurs F R Initialization Activate Post-Init Deactivate Pwrdn/Reset

In order to detect Fault F , the device must go through a Restart, and then be operated during Initialization, before Repair R occurs

WHY ELSE USE TRIGGER PAIRS? Some faults are not masked, but their effects are not detectable until an operation occurs in a subsequent operating space Such a fault can only be detected by operating in the space that causes the defects effect, and then observing behavior in the space where the effect can be detected

Some faults are not masked, but their effects are not detectable until an operation occurs in a subsequent operating space

Such a fault can only be detected by operating in the space that causes the defects effect, and then observing behavior in the space where the effect can be detected

DELAYED FAULT EFFECT EXAMPLE Fault F creates Effect E which corrupts an Initialization parameter. The device must be used normally and then operated during Initialization to trigger E F E Initialization Activate Post-Init Deactivate Pwrdn/Reset

Fault F creates Effect E which corrupts an Initialization parameter. The device must be used normally and then operated during Initialization to trigger E

ARE THESE DEFECTS SIGNIFICANT? Non-Normal, single trigger tests revealed 20% of the defects found in one set of features Trigger pairs detected an additional 23% of defects, which went undetected by the single trigger tests Under-tested Feature/Trigger pairs represent an additional opportunity to find more defects and/or provide more confidence in the product’s quality

Non-Normal, single trigger tests revealed 20% of the defects found in one set of features

Trigger pairs detected an additional 23% of defects, which went undetected by the single trigger tests

Under-tested Feature/Trigger pairs represent an additional opportunity to find more defects and/or provide more confidence in the product’s quality

ARE THESE DEFECTS SIGNIFICANT? Non-Normal single trigger tests were over twice as efficient as Normal tests at finding defects (0.22 defects/test versus 0.10) Trigger pair test efficiency was similar, finding 0.26 defects/test A high density of defects indicates that more defects may still be present but undetected

Non-Normal single trigger tests were over twice as efficient as Normal tests at finding defects (0.22 defects/test versus 0.10)

Trigger pair test efficiency was similar, finding 0.26 defects/test

A high density of defects indicates that more defects may still be present but undetected

RECIPE FOR DEFECT TRIGGER TESTS Map tests to triggers and add tests to improve the coverage of under-utilized triggers for each functional area of the device Do the same for trigger pairs Create and use tests for new devices and features with the goal to provide good trigger coverage Start where you can make the biggest impact

Map tests to triggers and add tests to improve the coverage of under-utilized triggers for each functional area of the device

Do the same for trigger pairs

Create and use tests for new devices and features with the goal to provide good trigger coverage

Start where you can make the biggest impact

RECIPE FOR DEFECT PREVENTION Account for all triggers and trigger pairs in requirements and design in order to create more robust and higher quality devices Create design inspection checklists that incorporate each trigger and trigger pair Also design and inspect for the possibility of masked behaviors and delayed effects in the different operating spaces

Account for all triggers and trigger pairs in requirements and design in order to create more robust and higher quality devices

Create design inspection checklists that incorporate each trigger and trigger pair

Also design and inspect for the possibility of masked behaviors and delayed effects in the different operating spaces

WHEN CAN I START? NOW!

NOW!

QUESTIONS?

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