Published on February 26, 2014
Using Personas (and Stories) Effectively TriUXPA – February 26, 2014 Whitney Quesenbery WQusability and Center for Civic Design Twitter @whitneyq
Hi! User research, usability, accessibility Former theatre designer Personas (and their stories) as a way to communicate what we know about users, culture and context Researcher in new UI technologies Performance storyteller 2 Storytelling as a pivotal part of the creation, performance, and design process.
What do you hope to get out of this workshop? 3
What are we going to do? Personas: background and concepts Stories: and why they work Creating personas Definining the set Writing a persona Adding stories Introducing your personas: getting to know them better Seeing through personas eyes: to review a product, feature, site.... Designing with personas: from problem stories to solution stories Using personas for evaluation Analysis 4 Gathering information
Personas and UX Kindersandi.moonfruit.com
What do think personas are? What is the value of personas? 6
Personas can help address big challenges in UX Hearing users at all Organizing increasing amounts of data Building consensus around a clear, consistent view A realistic view of the people we design for 7 General market knowledge Points of pain Business or other functions met by the product Competitive marketplace and analysis Market segments Context of use Web analytics
Personas remind us to see the individual How do we understand each person, not as part of a demographic, but as an individual with a history, goals, actions and a relationship to the product
What‟s in a persona? A. About the person B. Goals & motivations C. Attitudes and data D. Background story E. Scenarios 9
Personas create an integrated view of user research Personas are built from data They put a human face on analytics And their stories built empathy by suggesting the real people behind the persona 10
Personas can document assumptions 11
Stories connect us Couriemail.com.au
We all tell stories 13
Personas and stories both start with listening Why listen? Deeply understand others Empower the speaker Research is about listening Ask for stories, not just opinion Listen for the emotion, attitudes, context in the stories Good listening elicits good stories Build a connection that bridges context and culture Built trust – “They understand me” 14
Listening is not a competitive sport Be an appreciative listener Give them your full attention Acknoweldge what you hear, non-verbally Give the person time to think as well as talk Don‟t rush the end – sometimes people have one last thought 15
Listening Exercise Work in pairs 1 minute each to be the speaker - then switch Speaker‟s job: speak about something relatively comfortable Listener‟s job: just listen. Don‟t have to talk, interrupt or fill silences. Talk about something you made that you are proud of.
Ask the questions that encourage stories “Have you ever [done something]?” “How often do you [do that thing]?” “What makes you decide to [do that thing]?” “Where do you [do that thing]?” + + “When was the last time you [did that thing]?” “Tell me about that.” (and really listen) 17
Listen (and watch) for juicy tidbits Stories you hear from more than one source Strong detail and action Details that illuminate other user data or analytics Stories that contradict common beliefs Simple, clear, and compelling 18
Stories communicate patterns They... Communicate culture Store and transmit knowledge Explore new ideas They help us… Share information in memorable form Understand emotion and desires 19
Stories create relationships
Stories are not a broadcast
Personas create connections Persona stories create a relationship between you and the audience 22
Stories create connections Sharing what you learn creates a second story triangle with the larger team 23
Stories create connections Personas bridge the gap between everyone on the team and the users the personas represent. 24
A story is shared by everyone who hears it First the storyteller shapes the story As they listen, the audience members form an image of the story in their own minds.
A story is shared by everyone who hears it The storyteller and the audience each affects the other and shapes the story they create. The most important relationship is between the audience and the story. The audience is a part of the story each time it is told.
Stories change how we think Our experience of the world is shaped by our interpretations of it, the stories we tell ourselves.... so the key to personal transformation is story transformation. Timothy Wilson, author of “Redirect” 27 Maria Popova, „Redirect‟: A New Way to Think about Psychological Change, The Atlantic
Stories can be efficient Tanner was deep into a Skatepunkz game—all the way up to level 12—when he got a buddy message from his friend, Steve, with a question about his homework. He looked up with a start. Almost bedtime and his homework was still not done. Mom or Dad would be in any minute. 28
Stories are embedded in the UX cycle Collecting stories: hearing what other people have to say Understand Analysis: finding patterns in shared stories Evaluate Success? Specify Evaluation: testing designs to see if they tell the story well Design Design: creating ideas that embody key stories
Storytelling is already part of UX… We just don‟t call them stories User research Field studies Site visits Analysis Card sorting Cluster sorting Content analysis Evaluation Usability Testing Log Analysis Design Scenarios Wireframes Prototype walkthrough
Personas come in groups Organized around a clear set of distinctions between behavior A spectrum of different relationships with the organization Stages in behavior or relationships Do the personas represent a person, an activity, or a relationship One persona can grow over time Or each persona can represent a slice of time, a single role Personas can cover multiple secondary roles, with one primary role 31
A clear set of distinctions Look for variables that identify distinct differences between participants Test pairs of variables by plotting participants against them on a matrix P8 Try again until patterns start to emerge Clusters of participants represent possible personas P 1 Do they have a defining characteristic? P6 P10 1 3 P4 How are they different from the others? P5 How are these people alike? P7 P3 P1 2 P2 P9 Look for clusters of participants 11 In each cluster, one participant will often be the inspiration for the persona
A spectrum of roles and relationships 33
Open University Personas Student personas cover a complete student journey When we first meet them Enquiry process First module Progression through their university career Further on in life And, we can write stories for them for any project 34
Personas can grow over time SELF-HELPERS & CAREGIVERS Assistance and Tools - recipes and diet - checklists - resources info in the tools leads to specific questions EXPERTS Specific Questions - disease updates - diagnostic info learn what they need INFOSEEKERS General Information - warnings/risks - what is it gain more knowledge
Melissa Laura Elizabeth InfoSeeker Caregiver Expert “I don‟t like to go backwards to go forwards” “I want to know how to help my “I don‟t stay on a site long if husband” nothing jumps out at me” Goals: Looking for new information Goals: Looking for helpful information Typical Questions: What is <condition>? Am I at risk? Typical Questions: What do I need to know about it? What are the next steps I should take? Top Usability Need: Engaging - I can tell I‟m in the right place by the amount and level of information Top Usability Needs: Effective - I need resources, and the right information Risks Curious - needs to be drawn in. Little sense of site loyalty Risks Needs information she can act on Goals: Information I can use Answers to specific questions Typical Questions: Tell me something new I want the latest! I need <this> information. Top Usability Needs: Efficient: Give me a search box and I‟ll tell you exactly what I want Risks Already knows the basics
Quickly brainstorm as many stories as you can about how someone using public transit might need, use, or miss information. This is rapid sketching with words Who is the story about Where are they going / What are they doing What might happen: what information do they need / why do they need it Let's create some personas.... Start by brainstorming some stories 37
Daily use of public transport Henry Commuter P4 11 P6 35 1 7 xx xx 36 P5 P 7 Anne Commuter plus most local travel 40 P5 1 2 35 P 1 10 1 5 22 32 27 1 3 26 Travels to familiar places Temp workers at 30 different locations 25 P8 P2 2 1 Travels to unknown places P9 Gail Travels into city When needed Mrs. Henderson Local travel 2-3x week 33 28 1 7 Jim Travels only on vacation # 1 4 1 5 1 4 # Travel to specific 1 places like 5 sports events Occasional use of public transport 1 8 P3 23 P4
One model for public transit riders Daily use Commuters People without cars Unfamiliar with area Know area well People who live near the city Travel for special occasions Tourists / visitors Occasional use 39
Start from… Your stories And.. Decide on the basics: Name, age, gender, job, family Where they live and work How they get around: do they own a car, use public transit… And now, let's sketch out the personas 40
How will you tell the story? Mary and Leonard Trujillo – The Mudhead Gallery
What makes a good story? Stories have Time and place Characters Events But they also have Emotions Imagery Interaction Motivation 42 metaphor, movement, weather, atmosphere, hap piness, pride, frustration, boredom, joy, smell, an ger, pleasure, history, context, time, goals....
Scenarios + emotions turn into stories As a [role] I can [do something] so that [benefit] + + Imagery + Emotion + Context + Motivation 43
Stories turn profiles into personas Elizabeth, 32 years old Married to Joe, has a 5-year old son, Justin Aged 30-45 Attended State College, and manages her class alumni site 45% married with children Uses Google as her home page, and reads CNN online Use the web 3-5 times a week Used the web to find the name of a local official 65% college educated 44
Whose style do you tell the story in If you are telling a story from research, you start with the way you heard the story. Then, do you: Use language, terminology, and grammar they way you heard it or Clean up and translate into the language of your team Are you trying to communicate Research authority and a neutral picture - a “realist tale” Your experience of the story – a “confessional tale” The perspectives of the persona – an “impressionist tale” John van Mannen – Tales from the Field 45
Choose your voice Third Person Second Person First Person Story is told about someone, looking at them from the outside Story is a conversation between the storyteller and another person Story is told from the point of view of the main character For example: A UX person telling stories about how several different people responded to a prototype. For example: Feedback to a participant or other stakeholder, For example: A UX person telling the story of their own reactions. Persona stories, especially if there is more than one Talking directly to users of a product Retelling a story from the point of view of the original experience. Maintains a distance between “us” and “them” Creates a direct connection and invites the other person to respond. Invites the audience to look at the story through the eyes of the character 46 “Interviewing a persona”
3rd person allows you to explain and interpret Mary works as a nurse in a hectic women’s health center for a lowincome neighborhood. … Her questions about cancer mostly come from her patients, or from wanting to be sure that she catches any early signs. … She has learned conversational Spanish, so she can talk to her patients for whom this is a first language. … When she looks things up on the Web, she tends to go back to familiar sites 47 Whose words and thoughts are these? Are these things that Mary would say or are they our interpretation of all the data and stories that went into the Mary persona? How can we show when we are using her own words?
2nd person creates conversation How can you show the conversation? Persona by Caroline Jarrett for the Open University Interviews maintain a separation Conversations can also happen between two personas
1st person invites identity You represent the persona and tell the story from their point of view. Lets you “get into the head” of the story (an “impressionist tale”) OR 49 First person can tell your story of your experience with the person (a “confessional tale”)
Add a story for your persona Focus on imagery, emotion, context It can be a story about a detail or small event Help us understand their personality or emotional context Write a story .. 50
Comic books Narrative visual storytelling can tell a story efficiently US Army maintenance newsletter in comic book form 51
Weave stories into your reports 52 Identify personas, not just participants
Cartoons Reveal thoughts 53 Show relevant details Show interactions
Create an identity 54 Their identity Timeline Snapshot
Social media storytelling Six word (or 140 character) stories can show a Timelines Attitudes Events Interactions 55
Make a video The NCI Cancer Bulletin: http://www.cancer.gov/ncicancerbulletin/101910/page6
Visual Collage Color Style Preferences Selections Cultural markers 57 http://3libraschild.deviantart.com/
Personas are a way to communicate Within a project team Stimulus for design discussions Team exercise in creating the personas For evaluation Between departments As a basis for comparing and evaluating projects that touch customers and users To the whole company A vision of the audience and how the product will be used
Get everyone involved in creating the personas The process of creating personas is as important as the final results More perspectives included in the personas Better buy-in for something you have worked on The process itself is important in understanding others Use interactive exercises to introduce personas Gives everyone a chance to work with them Validates their perspectives Ideas Have the group sketch “assumption personas” and then match them to the created personas. Have small groups write stories for the personas as a way to explore them. 60
Introducing personas at National Cancer Institute 61
Introducing personas at National Cancer Institute 62
Don‟t be too protective Acknowledge that they are a work in progress. Ask for more input Be open to the possibility of further improvement Accept that there will always be people who will question There‟s always corporate politics, “not invented here” syndromes There‟s always some skepticism about a new technique Know that the personas will be stronger if you can incorporate insights from others in some way. If you did your work well, you may find that the “revised” personas aren‟t too different from the original versions 63
Make the personas hard to miss You have to use them if you want everyone else to do so. Make them part of everyday life Use them in presentations, meetings, and reports Identify usability participants by the persona they are most like Make them visible as posters, display boards, or on the intranet Interview them in internal newsletters Use them (a lot) In project reviews To solicit input in “hallway reviews” 64
Share personas through posters Make a large version of the personas and post them near meeting rooms or team desks Use collage materials, and other descriptions, plus: Display photos or plans of typical work spaces Post quotations that exemplify the persona‟s attitudes Surround them with artifacts Include task lists that connect the persona to functionality in the product 65 Follow the UX Leader
Immersive environments encourage stories Ad agencies create rooms that represent the target market for a brand. 66 http://www.core77.com/blog/business/core77_toyota_calty_studio_visit_round_2_how_theyre_winning_11167.asp
Interviewing the personas Used to Explore the personas in general Imagine reactions to new ideas For general information or about a task or feature What stories does the persona have to tell? What questions does the team want to ask the persona? How do the personas talk about the topic in their own words Tips Be careful to stay true to the research behind the personas Don‟t guess – acknowledge gaps in your knowledge 67
. What questions do we want to ask the personas? 68
Pair up: one of you is the interviewer, one is the personas Interviewers: ask open-ended questions without judgment Persona: Try to stay in character, and talk in first person What did we learn Let’s try interviewing a persona 69
Keep personas fresh You might add characteristics related to new technologies Update the types of technology the personas use or are comfortable with Add use (or avoidance) of social media or other types of applications You can refactor characteristics Are the ages, geographical locations, jobs, roles and other behavior up to date? Adjust to changes in learning tools in classrooms or other market research You can add stories or update references to current events Adjust historical references to keep the age of the personas correct Add stories or scenarios from projects Decide if this is an update, or a whole new persona! 70
Changing the mix of personas You might add or remove personas from the set The OU added courses to appeal to a new type of student, and decided to downgrade leisure learners in importance NCI decided to look more closely at researchers, and created a small set of personas to expand the initial, more general one Over time, some personas may grow together Persona sets often start too large, as they accommodate internal views. Watch for opportunities to show how behaviors may cross what seem like very different roles. Finding the right number of personas is an art, not a science 71
Keep personas from “going feral” If the personas start to sound too “good” they may be Do they love everything that the company wants them to love, or behave in ways that are too obvious? Are they too bland, without any distinguishing characteristics Challenge this tendency early Ask “Are you sure?” Look for confirmation from other sources It might be a chance to do some research. 72
Look through their eyes Swindon Advertiser
First click analysis (vote with your fingertips) For any page (especially home pages and landing pages) What part of this page appeals to each persona Where is the most likely “first click” for each persona How easy is it to find? If this page is not for them, is there an “escape route”? Why 74 Check for balance of needs among personas Ensure no persona is left out of design considerations
Document the results 75
Let personas rate proposed features Let the personas weigh in to rate ideas for new features or functionality. Can be part of a formal prioritization exercise. Can focus on relative value of features for different personas Ask: Would each persona value it (how much and why)? What is the value to the business Would it be a differentiator? What is the “cost” of building it 76 Would each persona use it (or not)? What is the cost of maintaining it SBI Razorfish, presentation at UPA NYC many years ago
Compare value for personas and difficulty for business HIGH Benefit to personas Work on these LATER Work on these NOW LOW Technical Difficulty HIGH Technical Difficulty IGNORE these MAYBE include these LOW Benefit to personas 77 The Personas Lifecycle – Tamara Adlin and John Pruitt
Persona-led Reviews Look at a site or feature through the eyes of a persona Use the persona's perspective instead of your expert opinion Think about task and context, rather than design guidelines Why Be sure you are thinking about user experience 78
Step 1: Don‟t look at it (yet) Sounds contradictory? You have only one chance to look at something for the first time and to think about it like a new user. If you look at it before you try to use it, you‟ll see it differently. If you are reviewing your own material, set it aside for a few hours before you do the persona / story walk-through.
Step 2: Write a story Choose a persona It lets you think about the experience from their point of view (or assign one person to everyone in the group) If you don‟t have personas, write a quick description of one person using the product. Write the story Why are they using this product? How do they feel about it? What are their goals? What do they expect to happen? Think about confident you are that you really know the persona.
Step 3: Try to use it - as one of the personas "Channel" your persona. Start where your persona would in the story. When / how would your persona get the document? (Open the envelope.) Where would your persona start in the web story? (Know the URL? Go to Google?) Go through the content (document, web site, web topic, web page) as if you were the persona carrying out the persona's story. Take notes of what works well and what does not.
Step 4: Compare notes How similar or different were the experiences? Look for relationship problems Look for conversation problems Are the personas and business goals in alignment or conflict? Did the persona understand what the site does, and how to interact with it. Look for appearance problems Did the personas have a positive reaction to the visual design? 83
Personas-led heuristic review Ginny Redish and Dana Chisnell did a large review of 50 websites for AARP using previously developed personas and guidelines. “The persona‟s observations were much like the think aloud commentary during an exploratory (diagnostic) usablity test.” 84 http://redish.net/articles-slides/articles-slides-older-adults
Designing with personas Tomorrow and Tomorrow
Use personas to frame design ideas Our products have different names in different countries, so it can be hard to manage international customer service. Let‟s think about how we could make it better. What if it went something like this...
Stories can kick off design brainstorming Points of pain stories – show a problem Stories based on analytics – show behavior Springboard or brainstorming stories – set up a situation 87
Show a point of pain Mary was filling in on payroll while Kathy, the office manager, was away. On Thursday, Kathy left her a message to remind her about some special bonus checks for that week. Mary had not used the payroll program for a while, and only remembered that special checks could be difficult. Reading the postit notes on the wall next to the computer, she scanned for instructions, and was relieved to find one for bonuses. She tried to follow the brief notes. She found the right screen .. Or thought she had. But none of the instructions seemed to line up. Was she going to have to call Kathy on her vacation?
Stories are not a detailed task analysis Focus on the story Establish the scene with imagery What‟s the time-frame? What‟s the emotional context Think about the persona‟s perspective How do they see the events or interaction? What words do they use? Style of language? What are the boundaries of the story from their point of view? (Hint: it might not be your product!) Don‟t use the story to describe all of the details in the user interface. 89
Use (relevant) details to compare and contrast Include details outside of their interaction with your product, but connect them to behavior that is relevant. Think about counter-intuitive details Example: The youngest persona may not be the most technology savvy or have the most advanced mobile technology. Show interactions with other products, organizations, or activities Example: How central to their lives is this activity? Example: Using recipe sites shows how nurses will use complex search when they understand the context. Add a little human interest Example: What kind of pets do all the personas have? What sport do they play? What books are they reading? 90
Brainstorming with stories Challenge yourself (or a group) to come up with lots of quick examples of problems Tie each one to a persona, so it‟s specific and concrete, rather than abstract Go for quantity – don‟t spend a lot of time on each one. Identify the problem Write a story in a sentence or two to illustrate the problem Then go through the list and brainstorm a new story What one thing can you change to solve the problem? 91
Personas keep design work grounded Bring personas to design sessions Use the personas to work through design problems Role play to explore differences in how the personas react to different designs Consider not just what they would do, but their preferences
Role play (or Informance) Used to Explore how a persona interacts with a product or each other Extend a persona-led review into a broader focus For exploring a feature or interaction Use the same basic process as a persona-led review, but personas have more scope to explore and tell stories. One person can act as the moderator, asking questions and encouraging interaction between the personas Tips Be careful to stay true to the research behind the personas Don‟t guess – acknowledge gaps in your knowledge 93
Structure the story to help make your point clear Some stories are a simple narrative Prescriptive structure Framing structures create contrast Me - Them - Me Here - There - Here Now - Then - Now Stories can explain a situation or set a context Layered Contextual interlude Journeys show obstacles overcome A hero‟s journey
Story structures: the frame Framing structures create contrast Me - Them - Me Here - There - Here Now - Then - Now The opening frame Sets the stage Current situation The comparison Another frame of: Time Perspective Place Complete the frame Resolves the contrast 95
Frame example Opening Frame Contrast Frame Resolution 96 When Melissa needed a new window shade, she had a mental picture of what she wanted. It had to roll up and down, and needed to be 50 inches wide. So she searched online…. One of the sites had customer reviews, so she could see what others were saying about the models she was considering. When Melissa‟s mother needed a new window shade, she too had a mental picture of what she wanted. She thought about all the Manhattan stores she knew well ... Then she picked up the phone and called a few of her friends and asked them for suggestions. Her friends helped her narrow down the list of stores she would visit to find just the right shade. Melissa found the shade that was the best match to her mental picture and budget. And in the process, Melissa never had to leave the comfort of her own home. Which is good because living in her particular neck of Northern Vermont means that Melissa‟s a little removed from malls. Storytelling, page 225
Story structures: the journey 97
Journey example Think of any story that involves technical support! 98
Your choice of medium Words Comics Cartoons Social media Collage Create a story of a future, better, trip that your persona takes 99
Find them in the wild
Match participants to personas They started life as a way to analyse data from the real world. Now make sure that you can match the personas up with the people you meet in user research and usability testing. Use the personas to identify research participants Find new stories to keep making the personas even richer
Recruit usability participants to persona demographics Job/role Education Age Goals Web/technology use 102
Matching participant screening questions to persona demographics Question Match to personas? What this indicates in the personas What is your job title? Yes Seniority and type of job What industry do you work in? No – recruit a mix How many years have you been a member? Yes How many professional conferences did you attend in the past year? Yes Are you a member of any SIGs or societies? Yes Are you active in your professional organization Yes What country do you work in No – recruit a mix What is your age? Yes Relationship to organization Indicators of depth and breadth of relationship and activity in professional development groups Stage of career
Persona stories become evaluation tasks They give you a broad range of scenarios and perspectives to draw on. They make test tasks more realistic, because they trace back to user research. Write them like brainstorming stories, setting up the situation, and then asking the participant to “finish the story” 104
Participants can set their own tasks Use the persona stories to write the beginning of a scenario and use it to launch tasks, following the participant‟s own interests Ask them to identify a situation similar to the one you want to test (be ready with a scenario if they don‟t come up with one) Use their story as the first task. Let them work in their own way. Start with a brief interview to get to know them (and try to identify the persona they best match) Then, use your pre-written tasks, adjusting them to their situation You have to Know the site or material well, so you can think on your feet Be aware of issues that differences in content can make Decide in advance how you will analyze for “success” 105
Example from the OU Opening Interview Ask participant about their interest in university study, subjects, goals. How far along in their search are they? Ask them what questions they want to know [know |or| about any university they consider. Self-directed Task Choose one of their questions, and ask them to find the answer about the OU. [ Start from blank screen |or| OU home page. Our Tasks Use the following tasks, but adjust how it is stated, to include their interests: • What programs does the OU offer in [subject]? • For someone [in their situation], what is the best choice for their first course? • What qualification might they work towards? • How long will it take to earn that qualification? 106
Carol Jacob Lea Emily Maria Steven Vishnu Bring the outside inside Trevor
Create the stories you want other people to tell What connections do you want to make? 108
Storytelling for User Experience with Kevin Brooks Global UX with Daniel Szuc A Web for Everyone with Sarah Horton http://rosenfeldmedia.com/books/a-web-for-everyone/
Whitney Quesenbery email@example.com www.wqusability.com @whitneyq Center for Civic Design whitneyq@centerforcivicdesign centerforcivicdesign.org @ChadButterfly
Carol Jacob Lea Emily Steven Vishnu Accessible UX Personas Maria Trevor
Personas can have a surprise ending Maria Emily • Community health worker • Married with grown children • Smartphone is her primary computer • Graduated from high school and working on a college degree • Lives in a loft with a group of friends • Works part-time at a local community center
Maria "I love this. It's all here...when I can find it." Maria • 49 years old • Community college + healthcare certificate • Married, grown children • Spanish – English bilingual • Community health worker • Smartphone from her phone service, home computer primarily her husband‟s, for his work Ability: Prefers Spanish language sites. Needs instructions written clearly Aptitude: Adventurous, but not very proficient Attitude: Thinks it‟s wonderful to have her favorite websites with her at all times Assistive Technology: Skype, online translation sites The data picture: 17.8 million people in the US speak English "less than well" Latino adults are more likely to use moile devices and search.
"The right technology lets me do anything." Jacob • 32 years old • College graduate, legal training courses • Shares an apartment with a friend • Paralegal, reviews cases and writes case summaries • Laptop, braille display, iPhone Ability: Blind since birth Aptitude: Skilled technology user Attitude: Digital native, early adopter, Assistive Technology: Screen reader, audio note-taker, Braille display The data picture: People with visual disabilities make up 2.6% of the population. In the US about 1.8 million people can't easily see printed words Only about 10% of peple who are blind read Braille
Demographics Goals Info needs Emotions Usability needs Name, role/tagline Background story Scenarios
Persona-Led Review Worksheet Persona Goal and Scenario First reaction Interaction/path Outcome
Who Who are they? are they? Where Where are they going? are they going? What What might happen? might happen? Who Who are they? are they? Where Where are they going? are they going? What What might happen? might happen?
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