Published on March 5, 2014
User Innovation Empirical Evidence from Russia Anna Zaytseva PhD candidate in political sciences, Centre d'études de la vie politique (CEVIPOL), Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB). Dataset from the joint project carried out in collaboration with Olga Shuvalova and Dirk Meissner at the National Research University - Higher School of Economics (Moscow, 2011-2012).
Defining User Innovation § User-innovators are firms or individual consumers that expect to benefit from using a novel product or a service they develop § Producer-innovators expect to benefit from selling the novel product or service they develop in the marketplace Source: NESTA (2010). Measuring Innovation in UK. London. Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,1
Defining User Innovation DOMINANT PRODUCERORIENTED POLICY MODEL FOCUS ON: • Stimulating innovation commercialization by producers • Technological innovations Higher School of Economics , Moscow 2011 • • Green Innovations Social Innovations OUT OF FOCUS: 10-40% of users are involved into modifying and innovating products and services Lacking statiscal tools Lacking policy tools Lacking consistent international policy framework Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,1
Factors of user-innovation development Lower communication and design costs Better access to IT equipment Progressive modularity of business schemes Digitalization Democratization and globalization of knowledge More sophisticated user needs/ Customization of demand Reduction of product cycle/ Acceleration of innovation dynamics Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,1 Loss of the resources monopoly by the producers Technological regime change
New Opportunities for Knowledge Economy (1): New Opportuni1es for Knowledge Economy (1): More efficient satisfaction of user needs Surpassing the ‘informa1on s1ckness’ and ‘informa1on asymmetry’ risks Higher School of Economics , Moscow 2011 Ensuring higher success of products and or/ services at the market Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,1
New Opportuni1es for Knowledge Economy (2): New Opportunities for Knowledge Economy (2): Fostering the crea.on of new markets and enlarging Fostering the creation of new markets and enlarging the exis.ng ones the existing ones Bringing functional innovations to the markets Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,1 Higher School of Economics , Moscow 2011 Exploring opportunities for new niches and new markets Fostering competition for better quality (vs. price-driven competition) Source: [de Jong, von Hippel, 2010]
New Opportuni1es for Knowledge Economy (3): New Opportunities for Knowledge Economy (3): Diminishing transac.on c for for knowledge diﬀusion Diminishing transaction costsosts knowledge diffusion § Economics of free revealing: o spillovers of voluntary informa1on-‐sharing by user innovators o documented in mul1ple studies [von Hippel, Finkelstein (1979), Ramond (1999), Nuvolari (2004); Morrison, Roberts, von Hippel (2000), Franke, Shah (2003), etc.] § For users it is more proﬁtable to ensure the diﬀusion of informa1on than informa1on protec1on: o reputa1on advantages, networks, quality improvement versus IP-‐related costs § For companies free revealing enables: o to ensure broad diﬀusion of given know-‐how’s while promo1ng the brand (and oZen commercializing an accessory good) o ﬂexible adapta1on of soZware for organiza1onal and technical needs of a given company (i.e. open source use) o Examples: GNU/Linux (General Public License), IBM, Oracle, Red Hat, Google, etc. -‐ Higher School of Economics , Moscow 2011 Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,1
New Opportuni1es for Knowledge Economy (4): New Opportunities for Knowledge Economy (4): Intensifying service sector development Intensifying service sector development § Meaningful innovations in service sector are often not related to R&D § Knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) are characterized by - Individualized character of production Increases the impact of user innovation In KIBS - Diversified demand - Co-production with service customers Neutralisation of information asymetry Higher School of Economics , Moscow 2011 Building trust for innovation products Source: [Doroshenko, 2010] Fostering the absorptive capacity for knowledgeintensive services Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,1
New Opportuni1es for Knowledge Economy (5) New Opportunities for Knowledge Economy (5) Enforcing the inclusive model of economic growth Enforcing the inclusive model of economic growth § Inclusive innova.on growth aims at: o elimina1ng the innova1on cleavages for diﬀerent groups o ensuring equal opportuni1es for par1cipa1on in the innova1on process o improving the welfare and human capital development for vulnerable groups à The user innova1on support as an eﬀec1ve policy tool to compensate low level of innova1on ac1vity in countries lacking technical and material basis and/or codiﬁed knowledge § Emphasis on ‘Par.cipatory approach’ in interna1onal organiza1ons: o UNDP, OECD, UNIDO Declara1ons o The « ownership » issue as a key principle of interna1onal ac1on aimed at economic development, post-‐conﬂict stabilisa1on, etc. Relevant example: recogni.on of mul.ple sources of innova.on prac.ces in rural industry and promo.on of prac.ces adopted by local users The World Bank Report (2010) « Innova1on policy: A guide for developing countries »: promo1ng grass-‐roots and pro-‐poor innova1ons; technology development in informal sector of the economy and community-‐based development ini1a1ves Higher School of Economics , Moscow 2011 § Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,1
Rationale for a new model of innovation policy § User-‐oriented innova1on support should not subs1tute producer-‐oriented policy tools but rather fulﬁll a complementary driver to improve innova.on climate and trigger mass innova.on Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,1 Higher School of Economics , Moscow 2011
Measurement of user innovation: the state-of-art § The current statistics on innovation reflects the dominant producer-oriented model and R&Dbased innovations - § i.e. OECD statistics: consumer as information provider; yet no data on type of related innovation; on transfer conditions; no surveys destinated to consumers/users + problems to refect intangible assets First surveys on user innovations: 1. Canada: plants using advanced manufacturing technologies 2. The Netherlands: firm-level survey within the project on S&M development 3. The UK: first national survey on user innovation at the level of end consumers (NESTA, 2009) N.B.: the survey did not include questions on user innovations in service sector 4. § Empirical Studies conducted in USA and Japan (Ogawa, Pogtanalert, 2011) In need of improved methodology (intangible assets measurement; precised definition of process innovation; taxonomy of user innovations, etc.) and more empirical evidence (national, crosssector level, etc.) Higher School of Economics , Moscow 2011 Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,1
Research methodology (1) • Objectif : measurement of user-innovators population in Russia and further advancement in understanding of patterns which determine user-innovators’ activities • Main focus: individual end-consumers (and not user innovation at the firm level) • Info on the user innovation project: o Conducted in 2011-2012 by Anna Zaytseva, Olga Shuvalova and Dirk Meissner o Laboratory for Science and Technology Studies, Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research University Higher School of Economics. Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,1
Research methodology (2) • The survey was launched in 2011: series of questions within a larger monitoring survey on the innovation behavior of Russian population conducted in the framework of the Basic Research Program of the NRU-HSE. • 1600 respondents older than 18 years and it covered 130 settlements from 45 Russian regions (both urban and rural settlements). • The size of the sample is thus comparable other empirical studies conducted in the UK, USA and Japan (1171, 1992 and 2000 respondents accordingly). • « Have you ever created new devices, technical equipment for personal consumption (for you, your family and friends) or to improve something amongst technical devices you have?». «Случалось ли Вам в течение последних пяти лет создавать новые устройства, технические средства для личного потребления (для Вас, Вашей семьи, друзей) или что-то усовершенствовать в имеющихся в Вашем распоряжении технических средствах?» NB This formulation of the questions limits in a way innovative products to devices and techniquebased products. Hence the findings do not include innovation in services, marketing and organizational innovations. Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,1
Research methodology (3) • The questions were built around the following blocs: 1) share of user-innovators and their socio-demographic profile; 2) motivation for innovation activity at home; 3) demand for innovative products; 4) interest for innovative products; 5) channels of information diffusion used by user-innovators. Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,1
Share of user innovation Share of consumer innovation RUSSIA US More than five Less than five years ago years ago Consumer creator 1,1% 2,9% Consumer modifier Both Total Japan UK 1,7% 2,1% 3,4% 3,3% 2,8% 2,5% 4,5% 3,5% 0,5% 0,5% 0,5% 5,2% 3,7% 6,1% 7, 8% Source: Based on [Ogawa, Pogtanalert, 2011]. Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,1
Socio-demographic profile (1): § Two thirds of user-innovators are men § Higher level of education § 28% of user-innovators are qualified laborers, 20% of them are specialists and 23% of them are retirees § The age and income distribution is not significantly different from the rest of the population NB Given the relatively small sample of user-innovators group we cannot proceed to detailed quantitative analysis, so at this exploratory stage we are limited to highlighting some of user-innovator features on qualitative level. Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,1
Socio-demographic profile (2): • New userinnovators» live more often in middle and small settlements, whereas «old innovators» can be more often found in big cities. Users who created new products are 1,85 times more present in middle cities and 1,6 times more present in villages. This can lead us to suggest that there is non linear relationship between user-innovation activity and type of settlement. • Motivation for user innovation engagement differs across types of settlements! All N (Number of respondents) Family A socioB economic C income*: D 125 3 21 56 19 User-innovators who did innovations less than 5 years ago because the products required… are not sold are too out in the expensive All shops 73 21 45 2 0 3 17 5 18 59 60 64 22 30 15 All respon- dents 1600 6 23 55 15 E 1 5 0 1 Moscow Large cities 8 5 4 7 7 20 19 0 31 21 27 30 36 24 20 20 19 28 10 26 Villages Type of settlemen t*: 1 24 27 32 28 26 Creation of new devices 15 25 46 19 1 Modificati on/ Improvem ent of devices 44 75 54 81 3 Middle cities Small cities Type of innovatio ns: Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,
Differentiation of user motivation to innovate: • Users who were motivated to innovate because the items required were not sold out in the shops are from middle, small cities and villages. In these settlements in Russia the market is significantly less saturated with products than in large cities and especially in Moscow. • The motivation to innovate because the product is too expensive is therefore almost equally shared across different types of settlements, and the biggest share of people with this motivation can be found in large cities and villages. Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,1
Demand for innovative products • User innovators are amongst the earliest consumers of innovative technical products: Their household is generally equipped better than the average for ten out of thirteen products • Higher level of demands “Demand”. What does your family have from the items mentioned above? What would you like to get/ renew if you had enough money for the purchase? Technical equipment Demand for technical products New userinnovators* All respondents New userinnovators* All respondents 73 1600 73 1600 Mobile phone Flat TV (LCD, plasmic) 3D-TV Cable TV 89 91 94 94 50 5 33 38 4 39 66 31 46 66 23 48 Satellite antenna Digital camera or videocamera 24 16 35 32 50 43 62 55 Internet access Hi-speed internet access Mobile device for internet access 51 45 58 52 28 24 37 35 23 16 28 24 JPRS-navigator Dishwashing machine Air cleaner/ moisturizer/ ioaniser Air condititioning 12 7 23 19 9 5 42 28 15 7 36 25 15 12 35 33 N (Number of respondents) Questions: “Technical equipment”. What items from the list do you have in your family? “Demand”. What does your family have from the items mentioned above? What would you like to get/ renew if you had enough money for the purchase? Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,
Perception of innovative products (1) What is the need for userinnovators to cope with modern technical equipment and new products in general? • “To keep up with life” (43%) • User-innovator habits relate more to work-oriented practices than average users (19% compared to 12%). • • Adore modern equipment more than the others (18% compared to 9%) Yet, their approach towards novelties is based on critical assessment, in other words we can assume that user-innovators have high expectations to products and their approval of products is rather based on their needs than systematic adoration innovations. All respondents User-‐innovators All who did innov. >5 years ago 125 73 N (Number of 1600 respondents) Which of the following statements reﬂects the best your percep.on of technical novel.es? (Only one answer is possible) I adore technical 9 14 18 novel1es and try to use them every 1me Modern equipment 41 42 43 has to be used to keep up with life I use some of technical novel1es because it is necessary at work 12 16 19 My children encourage our family to use technical novel1es 12 12 12 I barely encounter modern equipment in daily life 12 6 3 Modern equipment frightens me 5 3 1 None of it Have diﬃculty to respond 4 6 5 3 5 0 Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,
Perception of innovative products (2) • Almost ¾ of user-innovators reported to adjust their technical equipment according to their needs and taste if such possibility is provided. Remarkably, almost a half of users is generally involved into such kind of activities. • Potential of active user engagement into product innovation process. à This is not to be ignored by companies who can facilitate this process by providing product design or infrastructure facilities which can enable users to adjust the products according to their needs and taste. Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB, Moscow 2011
Channels of information diffusion • User-innovators are more closely monitoring the new technology market. • Almost a half of them are looking at the emergence of novelties (46% as compared to 27% in average). • They also tend to consult other users’ review and comments available on Internet (35% amongst “new user-innovators” as compared to 23%) and to get the information required from the media. • Innovative users reported to pay more attention to advertising: 7% of “new userinnovators” try to acquire new products under the influence of advertisement and 31% of them take it into account when making their decisions. Yet, the majority of users, both innovative and non-innovative are likely to ignore advertising (62% of the sample and 55% of user-innovators). • 57% of “new user-innovators” reported to consult user reviews on a particular product model before buying it. à This finding emphasizes again the importance of informal sources of information for users who are likely to adjust their personal equipment according to their individualized needs. Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,
Discussion of results (1) • User Innovation as Compensation of the Price Factor o Russian user innovators (end-consumers) are more driven by the price factor than by product absence on the market. o Our hypothesis: user innovators tried to compensate price determination in a local market by enlarging the supply side. • User Innovation as Compensation of Market Failures àour findings reveal the importance of market saturation as a research dimension on user innovation o Moscow and Saint-Petersburg concentrate 46% of sales areas of the country o the other city with population above million of people concentrate 30% from the remaining sales areas. o à75% of population can access only to 24% of sales area [Minpromtorg Rossii, 2011]. o About 5% of Russian population does not have access to sales areas in their settlements. o Access to sales areas is especially difficult in remoted areas in Russia where sales areas often just do not exist. o Multiple regions do not seem to be attractive as sales spots since they are characterized by massive outflows of younger population. • User innovation provides an indication of unsatisfied demand and inadequate supply. Hence, data on user innovation is important for designing demand-driven strategies at company level, but also on a more global scale (industry, regional level, etc.). Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB, 11
Discussion of results (2) • Producer innovation is no longer the only way to cover production expenditures and the costs of innovation. We suggest that further studies need to focus on user-innovators expenditures in order to explore this dimension. The methodological problem which has to be addressed next is to understand the types of innovations which result from user innovation motivated by the price factor. • In-depth analysis of user innovation should also include an analytical dimension about the properties of the local markets • Overall, empirical evidence on user innovation in Russia suggests that there is a strong potential for stimulation of more active collaboration with users. • Ensuring that innovation is a « routine task » for a broad range of people would effeciently complement top-down policy initiatives and contribute to shape conditions for a sustainable innovation-based growth Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB
Thank you very much for your attention! Anna Zaytseva Anna.firstname.lastname@example.org Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,
FURTHER DISCUSSION Principles for user-oriented innovation model Key tasks for user-oriented innovation policy: § Ensure that there is no negative impact of producer-oriented measures on user innovators § Mobilize the potential of « hidden innovation » and individual user initiatives to fully benefit from social and economic spillovers from innovation activity Key principles: 1. Stimulate individual initiatives (instead of collective activity-oriented support) 2. Formulate and implement new IP regulations (win-win situation) 3. Ensure free access to innovation activities results via grants, competitions schemes 4. Actively contribute to networks development between users and producers 5. Deliver information and organizational support to producers to enhance their interaction 6. Tailored support to inidividual user-innovators becoming enterpreneurs 7. Develop and implement programs to improve innovations skills of the population 8. Improve indicators for innova.on measurement Higher School of Economics , Moscow 2011 Anna Zaytseva, CEVIPOL, ULB,1
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