Published on February 27, 2014
Helsinki, Finland 12 August 2012 IFLA 2012 Conference User-centered Decision Making: A New Model for Developing Academic Library Services & Systems Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. Alison LeCornu, Ph. D. Senior Research Scientist, OCLC Academic Lead (Flexible Learning), The Higher Education Academy Donna Lanclos, Ph. D. Associate Professor for Anthropological Research, University of North Carolina, Charlotte David White Co-manager, Technology Assisted Lifelong Learning, University of Oxford The world’s libraries. Connected. Erin Hood Research Support Specialist
Then & Now • Then: The user built workflow around the library • Now: The library must build its services around user workflow • Then: Resources scarce, attention abundant • Now: Attention scarce, resources abundant (Dempsey, 2008) The world’s libraries. Connected.
Digital Visitors and Residents The Study The world’s libraries. Connected.
Visitors & Residents (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The world’s libraries. Connected.
Video: http://is.gd/vanrvideo First Monday Paper: http://is.gd/vandrpaper (White & Connaway, 2011) The world’s libraries. Connected.
Triangulation of Data • Several methods: • Semi-structured interviews (qualitative) • Diaries (qualitative) • Online survey (quantitative) • Enables triangulation of data (Connaway et al., 2012) The world’s libraries. Connected.
Diaries • Ethnographic data collection technique • Get people to describe what has happened • Center on defined events or moments (Connaway & Powell, 2010) The world’s libraries. Connected.
Interviews • Allows for probing, clarification, new questions, focused questions, exploring • Enables data collection for extended period of time (Connaway & Powell, 2010) The world’s libraries. Connected.
Phase 1 • Individual Interviews • Emerging (secondary school/1st year undergraduates • 31 (16 US, 15 UK) • Establishing (2nd-3rd year undergraduates) • 10 (5 US, 5 UK) • Embedding (postgraduates, PhD students) • 10 (5 US, 5 UK) • Experiencing (scholars) • 10 (5 US, 5 UK) • Began data analysis • Quantitative data: • Demographics, number of occurrences of technologies, sources, & behaviors • Qualitative data: • Themes & direct quotes The world’s libraries. Connected. (White & Connaway, 2011-2012)
Phase I & 2: Participant Demographics • 61 participants 15 secondary students 46 university students & faculty 34 females 27 males 38 Caucasian 5 African-American 2 Multi-racial 1 Asian 2 Hispanic 13 Unidentified (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The world’s libraries. Connected.
US vs. UK Emerging Participant University Majors US (9 of 16) UK (7 of 16) • 5 Engineering • 3 Teaching • 1 Political Science • 1 Chemical Biology • 1 Business • 1 Chemistry • 1 Physics • 1 History • 2 Undeclared • 1 Languages The world’s libraries. Connected.
Participant Interview Questions 1. Describe the things you enjoy doing with technology and the web each week. 2. Think of the ways you have used technology and the web for your studies. Describe a typical week. 3. Think about the next stage of your education. Tell me what you think this will be like. The world’s libraries. Connected.
Participant Interview Questions 4. Think of a time when you had a situation where you needed answers or solutions and you did a quick search and made do with it. You knew there were other sources but you decided not to use them. Please include sources such as friends, family, teachers, coaches, etc. 5. Have there been times when you were told to use a library or virtual learning environment (or learning platform), and used other source(s) instead? 6. If you had a magic wand, what would your ideal way of getting information be? How would you go about using the systems and services? When? Where? How? (Connaway & Radford, 2005-2007) (Dervin, Connaway, & Prabha, 2003-2005) The world’s libraries. Connected.
Codebook I. Place II. Sources III. Tools IV. Agency V. Situation/context VI. Quotes VII. Contact VIII. Technology Ownership IX. Network used (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The world’s libraries. Connected.
Codebook I. Place A. Internet 1. Search engine a. Google b. Yahoo 2. Social Media a. FaceBook b. Twitter c. You Tube d. Flickr/image sharing e. Blogging B. Library 1. Academic 2. Public 3. School (K-12) C. Home D. School, classroom, computer lab E. Other (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The world’s libraries. Connected.
Emerging Educational Stage Snapshots The world’s libraries. Connected.
Snapshots of Emerging Findings Residents Visitors >10 hrs <6 hrs Hours spent online/ wk The world’s libraries. Connected.
Characteristics of Visitors See web as untidy garden shed The world’s libraries. Connected.
Characteristics of Residents online offline persona content See web as place where friends meet The world’s libraries. Connected.
What We Learned Themes The world’s libraries. Connected.
Convenience is King • Convenience dictates choices • Is it readily accessible online? • Does it contain the needed information & is it easy to use? • How much time will it take to access & use the source? • Is it a familiar interface and easily navigable interface? • Google • Wikipedia The world’s libraries. Connected.
The Learning Black Market • Covert online study habits • Wikipedia • Don’t cite • Widely used • Guilt • Perception that students & teachers disagree • Quality sources The world’s libraries. Connected.
Sources Major media site Other University websites iPlayer/ TV Photo sites Exam board (White & Connaway, 2011-2012) The world’s libraries. Connected. University databases Textbook websites Retail Dictionary Non English Language Syllabus & discipline based sites Fan sites Disc Ch
Information Evaluation • Information evaluation •Popular = correct •Nervous about which sources are valid The world’s libraries. Connected.
What does this mean for practice? The Takeaway The world’s libraries. Connected.
Making the Library More Attractive • Library systems as search engines & web services • Advertise resources, brand & value • Provide search help at time of need • Chat & IM help during search • Suggestions for misspellings (Connaway & Dickey, 2010) (De Rosa, 2005) The world’s libraries. Connected. Need help?
Making the Library More Attractive • Convenience • Instant gratification at a click • Accurate answers to questions • Access to full-text sources • User-centered development approach • Metadata creation • Interface design • Services & systems • Digital platforms The world’s libraries. Connected.
The world’s libraries. Connected.
Making the Library More Attractive Amazon.com Westerville Public Library The world’s libraries. Connected.
Librarians‟ Role •Meet practice & authority • Include Wikipedia & Google within larger search strategy • Correct Wikipedia inaccuracies •Educate • Provide information & digital literacy instruction • Identify critical evaluation skills • Teach early in educational stage •Expert curation of links • Add accurate links to authoritative sources (Connaway, Lanclos, White, Le Cornu, & Hood, 2012) The world’s libraries. Connected.
Selected Bibliography Connaway, L. S., & Dickey, T. J. (2010). The digital information seeker: Report of the findings from selected OCLC, RIN, and JISC user behaviour projects. Retrieved from http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/reports/2010/digitalinformationseekerreport.pdf Connaway, L. S., Dickey, T. J., & Radford, M. L. (2011). "If it is too inconvenient I'm not going after it": Convenience as a critical factor in information-seeking behaviors. Library & Information Science Research, 33(3) 179-190. Connaway, L. S., Lanclos, D., White, D. S., Le Cornu, A., & Hood, E. M. (2012). User-centered decision making: A new model for developing academic library services and systems. IFLA 2012 Conference Proceedings, August 11-17, Helsinki, Finland. Connaway, L. S., & Powell, R. R. (2010). Basic research methods for librarians. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited. Connaway, L. S., Radford, M. L., & OCLC Research. (2011). Seeking synchronicity: Revelations and recommendations for virtual reference. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC Research. http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/synchronicity/default.htm Connaway, L.S., White, D., & Lanclos, D. (2011). Proceedings of the 74th ASIS&T Annual Meeting, 48. “Visitors and residents: What motivates engagement with the digital environment?” Silver Spring, MD: Richard B. Hill. Cool, C., & Spink, A. (2002). Issues of context in information retrieval (IR): An introduction to the special issue. Information Processing and Management: An International Journal, 38(5), 605-611. Dempsey, L. (2008). Always on: Libraries in a world of permanent connectivity. First Monday, 14(1). Retrieved from http://www.firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2291/207 The world’s libraries. Connected.
Selected Bibliography De Rosa, C. (2005). Perceptions of libraries and information resources: A report to the OCLC membership. Dublin, Ohio: OCLC Online Computer Library Center (p.1-8). Dervin, B., Connaway, L. S., & Prabha, C. (2003-2005). Sense-making the information confluence: The hows and the whys of college and university user satisficing of information needs. Funded by the Institute for Museums and Library Services (IMLS). Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/past/orprojects/imls/default.htm DeSantis, N. (2012 January 6). On Facebook, Librarian Brings 2 Students From the Early 1900s to Life. Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/on-facebook-librarian-brings-two-students-from-the-early-1900sto-life/34845 Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures: selected essays. New York: Basic Books, 6. Gilster, P. (1997). Digital literacy. New York: Wiley. Glaser, B.G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory; strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine Pub. Co., 273. Helsper, E. J. & Eynon, R. (2009). “Digital natives: Where is the evidence?” British Educational Research Journal, 36(3), 503–520. Holton, D. (2010, March 19). The digital natives/digital immigrants distinction is dead or at least dying. [Web log comment]. EdTechDev . Retrieved from http://edtechdev.wordpress.com/2010/03/19/the-digital-natives-digital-immigrants-distinctionis-dead-or-at-least-dying/ The world’s libraries. Connected.
Selected Bibliography Kennedy, G., Judd, T. & Dalgarno, B. (2010). “Beyond natives and immigrants: Exploring types of net generation students,” Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(5), 332–343. Kvale, S. (1996). IntervVews: an introduction to qualitative research interviewing. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications, 133135. Lankshear, C. & Knobel, M. (Eds.) (2008). Digital literacies: Concepts, policies and practices. New York: Peter Lang. Margaryan, A. & Littlejohn, A. (2008). Are digital natives a myth or reality?: Students‟ use of technologies for learning. Retrieved from http://www.academy.gcal.ac.uk/anoush/documents/DigitalNativesMythOrReality-MargaryanAndLittlejohn-draft111208.pdf, accessed 15 August 2010. McKenzie, J. (2007). Digital nativism, digital delusions, and digital deprivation. From Now On: The Educational Technology Journal, 17 (2). Retrieved from http://www.fno.org/nov07/nativism.html Prensky, M. (2001a). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5). Retrieved from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf Prensky, M. (2001b). “Do they really think differently?” On the Horizon, 9(5). Retrieved from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part2.pdf Radford, M. L., & Connaway, L. S. (2005-2007). Seeking synchronicity: Evaluating virtual reference services from user, nonuser, and librarian perspectives. Funded by the Institute for Museums and Library Services (IMLS). Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/synchronicity/default.htm Radford, M. L., & Connaway, L. S. (2010). “I stay away from the unknown, I guess.” Measuring impact and understanding critical factors for millennial generation and adult non-users of virtual reference services. In online proceedings of the Fifth Annual iConference. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, February 3-6, 2010. http://nora.lis.uiuc.edu/images/iConferences/2010papers2_Page-Zhang.pff The world’s libraries. Connected.
Selected Bibliography Stoerger, S. (2009). The digital melting pot: Bridging the digital native–immigrant divide. First Monday, 14(7). Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2474/2243 Wasserman, S. (2012, June 18). The Amazon effect. The Nation. Retrieved from http://www.thenation.com/article/168125/amazoneffect White, D. S., & Le Cornu, A. (2011). Visitors and Residents: A new typology for online engagement. First Monday, 16(9). Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/viewArticle/3171/3049 White, D. (2008, April 23). Not „Natives‟ & „Immigrants‟ but „Visitors‟ & „Residents. [Web log comment]. TALL Blog: Online Education with the University of Oxford. Retrieved from http://tallblog.conted.ox.ac.uk/index.php/2008/07/23/not-natives-immigrants-butvisitors-residents/ White, D. S., & Connaway, L. S. (2011-2012). Visitors and residents: What motivates engagement with the digital information environment. Funded by JISC, OCLC, and Oxford University. Retrieved from http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/vandr/ Whyte, W.F. (1979). On Making the Most of Participant Observation. The American Sociologist 14 , 56-66. The world’s libraries. Connected.
The researchers would like to thank Alyssa Darden for her assistance in team activities and preparing this presentation. The world’s libraries. Connected.
Lynn Connaway email@example.com Questions and Discussion The world’s libraries. Connected.
User-centered decision making: a new model for developing academic library services and systems
User-centered Decision Making: A New Model for Developing Academic Library Services and Systems by: Lynn Silipigni Connaway, David White, Donna Lanclos ...
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A New M and Syst Lynn Sil Senior Re ... resources often are not the first choice of the academic ... In order to develop library systems and services that ...
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User-centered decision making: a new model for developing academic library services and systems. Autores: Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Erin M. Hood, Donna ...