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Published on December 23, 2007

Author: Wen12

Source: authorstream.com

US and Southeast Asia:  US and Southeast Asia From SEATO to ASEAN Outline:  Outline US strategies of containment original formulation SEATO Indochina and the Philippines ASEAN Post-Cold War changes Counter-terrorism in Southeast Asia Containment ('50s - '80s):  Containment ('50s - '80s) US foreign policy treated Southeast Asia as an arena for competition with the Soviet Union Former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger: ``Our objective was to purge our foreign policy of all sentimentality” Appeal of Communism:  Appeal of Communism It seemed to be the wave of the future dramatic economic and technological advances of the Soviet Union anti-colonialism ``importance by association” psychology opportunity for greater personal power public disappointment and resentment at the poverty and violence after independence Architect of Containment:  Architect of Containment George Kennan’s original formulation called for the coordinated use of political, economic, and military influence to prevent the expansion of Soviet control in vital regions Original Formulation:  Original Formulation Traditional Russian sense of insecurity Stalin’s need for a hostile world S.U. was not primarily a military threat A long-term containment of Russian expansive tendencies will lead to "either the break-up or the gradual mellowing of Soviet power." ``Truman Doctrine” (1947):  ``Truman Doctrine” (1947) ``It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures” Implies that substantial US support could be counted on anywhere, not just in those vital regions Economic Strategies:  Economic Strategies In late 1940s, economic assistance was the central pillar of anti-communist policy Marshall Plan to rebuild Western Europe The ``arsenal of democracy” technological and economic resources Early Aid to Southeast Asia:  Early Aid to Southeast Asia US pressured the Netherlands to give independence to Dutch East Indies colony US-Indonesia economic and technical assistance agreement in 1950 US aid programs to Thailand and Burma in 1950 Militarization in Policy:  Militarization in Policy US strategic shift of containment toward reliance on military strength in 1950s Obligated US to ``bear any cost” against communist incursions anywhere in the world SEATO (1954 - 1977):  SEATO (1954 - 1977) Southeast Asia Treaty Organization Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty Australia, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States oppose further Communist gains in Southeast Asia SEATO (1954 - 1977):  SEATO (1954 - 1977) Headquarters in Bangkok, Thailand SEATO's principal role was to sanction the U.S. presence in Vietnam, although France and Pakistan withheld support Unable to intervene in Laos or Vietnam in ‘60s and ‘70s due to its rule of unanimity SEATO was ultimately disbanded in 1977 Arc of Containment:  Arc of Containment ``Falling Domino" Principle:  ``Falling Domino" Principle President Eisenhower (1954-04-07): ``beginning of a disintegration that would have the most profound influences” ``the possible sequence of events, the loss of Indochina, of Burma, of Thailand, of the Peninsula, and Indonesia” ``the possible consequences of the loss are just incalculable to the free world” ``Falling Domino" Principle:  ``Falling Domino" Principle Simplistic perception of a monolithic Communist bloc Simplistic assumption that societies and politics in the vast, diverse Asia-Pacific region were essentially all alike A Source of Misperception:  A Source of Misperception The communist-hunt of 1947-1953 in US Federal Employee Loyalty Program House Un-American Activities Committee Internal Security Act Senator Joseph McCarthy claimed communists had infiltrated S.D. and US Army purged the Administration of its best senior Asia expertise US in the Philippines:  US in the Philippines Philippines became a cornerstone of US ``containment” in Southeast Asia US shored up the Philippine government with advisors and assistance US upgraded its two bases in the Philippines Clark Air Force Base and the Subic Naval Base Clark Air Force Base :  Clark Air Force Base Damaged by a volcanic eruption in 1991 Subic Naval Base:  Subic Naval Base The air and naval bases became the most consistent, visible, and emotional of the issues that troubled US-Philippine post-war relations Natural disaster and the end of Cold War made these bases less desirable to US Subic Bay:  Subic Bay Closed in 1992 Philippine government converted it into a special economic zone to attract investment Subic Bay Freeport Zone Commerce and tourism 1996 APEC Summit ASEAN: overview:  ASEAN: overview Association of Southeast Asian Nations 10 member states Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, & Vietnam home to over 500 million people collective GDP of US$750 billion ASEAN: founding (1967):  ASEAN: founding (1967) 5 founding members: Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines Bangkok Declaration of 1967: accelerate economic growth promote regional peace and stability contain the spread of communism End of Cold War:  End of Cold War ASEAN Free Trade Area initiated at ASEAN summit in 1992 comprehensive program of regional tariff reduction program later broadened & accelerated reaffirmed during Asian Financial Crisis of 1997-98 End of Cold War:  End of Cold War Expansion of ASEAN 1995: Vietnam 1997: Laos 1997: Myanmar 1999: Cambodia ASEAN: external links:  ASEAN: external links A joint forum with Japan was established in 1977 A cooperation agreement with the European Community was signed in 1980 ``ASEAN + 3”: regular series of meetings at the cabinet and head-of-government levels with Japan, China, and South Korea since 1997 ASEAN and U.S.:  ASEAN and U.S. Investment: US$88 billion in U.S. direct investment Market: 3rd largest overseas market for U.S. exports Trade: Two-way ASEAN-U.S. trade totaled US$149 billion in 2005, up from $85 billion in 1990 Counter-Terrorism:  Counter-Terrorism US troops in the Philippines to assist Philippine armed forces to fight terrorists 2000-12-24 church bombings in Indonesia 2000-12-30 bombing in Manila, Philippines 2002-10-12 the Bali attacks 2003-08-05 J.W. Marriott Hotel bombing in Jakarta Counter-Terrorism:  Counter-Terrorism US Deputy Assistant Secretary of State: ``the common threat of terrorism has actually strengthened (U.S.) cooperation and ties with key Southeast Asian countries." http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/pgtrpt/2003/31611.htm

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