US GOVT CHPT 9-The 50 States

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Published on February 5, 2014

Author: annapannap

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U.S. Government: U.S. Government Chapter 9 The 50 States U.S Grows from 13 to 50: U.S Grows from 13 to 50 original 13 states The Constitution went into effect in 1788. There were originally 13 states. When Alaska and Hawaii became states in 1959, the country had grown to 50 states. How a State is Admitted The Constitution gives Congress the power to admit new states. Some are formed by dividing old states. For instance, Maine was once part of Massachusetts. Texas was an independent republic before it joined in 1845. Other states were bought or gained by war and treaties with other countries. What is a Territory?: What is a Territory? Guam and the Virgin Islands are U.S. territories A territory is a region controlled by the United States government. People living in a territory cannot vote for the president and vice president of the U.S. The Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa are territories. Each territory sends an elected representative to the House of Representatives. The territories are not represented in the Senate. What is a commonwealth ? A commonwealth is a political unit that rules itself, but freely chooses to be united with the U.S . Puerto Rico and the Northern Mariana Islands are commonwealths of the U. S. They receive Money from the federal government. How a Territory Becomes a State: How a Territory Becomes a State Florida Hawaii Admitted into the Union on March 3, 1845 Admitted into the Union August 21, 1959 Most states began as territories. When the people of a territory want to become a state, the territory applies to Congress for admission to the United States. If Congress agrees, it passes a special act. This is act, called an enabling act , asks the people of the territory to write a state constitution. When congress approves, state is admitted. enabling act Legislation that makes a territory write a state constitution to prepare for statehood. Some in Puerto Rico are interested in statehood. If territories and commonwealths become states, then their citizens would have equal rights with other United States citizens. Some are against statehood out of fear they would lose their Spanish language as their national language. Lesson 1 Review: Lesson 1 Review Write the term that best completes each sentence. Alaska and Hawaii became states in (1900, 1959). Most United States states began as (republics, territories). A state (constitution, Congress) has to be written and approved before statehood is granted. The United States (has, does not have) territories today. Puerto Rico is a U.S. (commonwealth, state). What do you think? Why do you think a territory or commonwealth would want to become a state? 7. Why do people in territories not have equal rights with other American citizens? State Constitutions: State Constitutions Charter A document that states a group’s purpose and plan. Are all State Constitutions t he Same? All state constitutions are similar in certain ways. Each state constitution explains how its state government is to be set up and run. Most state constitutions contain these seven parts: Preamble - States goals and purposes Bill of Rights- Lists freedoms and rights given to each citizen Organization of the government -Lists the duties of the three branches of government Election rules -Explain how elections are handled and lists qualifications for each office Other regulations -Give guidelines to provide state education, keep order, build and care for highways and roads, operate businesses, and collect taxes Process for making amendments -Explains ways to amend or change the laws and regulations that rule the state Amendments -State the actual changes that have been made to the state constitution. How State Constitutions Are Like the U.S. Constitution: How State Constitutions Are Like the U.S. Constitution The state constitutions use the U.S. Constitution as a model. Popular sovereignty -People control their government because they elect the leaders. Separation of powers -Each of the three branches of state government has separate and definite powers. This keeps any branch from becoming too powerful. Checks and balances -Each branch can can check on the work of another branch. Other branches must sometimes approve certain actions and decisions. For example, the legislative branch must approve judges appointed by the executive branch. Limited government - State and federal officials must obey the law and the Constitution. The government must never do anything to take away an individual’s basic freedoms as explained in the Bill of Rights. I’m the Judicial Branch! What are Shared and Reserved Powers?: What are Shared and Reserved Powers? State Federal collect taxes enforce laws establish courts collect taxes borrow money health care and welfare establish banks To establish local governments To regulate trade within the state To run elections To establish schools To license professional workers, such as doctors To protect the lives and property of its people Reserved keep back for a special reason; for example the states kept some power for themselves. Declare war Collect taxes Coin money, regulate currency, set standards of weights and measures Raise and maintain an army and navy Congress’s right to found national bank Regulate interstate commerce How Do State Laws Affect People’s Daily Lives: How Do State Laws Affect People’s Daily Lives parish borough Name of local government in Louisiana Name for local government in Alaska. State governments make most of the laws that affect peoples daily lives. decides laws that tell which actions are crimes laws control guidelines for education, driving, and marriage how government set up and operated how large school districts will be as each district has its own officials. L ocal governments divided among county, city, township, village, parish, or borough (like counties). Lesson 2 Review: Lesson 2 Review Write the letter of the answer that best completes each sentence. The U.S. constitution and the state constitutions were written using the same basic ______. A principles B words C Amendments D bill of rights ______means that all power is divided among three branches of government. A Shared power B Separation of power C All power D Reserved power The power to set education guidelines is controlled by each_______. A country B state C judge D person All state _________ explain how the state government is set up and run. A leaders B constitutions C branches D laws _______powers mean that both the state and federal government can do the same things at their own level. A Shared B Reserved C Basic D Approved 6. The speed limit may differ between stats. Why? 7. Why did the states keep some powers for themselves? State Budgets: State Budgets Personal Income Tax What is a Sales Tax? How Federal Funds are Given to States A large amount of a state’s income comes from personal income taxes. Citizens pay personal income tax on the income they earn from jobs. Income taxes usually account for about 25% of the total money needed for a state to operate. However, some states do not collect income taxes. It’s a percentage people pay on goods. Some necessities are not taxed. Gas, cigarettes and alcohol have a special tax. Federal aid is given to states in the form of grants. Grants are the largest source of income in most states. The grants must be used in certain ways. For instance, the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 requires that buildings built with federal funds must provide access for people with disabilities. Other Sources of Income: Other Sources of Income States usually collect other fees. Citizens pay for driver’s licenses and vehicle license plates and tags. They also pay fees to record certain official papers, such as titles to property. Most businesses and professionals pay fees to be licensed to perform their work in a state. Some states charge tolls for using certain roads and bridges. Some states permit racing or lotteries and receive a percentage of the money taken in form these activities. Lesson 3 Review: Lesson 3 Review Answer each question. Name three sources of income for a state. What is a sales tax? What is a federal grant? What rules must states follow in using federal grants? What are other ways states collect money to operate state governments? What are important income sources for your state? Sales taxes vary from state to state. Why? What do you think? What is a State’s Largest Expense?: What is a State’s Largest Expense? In most states the largest part of the budget is spent on public education. Much of the money is used to operate the states’ colleges and universities. Money also pays for new school buildings education for people with disabilities education for very young children small amount on elementary and secondary schools train people for new jobs financial assistance for students More school facts s chools operate on local tax money states set some rules for schools local school officials make most decisions state decides how many school days state requires teachers to meet certain educational standards Other Expenses: Other Expenses 15-20% building and maintaining highways, roads, bridges State Expense state hospitals nursing homes sale of medicine guidelines State Expense restaurant health codes food handling guidelines children’s health exams Expenses Running State Government: Expenses Running State Government 1 2 3 6 5 4 State six expenses general administration salaries and benefits for state employees and maintenance of office buildings and equipment state police force; protection and law enforcement; crime prevention courts handling civil and criminal cases; prisons the National Guard; protection in case of emergencies regulatory agencies; rules for banks, insurance companies, and public utilities (gas, telephones, electricity, and water) maintenance of parks for people and improve existing parks The Legislative Branch of State Government: The Legislative Branch of State Government The legislative branch in each state is the lawmaking body that works nearly the same as the U.S. Congress. pass laws two houses-senate and house of representatives (except Nebraska has only house) voters in each state elect members of state senate and house states divided into voting districts house has smaller districts senate has larger districts senators serve four-year term, representatives serve two years How Legislatures Work: How Legislatures Work Sessions State legislatures meet once a year. The meetings of state lawmaking bodies are called sessions . The governor or legislators can call for an emergency session. Committees f orm When a session begins, the members form committees . These small groups have a special task or job to do. They handle matters such as education, highways, courts, and local government needs. Bills Bill, or ideas for new laws, are first discussed in committees. Committees may rewrite or reject bills. When the bill is ready they present them to the legislature for approval. Each house of the state legislature has a presiding leader or official. Leader conducts meetings. Organization of State Government: Organization of State Government lawmakers How State Laws Are Created: LAW If governor approves, becomes law If approved, goes to governor present to members of the house where first introduced How State Laws A re Created introduce bill committee receives bill committee amends or rewrites bill majority vote in favor if approved sent to other house same steps in other house follow If bill is not approved or vetoed, the legislature can override or reject the veto by a 2/3 vote Lesson 5 Review: Lesson 5 Review How many houses make up the legislature in most states? How are the members of the legislature chosen? How often do most state legislatures meet? What is the name of the small group of legislators who work on a special issue? What do you think? 5. Do you think the power for the legislature to override a governor’s veto is a good power? Explain your answer. 6. What are some reasons a governor or legislature might call a special session? The Executive Branch of State Government: The Executive Branch of State Government Governor The governor heads the executive branch of state government. The branch is also made up of agencies. The governor is the chief executive and has duties much like the president of the United states. Jerry Brown. 39 th Governor of California. The governor can: appoint heads of departments draw up the state budget act as commander in chief of the National Guard and call up the Guard in emergencies such as floods, hurricanes, or riots. suggest bills appoint judges shorten prison sentences, release prisoners or pardon them Other State Officials: Other State Officials lieutenant governor 2 nd most important state official. Usually elected by the people. He or she serves as the leader of the state senate in 28 states attorney general is the chief legal officer in the state. Advises legal matters. secretary of state keeps all official records, publishes laws, oversees official business comptroller, or state auditor collects taxes due and pays bills owed superintendent of public instruction top educational official works with board of education to carry out the laws and sets qualifications for teachers in the state The Judicial Branch: The Judicial Branch State Courts Follow same principles as federal courts. Cases are divided into civil or criminal cases: Civil Cases Criminal Cases deal with disputes between two or more parties deal with violations of state law. Felony or misdemeanor. State Supreme Court lower courts under supreme court juvenile courts domestic relations courts small claims courts municipal courts and probate courts Deals with appeals, reviews evidence, determines if trial was fair Chapter Review: Chapter Review What three powers did the states reserve for themselves when writing the United States Constitution? (check the Venn diagram on a previous slide) How do state governments spend money to protect the lives and property of its citizens? Who is the chief executive of a state government? Name three duties. What is the job of a state supreme court in appeals cases? What changes for citizens of U.S. territories if a territory becomes a state? Should states use lotteries to raise money? Explain. Should the federal government change its level of involvement in state government? explain.

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