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Information about urinetodevelop

Published on February 7, 2008

Author: Viola

Source: authorstream.com

Why do we pee:  Why do we pee The total volume and chemical composition in the body is maintained within a limit How does it relate?:  How does it relate? The body is mainly water:  The body is mainly water How we gain water Absorption from liquids and solid food Metabolism of nutrients gives off water How we loose water Urinate Sweat Breathing Water in feces Things dissolved in your water:  Things dissolved in your water Nutrients, minerals, hormones, gases Wastes: Uric acid and ammonia are made during metabolism of proteins are converted to Urea in the liver Phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid are also formed Others: sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, hydrogen ions, creatinine Know the Parts and where they are:  Know the Parts and where they are The Great Filters:  The Great Filters Roughly 1/5th of each heartbeat moves through the kidneys Less than 1% ends up as urine Located in the lower back Parts of the kidneys cortex, medulla, nephron, renal pelvis bowmans capsule, proximal tubule, loop of henle, distal tubule collection duck efferent arteriole, and how capillaries are arranged Urinary System:  Urinary System Figure 15.2 Know the parts of the kidney and function:  Know the parts of the kidney and function Know Parts and the difference:  Know Parts and the difference Urination:  Urination The flow of urine from bladder to urethra and out of the body. The internal urethral sphincter controls urine flow from the bladder to the urethra. The external sphincter is the voluntary control of urination The 3 processes of Urine formation:  The 3 processes of Urine formation Filtration Reabsorption Secretion Bowman’s acts as a filter, and does not allow large particles through Useful substances like water and minerals are removed from urine Secretion, substances are actively dumped from the blood by membrane transport filtration:  filtration Readsoprtion and secretion:  Readsoprtion and secretion Location and effect:  Location and effect The Movement of salt gives energy to draw out water. There is less salt in the outer renal medulla Formation of Dilute Urine:  Formation of Dilute Urine Figure 15.10 Concentration or Dilution of Urine: ADH:  Concentration or Dilution of Urine: ADH Dilute urine: excreting excess water Mechanism: cycling of NaCl and urea create a concentration gradient in the medulla that allows water to diffuse from the renal tubules into the interstitial fluid and then into the blood capillaries Concentrated urine: conserving water Mechanism: Countercurrent exchange Increased ADH causes increased permeability to the collecting tubules and increased conservation of water Effect of drugs on urination:  Effect of drugs on urination Antidiuretic hormone Made in response to a decrease in cellular fluid, increases water reabsorption Caffeine & Alcohol Diuretics promote loss of water Hormonal adjustments to readsorption:  Hormonal adjustments to readsorption ADH (antidiuretic hormone) from pituitary is secreted in response to a decrease in extracellular fluid. ADH causes distal tubules and collecting ducts to release water back into the blood excess drinking inhibits ADH production Aldosterone is formed when salt levels fall causes sodium reabsorption (water moves as well) ADH:  ADH Regular Dialysis:  Regular Dialysis Peritoneal dialysis:  Peritoneal dialysis Peritoneum as the dialyzing membrane Kidney’s Role in Homeostasis:  Kidney’s Role in Homeostasis Maintains water balance: adjusts blood volume and blood pressure Aldosterone, renin, ANH help maintain salt balance in order to control blood volume Maintains acid–base balance and blood pH Regulates red blood cell production via erythropoietin Activates an inactive form of vitamin D Acid and Base Homeostasis:  Acid and Base Homeostasis pH balance is maintained by controlling hydrogen ions through buffers in blood, respiration, and excretion by kidneys Bicarbonate is produced by the nephron cells and moves into the blood and binds with excess acid neutralizing it and producing carbon dioxide and water Disorders of the Urinary System:  Disorders of the Urinary System Kidney stones Acute and chronic renal failure: Therapies: Dialysis Kidney transplant Reproduction and Development:  Reproduction and Development How do we duplicate and how do we get here? Where are we going? The basic reproduction system of a human:  The basic reproduction system of a human Gonads are the primary reproductive system Female ovaries produce eggs Male testes produce sperm The gonads also produce hormones for reproductive functions and secondary sexual traits Males testosterone Females estrogen and progesterone Male Reproductive System:  Male Reproductive System Figure 16.1 Male Reproductive Organs and Glands:  Male Reproductive Organs and Glands Table 16.1 Male gonads:  Male gonads Sperm produced in testes Testes are within the scrotum (temps lower than body temp allow sperm development) Each testes is divided into lobes containing seminiferous tubules, where sperm is continuously made Production of semen:  Production of semen Produced in seminiferous tubules Mature and stored in epididymis Move through ductus deferens Combine in ejaculatory duct Joins urethra in prostate gland Seminal vesicles (fructose and prostaglandins) Prostate (buffers for acidic vagina) Bulbourethral glands secrete mucus The spermatozoon:  The spermatozoon Head- nucleus DNA and acrosome Midpiece (mitochondria) Tail (microtubules of the flagellum) 350 million sperm in ejaculant Hormones and sperm production:  Hormones and sperm production Testosterone produced by Leydig cells stimulate spermatogenesis and secondary sex characteristics Lutenizing hormone (LH) stimulates testosterone production FSH stimulates sperm production beginning a puberty Blood Testosterone Concentration and Sperm Production:  Blood Testosterone Concentration and Sperm Production Figure 16.3 The Female reproductive system:  The Female reproductive system Ovary site of egg maturation and release Released eggs move into oviduct (fertilized?) Uterus (zygote implants in endometrial lining) Cervix Vagina Body opening Know the parts. Fig 16.4 Female Reproductive System:  Female Reproductive System Figure 16.4a Female Reproductive System: Components:  Female Reproductive System: Components Table 16.2 Follow egg pathway:  Follow egg pathway Reproduction function:  Reproduction function At birth each female has 2 million eggs At age 7, 300,000 oocytes are present Only 400-500 mature during a lifetime During the menstrual cycle one oocyte resumes meiosis I to form a secondary oocyte 1 egg is released roughly every 28 days. Menstrual Cycle: Uterine Cycle:  Menstrual Cycle: Uterine Cycle Uterine cycle: prepares uterus for pregnancy Menstrual phase: days 1–5, estrogen and progesterone decrease, endometrial lining degenerates, menstruation occurs Proliferative phase: days 6–14, estrogen and progesterone increase, endometrial lining proliferates Ovulation: day 14 Secretory phase: corpus luteum produces progesterone and estrogen, endometrium continues to proliferate, uterine glands mature Ovarian Cycle:  Ovarian Cycle Figure 16.6 Regulation of the Menstrual Cycle:  Regulation of the Menstrual Cycle Figure 16.8 Maintenance of Menstrual Cycle:  Maintenance of Menstrual Cycle Cycles of hormones of pituitary and reproductive structures: Positive feedback: In proliferative phase, increasing estrogen causes surge in LH Negative feedback: In secretory phase, steady levels of estrogen and progesterone inhibit LH and FSH release Human Sexual Response, Intercourse, and Fertilization:  Human Sexual Response, Intercourse, and Fertilization Human sexual response: excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution Male sexual response: orgasm, marked by ejaculation Female sexual response: orgasm, marked by rhythmic muscular contractions Fertilization: one sperm penetrates egg Sexual Intercourse:  Sexual Intercourse Corpora fill with blood because arteries supplying the penis dilate and veins constrict. Lubricants come from bulbourethral glands and the walls of the vagina Orgasm is caused by peristaltic contractions of the vesicles and glands that produce semen F. contractions of smooth muscle. After 15 minutes semen liquefies to allow swimming The corpora:  The corpora Interruption of the menstrual cycle:  Interruption of the menstrual cycle RU486 blocks the action of progesterone at the endometrial lining, resulting in normal menses and degeneration of the endometrium The pill, progestins suppress pituitary production of GnRH so FSH is not released and the egg is not released. Also change endometrial layer Other methods of birth control:  Other methods of birth control Barrier methods Sterilization Abstinence Chemical methods Infertility:  Infertility Roughly 15% of American couples are infertile Artificial insemination: placing semen in the vagina or uterus by mechanical means at time of ovulation Intrafallopian transfers of sperm and oocyte or zygote made outside. Sexually Transmitted Disease:  Sexually Transmitted Disease Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): Worldwide Problem:  Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): Worldwide Problem Bacterial: gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia Viral: HIV, hepatitis B, genital herpes, genital warts Other: yeasts (Candida), protozoan (Trichomonas), arthropod (pubic lice) Prevention: Strategies: choose partner wisely, communicate, use suitable barriers, get tested and treated Human Development (Ch 21 on Final exam) As of 111207 these are preliminary notes:  Human Development (Ch 21 on Final exam) As of 111207 these are preliminary notes From Birth to Death Stages of Development:  Stages of Development Gamete formation-fertilization-cleavage-blastula-Gastrulation (primary tissues)-organogenesis (growth and tissue specialization)- morphogenesis (production of recognizable structures. Pre and post fertilization in development:  Pre and post fertilization in development In the vagina a sperm will undergo capacitation. Sperm binds to zona pellucids of the egg. Only one sperm enters without mitochondria. Now is a zygote and will undergo repeated cell divisions without an increase in size. Implantation in the uterus:  Implantation in the uterus A week after fertilization, the continuously dividing ball of cells adheres to the uterine lining. Part of this becomes the embryo part becomes the placenta. The implanted embryo releases HCG which prods the corpus luteum to secrete estrogen and progesterone. Pregnancy tests look for HCG. The placenta:  The placenta Endometrial tissue and embryonic chorion. Extends into the maternal tissue as tiny chorionic villi. Materials are exchanged form blood capillaries of the mother to fetus and vise versa by diffusion. Maternal and fetal bloods do not mix at this time. Events of the first trimester:  Events of the first trimester 1 week placenta and membranes are forming. Week 3 the heart begins to beat. The neural tube forms if incomplete results in spina bifida. At 8 weeks the embryo is distinctly human. Gonads develop during 2nd half of semester. Miscarriage 20% of all conceptions, 1/2 congenital defects. Fetal development:  Fetal development 2nd trimester suckling reflex 4-5 inches long 3rd trimester 7th month is earliest at which the fetus may survive often have respiratory distress syndrome Fetal circulation is different Maternal lifestyle and early development:  Maternal lifestyle and early development Nutrition- proper vitamins minerals calories needed for proper development. Infections certain viral diseases may cause deformities. Drugs and alcohol antibiotics tetracycline, streptomycin cocaine disrupts nervous system alcohol has its own syndrome cigarette smoke Changes with Age:  Changes with Age

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