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Urinary system chapter 9

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Information about Urinary system chapter 9

Published on March 11, 2014

Author: GinaBreuer

Source: slideshare.net

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Urinary System What do BUN, KUB, ESWL, ARF, and CRF stand for?

BUN=Blood Urea Nitrogen • BUN is a blood test to measure kidney function by the level of nitrogenous waste (urea) that is in the blood. • BUN testing is generally part of a basic metabolic panel (BMP) and routinely is part of a regular medical exam. • BUN may reflect functioning of the liver and/or kidneys.

What is a normal BUN? • Normal result ranges from 6-20 mg/dL. Individual laboratories may have slightly different ranges due to variances in testing procedures.

What might higher than normal levels be related to? • CHF (Congestive Heart Failure) • Gastrointestinal Bleeding • Hypovolemia • Heart Attack • Kidney Disease • Kidney Failure • Shock • Urinary Tract Obstruction

What might lower than normal results be related to? • Liver Failure • Low Protein Diet • Malnutrition • Overhydration

KUB=Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder • A KUB is a plain frontal supine radiograph of the abdomen. It is most often used to investigate gastrointestinal conditions such as: bowel obstruction, gallstones, and kidney stones. • It is also a tool that can be used to assist in positioning ureteric stents and nasogastric tubes.

What does a KUB X-ray look Like?

ESWL=Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy • ESWL uses sound waves to break a Kidney stone into smaller pieces. • The smaller pieces can travel more easily through the urinary tract and pass from the body in the urine. • Additional ESWL treatments may be needed for larger stones.

What does ESWL look like?

ARF= Acute Renal Failure • ARF develops quickly over a couple hours or couple days. • It occurs when the kidneys suddenly stop filtering waste products from the blood. • As a result, wastes accumulate to dangerous levels in the body. • ARF is mostly seen in people who are already critically ill in the hospital. • ARF may be reversible and tends to require less intensive treatment than chronic renal failure.

What are some symptoms of ARF? • Bloody stools • Bad breath • Metallic taste in the mouth • Bruising easily • Changes in mental status or mood • Fatigue • Flank pain • Nose bleeds

CRF=Chronic Renal Failure • CRF is a gradual worsening of kidney function over time. • The final stage of CRF is end-stage renal disease. At this stage the kidneys are no longer able to remove excess fluids and waste from the body. • Dialysis and kidney transplant become necessary.

What are some diseases or issues that can damage the kidneys? • Autoimmune disorders • Birth defects of the kidneys • Medications or drugs • Trauma/injury

References Medscape (2014) Blood Urea Nitrogen. Retrieved from http://www.medscape. Com National Library of Medicine (2012) Acute Kidney Failure. Retrieved from http://www.hlm.nih.gov/medlineplus National Library of Medicine (2013) BUN-blood test. Retrieved from http://www.hlm.nih.gov/medlineplus National Library of Medicine (2011) Chronic Kidney Failure. Retrieved from http://www.hlm.nih.gov/medlineplus

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