Published on March 13, 2014
Urinary System Abbreviations by, Sara Busch Wednesday, March 12, 14
UTI Urinary Tract Infection A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is usually a bacterial infection, affecting any of the organs along the urinary tract. This includes the bladder, also called cystitis, the kidneys, also called pyelonephritis, the ureters, and urethra, also called urethritis. It most commonly begins in the bladder by entry via the urethra, and then can ascend into the ureters and kidneys. Women are more prone to UTI’s since their urethra is shorter and closer to the anus than in men. Symptoms vary, depending on if it remains in the bladder or ascends to the kidneys. Most common symptoms for a bladder infection are painful and frequent urination, and cloudy urine. If the infection moves to the kidneys, a 101+ fever may be present, pain in the side, back or groin, along with a general ill feeling. Treatments for UTI are usually ﬂuids along with antibiotics taken orally, however, in more severe cases, such as kidney infection, antibiotics and ﬂuids may be administered through a vein. Wednesday, March 12, 14
cath Catheterization Catheterization is a medical procedure used to collect, or withdraw urine from the bladder, and can be used for certain medical procedures that require the insertion of medicine or dye. Insertion of a ﬂexible tube, called a catheter, travels through the urethra and into the urinary bladder. Catheterization can be more painful for men since their urethra is much longer than in women. Catheterization can be used on a short-term or long-term basis. Short-term catheterization is generally used to assist with emptying the bladder if something is stopping your bladder from functioning normally. It is also used in preparation for some surgeries and also in post-operative treatment when surgery or injury is within the bladder or surrounding area. Long-term catheterization is used if the problem resulting from an inability to empty the bladder cannot be corrected, urinary incontinence, bladder weakness or nerve damage. In cases of long- term catheterization, self-catheterization may be required. Catheterization can also be used to insert medicine directly into the bladder, for instance, chemotherapy for cancer of the bladder. Wednesday, March 12, 14
ESWL Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy translates to surgical crushing of stones outside the body. extra-=outside of; corpor/ o=body; -eal=pertaining to; lith/o=stone; -tripsy=surgical crushing A medical procedure that is non-invasive to the body, using shockwaves to break up stones in the kidney, ureter, or bladder. The ultrasonic waves are passed through the body until the reach the dense stones. Pulses of the sonic waves pulverize the stones, which are then passed through the ureters and out of the body through urine. Process usually takes about 45min to 1 hour and is considered an out-patient procedure. It is done in a hospital gown, lying on a soft, water-ﬁlled cushion. You may be given a general anesthesia to help you relax and sleep. If you are awake, you may feel the tapping as the shockwaves breaking the stones into tiny pieces. Wednesday, March 12, 14
BUN Blood Urea Nitrogen Urea is the waste product of nitrogen when proteins are broken down. A BUN test is completed to check kidney function by drawing blood from a vein. Normal results are 6-20mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter). Higher than normal levels can indicate the following; dehydration, excessive protein in GI tract, gastrointestinal bleeding, urinary tract obstruction, kidney failure, kidney disease including glomerulonephritis (damage in ﬁltering waste from the blood), pyelonephritis, and acute tubular necrosis, along with congestive heart failure, heart attack and shock. Lower than normal levels may be due to; over-hydration, malnutrition, low protein diet and liver failure. For people with liver disease, the BUN level may be low even with proper kidney function. Wednesday, March 12, 14
RP Retrograde Pyelography Retrograde pyelography is a special diagnostic process of examining the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis by directly inserting dye into the urethra. A series of X-rays are taken at different times to see how the kidneys process and the dye and how it is collected in the urine. The test is used to evaluate such conditions as; bladder and kidney infections, blood in the urine, tumors, an abdominal injury, or one- sided pain caused by kidney stones. Abnormal results could reveal kidney diseases, birth defects of the urinary system, tumors, damage to the urinary system, or kidney stones. Wednesday, March 12, 14
References www.nlm.nih.gov www.urologyhealth.org Wednesday, March 12, 14
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