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Upgradation in Aviation

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Information about Upgradation in Aviation
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Published on August 26, 2008

Author: balwantpoonia

Source: authorstream.com

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Frankfinn Institute of Air Hostess Training- Jaipur : Frankfinn Institute of Air Hostess Training- Jaipur Submitted By Balwant Poonia Aviation Assignment Upgradation in Airbus Profile : Upgradation in Airbus Profile Airbus A300/A310 Airbus A320 Airbus A330/A340 Airbus A350 Airbus A380 Airbus A300/A310 : Airbus A300/A310 Advanced aerodynamically efficient flight controls The innovative 222-inches airbus fuselage cross section, which gives passengers a more spacious comfortable cabin on a genuine twin aisle wide body jetliner. Structure made from metal– Reduced weight First airliner to be fitted with wind shear protection. Electrically controlled breaking system. Every first Business class passenger aboard the A300 & A310 has either a window or aisle seat. The comfortable eight – abreast Economy Class cabin offers more space. Large overhead storage bins provide unequalled carry on baggage capacity. The cabin air system gives draught free air conditioning. An increased range provided by additional center & horizontal stabilizer fuel tank. Also introduced wingtips fences to improve aerodynamic efficiency . A310-200C is a convertible version– seats can be removed & Cargo placed on the main deck. A300/A310 technology & innovation : A300/A310 technology & innovation In cockpit technology, Airbus also has become a leader as the result of innovations introduced first on the A300/A310 Family. The A310 featured the first cockpit ever certificated for a two-member flight crew on a large airliner, using six cathode ray tube (CRT) displays on the instrument panel to replace traditional dial-type instruments. Electrical signaling also was used initially on the A310 for secondary flight control surfaces, preparing the way for Airbus' subsequent application of digital fly-by-wire controls on the A320, A340 and A380 Family aircraft. Composites: The composites used on the A300-600/A310 lead to considerable weight-saving, helping to reduce fuel-burn. A total of 6.2 tonnes/13, 700 lbs of composite material is used on the A310 (saving 1.4 t/3,100 lbs over conventional metal structure) while the larger A300-600 has a total of 6.6 t/14,600 lbs (saving 1.5 t/3,300 lbs.). The number of parts in the composite vertical tail plane on both aircraft is reduced by 95 per cent, excluding fasteners. A300/A310 flight deck : A300/A310 flight deck The A300-600 and A310 are equipped with the most advanced flight decks in their jetliner category, which provided the foundation for cockpit advances used by Airbus on the A320, A330/A340 and A380 Families.The two-member flight crew concept was introduced to the airline industry with the A300/A310, and it has since become a standard worldwide. The cockpits incorporate six cathode ray tube (CRT) displays on the main panel – replacing traditional dial-type indicators with electronic instruments that continuously provide flight, navigation and systems-monitoring information in a clear, comprehensive manner. The six identical displays show information optimized for each flight phase, significantly reducing pilot workload. The CRTs are physically identical and are fully interchangeable.A further refinement offered by Airbus on the A300 and A310 is the optional Aircraft Communication Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS), which allows a crew to transmit maintenance and other messages to the ground using a control display on the cockpit's centre pedestal. Also incorporated in the A300-600 and A310 flight decks are a wind shear warning system and Category IIIb auto land capability for operations in bad weather. Cont… : Cont… Systems monitoring: The A300/A310 flight deck incorporates the Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitor, which provides the pilots with extensive aircraft systems information, reminder and warning displays in pictorial and memo form at appropriate points throughout each flight. Slide 7: More wider & spacious seats in A310 with soften light Slide 8: Wider cabin from back view A310 Slide 9: A300/A310 stowage bins provide unmatched capacity-up to eight cubic feet in first class & 3.3 cubic feet in economy class. Airbus A320 : Airbus A320 A320 incorporated advanced features including fly-by-wire control, composite primary structure, centre of gravity control using fuel, glass cockpit & two person flight deck. First class & Business class cabin can be outfitted in four & five abreast seating. Six – abreast economy class accommodates the widest seat on a single aisle airliner. Cabin crew can do their jobs more efficiently & provide better service with galley 40% more working volume & 25% more galley volume. Large efficiently shaped overhead storage compartment on average 40% longer, 20% higher & 20% deeper. Overheads has ability to accommodates an optional entertainment system with deployable screens Air purification system:- Used catalytic converter that removes foul odours from air before it is pumped in to the jetliners cabin The purification system filters toxic fumes & unpleasant smell to provide passengers a fresh air A320 Technology and innovation : A320 Technology and innovation The A320 Family heralded a new era for single-aisle aircraft, introducing the latest technology and innovation in a category of aircraft that had not seen true modernisation since the dawn of the jet age. Airbus pioneered the fly-by-wire concept with its A320 Family, and years of reliable service around the world have proven its significant benefits through commonality, improved flight safety, reduced pilot workload, a reduction of mechanical parts, and real-time monitoring of all aircraft systems. The use of a digital cabin management system on all A320 Family aircraft makes the control of interior lighting, temperature, audio/video and other systems quick and easy through a centralised data system. The A320's airframe incorporates the best in advanced design concepts, modern production methods and new materials to ensure high structural reliability and easy maintainability. Improved aluminum alloys increase structural life, while the extensive use of composite materials save weight and reduce parts. ... steep approaches: The A318 will be the first aircraft that Airbus is to certify for steep runway approaches. Thanks to its fly-by-wire design and integrated digital avionics, only one button was added to make the plane capable of implementing a highly accurate steep approach, which will allow operators to serve airports constrained by noise restrictions, tall buildings or difficult terrain. A320 Flight Deck : A320 Flight Deck Six interchangeable liquid crystal displays (LCDs) on the main instrument panel replace the multitude of dials and gauges on older-generation aircraft, providing easy to assimilate information and ensuring a low workload for the two-member crew. The fly-by-wire controls allow the pilot freedom within the aircraft's operating envelope, which protects against over speeding, stalling and maintaining operation well within the aircraft's structural limits. Side-stick controllers eliminate the bulky centre-mounted control columns on other aircraft, opening an unobstructed view of the instrument panel and providing for the best use of fly-by-wire flight controls. Slide 13: Instrument panel: Real-time flight and systems data are relayed to the pilots on six identical and interchangeable liquid crystal displays. The Electronic Flight Instrument System provides key flight information including navigation displays, while the Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitor details engine instrumentation and warnings as well as information about aircraft systems. These systems, along with the LCDs, lead to lower spares costs, enhanced safety and reliability, and less workload for the crew. Cont….. Slide 14: Overview Airbus A320 Slide 15: Seats in A320 Slide 16: Bar in A320 Slide 17: Dinner Table in Airbus A320 Slide 18: Galley of Airbus A320 Airbus A330/A340 : Airbus A330/A340 A330/A340 are true wide body jetliner, using airbus 222- inches cross section that has become the fuselage size of choice for airliners world wide. Provides full comfort in cabin ranging from size abreast first & business class to an efficient nine abreast arrangement in economy class. In business class cabin 2-2-2 seating configuration with only window and aisle seats The additional headroom available on A330 & A340 allows for unequalled overhead storage, giving passengers more space to store their carry-on-bags. A340 incorporates high technology feature such as fully digital fly-by-wire flight control system. The cockpit is also feature d CRT based glass cockpit display on the A340-200 & A340-300. New cabin design:- Wider & more comfortable flat bed seat in the first & business class cabin. 26-35 inches wide seat that converts into 80 inch long flat bed & which also integrate a baggage storage area under it A330/A340 technology & innovation : A330/A340 technology & innovation From nose to tail, the A330 and A340 incorporate the latest advances in Airbus technology and innovation. Both aircraft are manufactured using the world's best commercial production techniques, which include advanced composite materials and ultra-light alloys that reduce aircraft weight, ease maintenance and increase airframe lifetime. The optimised wing design ensures the best takeoff and landing performance in all conditions, as well as high-efficiency flight at cruise speeds.Airbus innovation is evident throughout the A330 and A340 passenger cabin as well. Improvements in interior illumination – including the option for mood lighting – provide the right ambience on even the longest flights. New overhead stowage bins create additional room for carry-on luggage, which helps facilitate passenger boarding and deplaning. Even the area below the main cabin has been the focus of Airbus innovation. The company is a pioneer in utilising lower deck space for options such as sleeper cabins, passenger or crew rest areas and lavatories. ...composites: The ultra-long range A340-600 saw the first use of composites on crucial primary structures such as the rear pressure bulkhead and the keel beam. Other components made from composites include the fin and rudder, horizontal tail plane and wing trailing edge moving surfaces. The floor panels in the passenger deck were also made from composites. A330/A340 flight deck : A330/A340 flight deck The A330 and A340 benefit from the advanced Airbus cockpit design, which receives high marks from the thousands of pilots who fly Airbus aircraft daily. Flight decks on both aircraft types are nearly identical, with differences limited primarily to the centre pedestal-mounted engine controls for the twin-engine A330 and the four-engine A340. At the heart of the cockpit is the fly-by-wire system pioneered by Airbus. Its digital electronic flight controls improve handling and stability while reducing pilot workload. The A330/A340 side-sticks – which replace the traditional centre-mounted control yokes used for decades on airliners – give optimum control inputs for the fly-by-wire system and create an open, uncluttered cockpit environment for the flight crew. As the same basic cockpit layout is used on the other Airbus fly-by-wire jetliners, it is easy for pilots to transition from the A330/A340 to the smaller A320 Family, and, in the future, to the 525-seat A380. Slide 22: Avionics: The A330/A340 incorporates the most advanced technology in avionics. These include data link communication through VHF/satcom/HF; clearly separated communications and navigation displays; and a range of other aids including Traffic alert Collision Avoidance System, dual weather radar and the Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System. Cont….. Pictures from A340 : Pictures from A340 Slide 24: 26.35 inch wide seat that convert into an 80 inch long flat bed, which also integrates a baggage stowage area under it. Slide 25: Innovative development in interior illumination help to create the perfect ambience on board the A330/340 family of aircraft. The sleeker contours of the cabin soften the light Slide 26: More Wider Seats Slide 27: Passenger Service Unit Slide 28: Galley Airbus A350 : Airbus A350 A350 XWB will be built on technologies developed for the airbus A380 & will have a similar cockpit and fly-by-wire system layout. A cabin cross section of 220 inches / 5.58 mtrs from armrest. Fuselage will have a parallel cross section width from door -1 to door-4 to provide maximum usable volume with wider aisles & widest seats. Seating in economy can be either eight abreast for high comfort & nine abreast for extra high efficiency. Use of latest technologies results in enhanced air quality & cabin environment regulation . Purity of cabin air is provided by gaseous filter & ozone/volatile organic compound (VOC) converter. The composite frame will feature aluminium strips to ensure the electrical continuity of the fuselage. New all composite wings with an area of 443 m2 . The new six screen configuration of cockpit will have two central display mounted one above other & a single primary flight/navigation display with an on board information system screen adjacent to it Airbus Aircraft Families - A350 XWB Technology & Innovation : Airbus Aircraft Families - A350 XWB Technology & Innovation The A350 XWB brings together the very latest in aerodynamics, design and advanced technologies. With an airframe made of more than 60 per cent new materials, chosen for their superior weight and strength properties, the A350 XWB has the most efficient structure in terms of design concept. In particular, its innovative use of all-new Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) panelled fuselage skins cater for much easier maintenance and reparability. This design also allows weight savings via optimum fibre lay-up and skin thickness tailored to the requirements of the location The all-new composite wing design lifts the A350 XWB cruise speed to Mach 0.85 (the cruise speed of the A380). Excellent aerodynamics, together with advanced high lift devices and advanced systems contribute to greater fuel economy in all flight regimes and on the ground. Moreover, the new Rolls Royce Trent XWB engine, producing up to 92,000lb of thrust, will draw on the latest manufacturing, materials and thermodynamic expertise to deliver lower fuel burn and lower maintenance costs while minimising the noise 'footprint' around airports and reducing environmental impact. Cont… : Cont… The A350 XWB is designed to give exemplary reliability in service with longer maintenance intervals and customised maintenance schedules to help provide airlines with higher operating productivity. The A350 XWB Family represents a 21st Century solution for an aircraft in this size category. A350 XWB Flight Deck Pictures from A350 XWB : Pictures from A350 XWB Cabin cross section of 220 inches /5.58 meters from armrest to armrest. The A 350 XWB cabin is 5 inches / 12.7 cm wider, offering superior levels of spaciousness for passengers Pictures from A350 XWB : Pictures from A350 XWB The use of latest technologies results in enhanced air quality 7 cabin environment regulation Improved purity of cabin air is provided by gaseous filters & ozone/Volatile organic compound (VOC) converters. Airbus A380 : Airbus A380 The A380 is the first commercial airline with a central wing box made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic. New material GLARE is used in the upper fuselage & on the stabilizer leading edge. A380 features an improved glass cockpit & fly by wire flight control linked to side sticks. Also features wingtips fence similar to those found on the A310 & A320 to alleviate the effect of wake turbulence, increasing fuel efficiency & performance. Large plasma screen can also display the internet line TV, Movies on board presentation or the view from a landscape camera so passenger can see the world below of stimulating day or night eases the stress of jet lag for long travel passenger. Window are also bigger, provides more natural light and a better view outside the aircraft. Storage compartment provides more headroom & greater storage space. A built in wireless network will provide wireless broad band internet access from every seat & able to use mobile phone to keep in touch during long flights. Noise level is lowest of any existing aircraft quiet enough to significantly reduced fatigue. Lower fuel consumption Improved CO2 emissions per person kilometer. Slide 35: Flight deck Airbus used similar cockpit layout, procedures and handling characteristics to those of other Airbus aircraft, to reduce crew training costs. Accordingly, the A380 features an improved glass cockpit, and fly-by-wire flight controls linked to side-sticks. The improved cockpit displays feature eight 15-by-20 cm (6-by-8-inch) liquid crystal displays, all of which are physically identical and interchangeable. These comprise two Primary Flight Displays, two navigation displays, one engine parameter display, one system display and two Multi-Function Displays. These MFDs are new with the A380, and provide an easy-to-use interface to the flight management system—replacing three multifunction control and display units. They include QWERTY keyboards and trackballs, interfacing with a graphical "point-and-click" display navigation system. One or two HUD (Head Up Display) is optional. Pictures from A380 : Pictures from A380 The new airbus cabin will feature the most advanced in-flight entertainment (IFE) system & services , offering both relaxing & productive long range travel Pictures from A380 : Pictures from A380 More Spacious seats More wider windows More entertainment Slide 39: Conference Deck Pictures from A380 : Pictures from A380 Bar : Bar Lavatory : Lavatory A380 Pictures from A380 : Pictures from A380 Glossary from A380 : Glossary from A380 A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat display device made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source or reflector. It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of electric power. Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. Slide 45: Glass Cockpit A glass cockpit is an aircraft cockpit that features electronic instrument displays. Where a traditional cockpit relies on numerous mechanical gauges to display information, a glass cockpit utilizes several computer displays that can be adjusted to display flight information as needed. Fly-by-wire Control The words "Fly-by-Wire" imply an electrically-signalled only control system. However, the term is generally used in the sense of computer-configured controls, where a computer system is interposed between the operator and the final control actuators or surfaces. This modifies the manual inputs of the pilot in accordance with control parameters. These are carefully developed and validated in order to produce maximum operational effect without compromising safety. Slide 46: The wingtip fences - arrow-shaped surfaces attached to the tip of each wing - help the wing to be more efficient, saving fuel by reducing drag - as well as reducing noise by improving take-off performance. Standing some 2.4 m/7 ft 10 in tall, they will be the largest of their kind in the world. Braking: The Brake-to-Vacate system, designed by a multinational Airbus team, will help ease airport congestion and reduce the amount of time an aircraft remains on the runway. Enabling pilots to select a runway exit while the aircraft is making its landing approach, Brake-to-Vacate uses the auto-flight, flight controls, and auto-brake systems to regulate deceleration after touchdown. This allows the aircraft to reach a specified exit at the correct speed under optimum conditions. The system will be offered as an option on all A380s by 2007, and will be followed by retrofits available on all of other Airbus aircraft Families. Slide 47: Glass Cockpit A glass cockpit is an aircraft cockpit that features electronic instrument displays. Where a traditional cockpit relies on numerous mechanical gauges to display information, a glass cockpit utilizes several computer displays that can be adjusted to display flight information as needed. Fly-by-wire Control The words "Fly-by-Wire" imply an electrically-signalled only control system. However, the term is generally used in the sense of computer-configured controls, where a computer system is interposed between the operator and the final control actuators or surfaces. This modifies the manual inputs of the pilot in accordance with control parameters. These are carefully developed and validated in order to produce maximum operational effect without compromising safety. Slide 48: GLARE is a "GLAss-REinforced" Fibre Metal Laminate (FML), composed of several very thin layers of metal (usually aluminium) interspersed with layers of glass-fibre "pre-preg", bonded together with a matrix such as epoxy. The uni-directional pre-preg layers may be aligned in different directions to suit the predicted stress conditions. Although GLARE is a composite material, its material properties and fabrication are very similar to bulk aluminum metal sheets. It has far less in common with composite structures when it comes to design, manufacture, inspection or maintenance. GLARE parts are constructed and repaired using mostly conventional metal material techniques. Its major advantages over conventional aluminium are: better "damage tolerance" behaviour (especially impact and metal fatigue) better corrosion resistance better fire resistance lower specific weight Wake turbulence : Wake turbulence Wake turbulence is turbulence that forms behind an aircraft as it passes through the air. This turbulence includes various components, the most important of which are wingtip vortices and jetwash. Jetwash refers simply to the rapidly moving gasses expelled from a jet engine; it is extremely turbulent, but of short duration. Wingtip vortices, on the other hand, are much more stable and can remain in the air for up to three minutes after the passage of an aircraft. Wingtip vortices make up the primary and most dangerous component of wake turbulence. Wake turbulence is especially hazardous during the landing and take off phases of flight, for three reasons. The first is that during take-off and landing, aircraft operate at low speeds and high angle of attack. This flight attitude maximizes the formation of dangerous wingtip vortices. Secondly, takeoff and landing are the times when a plane is operating closest to its stall speed and to the ground - meaning there is little margin for recovery in the event of encountering another aircraft's wake turbulence. Thirdly, these phases of flight put aircraft closest together and along the same flightpath, maximizing the chance of encountering the phenomenon. Advantages & Disadvantages of Aviation Industry : Advantages & Disadvantages of Aviation Industry Advantages Disadvantages It makes travel the easiest. No more taking a week to cross the ocean or go to another country on vacation. It is time-saving, fast, comfortable, suit to meet your needs, etc. The aviation industry is very big and vast the scope of jobs is immense and varies from aircraft pilot ,aircraft maintenance, aircraft crew/attendants or air hostess, ground staff, ticketing, boarding staffed. The A300 still flies. American still used them for Caribbean and South America flights. Airbus did stop making them though. It utilizes a lot of resources to do its thing. Fuel, rubber, metals, etc. hence, it is getting too expensive. It brings air pollution and increases in air traffic You can have long duty hours, odd hours duty, continuous traveling for days together, has to keep you’re cool in many untoward situations also. The A300 is the limited range it has for such a large aircraft. Like the guy said above, the 767 holds the same amount of passengers, but consumes 20% less fuel for the same distance. Slide 51: Advantages Disadvantages The advantage is that you can almost alwaysget a flight to Europe. it uses the latest greatest technological advances to better the flight and our pleasure in travel There is a whole industry based on aviation that utilizes some of the latest technological advances in production and quality control. It is also a heavily governed industry so consumer safety for the most part is the highest for almost any industry in the world (some third world countries excluded). The aviation industry contributed £11.4 billion to the GDP in 2004 - that's 1.1% of the overall economy. It directly employed 186,000 people in 2004 and up to 520,000 indirectly. the industry contributed £3.6 billion to the Exchequer in 2004/05. Aviation plays a key role in trade. 55% of the export of manufactured goods to countries outside the EU is by air Tourism makes a large and growing contribution to the economy - nearly 4% of GDP The aviation industry is vital to our nationamp39s prosperity, and protecting this system from terrorist attacks or other dangerous acts remains an important ... The economic benefits of aviation are undisputable. The disadvantage is that aviation nterfereswith satellites. More chances of accidents due to bad weather conditions. if your airline goes out of business while your away somewhere, it can be difficult to get back home as the ticket you have is useless and you'll have to pay all over again to come home. The industry is so based on peoples travel habits and desire to travel that it can be up one year and terribly low another. If something goes wrong in the world this industry hurts fast. Demand drops, orders for newer aircraft drop etc. The most difficult barrier to entry into this industry in the Pacific Northwest is location. Most of the airlines are based on the east and gulf coast and with the rising price of jet fuel, many airlines are opting to send their planes to repair centers closer to their main quarters.” Safety Equipment : Safety Equipment Asbestos Gloves Fire axes Exits/Door with side rafts Over wing Exit Radio Beacons First Aid kit Physicians Kit Fire Extinguisher- Halon Fire Extinguisher- Water Harness Megaphone Seat Belts Safety barrier straps Smoke Goggles Manual Release tools Life Vests Descent Devices Oxygen Bottles with first aid / full face mask Thanks : Thanks

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