Published on January 29, 2016
1. UF Inventor seeks partner to license: 3D Image Scanner for Full Spectral Computer Solid Models Beyond CT or MRI. UF Ref.# 12009 & 15416
2. Contents UF- Rising … The Gator Nation Digital Imaging State of the Art 3D Scanners The 3D Imagining Triumvirate Lapidary Methods Lapidary 3D Scanning Surface Imaging Microscopy (SIM) 3D The Acclaimed Visible Human Project Dr. R. Kerschmann Commercialized (SIM) 3D 3D Lapidary Scanner How The Technology Works 3D Lapidary Scanner Applications Highest Market Value Q&A
3. UF: Dedicated to Education, Research & Service UF is a Leader Among Public Research Universities: UF is Top 10 caliber … Number 1 is our goal. AAU member; Distinguished Alumni, Strong faculty & Fantastic students with a long history and tradition of WINNING! Research Leader: Multiple Medical Advances, Magnet Lab, Next Generation Space Shuttle Consortia Leader, Micro-Kelvin Lab … too many to list. UF is Very Large: The State of Florida’s pre-eminent flagship land grant university. ~50,000 students; ~15,000 faculty & staff, 16 colleges, hundreds of departments, 30+ Centers of Excellence and 67 Counties and ~2000 Lab spaces statewide. UF is Nimble an Flexible: Streamlined Enterprise: 21st century networking and Hi-End computational solutions to match the new demands of the future. Businesslike: Structurally able to make quick decisions. Purchasing is faster allowing quicker project progress.. Strong Partner: Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADA): Form a large part of our research enterprise that allow shared risks and rewards. Our faculty & staff generate ~$3/4 Billion/year in varied grants and is more than all other Florida public universities combined. $Multi-Million Commercial Technology Transfer Successes: The Gatorade Franchise, Sentricon Termite Products, LINAC Scalpel and many more in work. Credibility: UF’s top faculty reputation gives partners credibility in the marketplace. Our Office of Technology Licensing (OTL) is Number One: We are #1 for public universities and 5th compared to all universities according the prestigious Millikan Institute. It is our mission to share the fruits of our labors through attractive technology transfer mechanisms.
4. Digital Imaging Reaching New Frontiers Once Held Only by Film stock Digital Imaging: Getting denser and denser 10-33 MP Electronic sensors: Common and relatively cheap. 111 MP CCD!: Dalsa (Waterloo, Ontario), a division of Teledyne Corp. broke the 100MP Barrier. Others soon to follow and prices should descend. Intelligent Digital Cameras: Internet ready built to the IEEE 802 GigE Standard ► Big Data … Large file sets. Photographic high grain emulsions may still be an excellent choice but likely soon to be surpassed by electronic methods. Would require post process digital scanning and can be an economical solution. Digital Imaging/Sensing is a KEY Core Technology
5. State of the Art 3D Scanners or Digitizers Computerized Tomography (Volume Capture): Medical Tomography $multibillion international industry. Generic term that defines the reconstruction of 3D volume from slice data through computational methods. CT, MRI, PET all depend on Tomography. They are generally not harmful. Models generated through state of the art CT & MRI use “smoothing” algorithms to produce apparent high resolutions that the data do not support. Inter-slice information is interpolated. Dozens of mature tomography software methods are directly applicable to our process. Microtome Tomography: Produces amazing 3D volumes yet is limited by high maintenance costs, inability to handle hard samples (untreated teeth & bone) and likely has reached the limits of z-axis resolution yet it is the highest resolution method. Machine Tool 1st Article Scanner: Machine tool cuts the object layers, moves the object to be photographed & repeats the process. Used to produce the famous Illustrated man and Illustrated woman data sets. (Man .5mm Woman .33 mm z-axis resolution … much higher xy) These last 2 public domain methods closely related except our novel innovations. Surface 3D scanners (Shape Capture): Operate on a number of principles from direct contact, laser, photogrammetry and they too are generally non destructive. These range in price from very low to expensive but most lack the ability to produce internal structure.
6. The 3D Imagining Triumvirate: Science & Medicine, Engineering & Architecture & Commercial Arts, Science & Medicine: Scientists & Engineers working in university, government and military labs developed core technologies. Medical investigators were quick to move forward and for many years 3D was out of reach for most. Cutting edge research continues – Computational Fluid Dynamics and etc. Engineers and Architects: The next generation developments CA 1990 allowed engineers and architects to render mesh models into stunning presentations by the development of light ray tracing and surface texturing technologies. CA 1995 Parametric solid modeling became the buzzword for engineers and some architects. Computer aided design (CAD) Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM). Rapid Prototyping (RP) Full solutions exist to surface scan 1st article objects and print parts. Architectural robotic printing of houses has been demonstrated. Extensive use of 3D digitizers and scanners to move hand modeled articles into particular design packages. Commercial Arts: Many of the early pioneers who worked in government labs moved to the visual arts and here is where the most advanced work is being done in photo-realistic virtual reality generation. Distinctions Blur When Applied To Products: Many Commercial artists are using scientific tools. Scientist find themselves using studio tools and engineers and architects are forced to collect esoteric scientific products to prove their designs. Multi $Billion industry.
7. Surface Imaging Microscopy- Amazing Results: Results from Cryo-section Microtomy vs. Confocal Microscopy.(1)
8. The Acclaimed Visible Human Project Joseph Jernigan: Donated his body to science; Image data collected using cryo-section microtome and/or machine tool technology were reconstructed into 3d computer models. Envisioned by working groups in the NIH National Library of Medicine 1986 (2) , 1988 (3), 1990 (4) Surprisingly: Very close to 100% image data were lost! Could be improved with confocal techniques for semi-transparent tissues. Slice thickness was necessarily large: Cost of maintaining large files were high at the time. Difficult to maintain the precise instrumentation & alignment Tool replacement and sharpening issues were obstacles. Did not have the GigE data standard so data volumes were obstacles. Digital Cameras were dumb, slow, expensive and low resolution. To maintain cubic voxels slice thickness was set to the width x-y pixel width Did not expand much in non- science/medical areas: Many other areas were satisfied with surface scanning solutions. One Company built microtome small scanners (out of business) One company built machine tool solution: Quite Healthy. Science & Medical Spinoffs : Many University of Maryland Human- Computer Interaction Lab (5) Melt-Through-Visible-Human-Project
9. Dr. Russell Kerschmann 3D Pioneer, Researcher and Businessman(6) Collapse of a fantastic opportunity when Resolution Sciences Corp. went out of business. Produced first commercially available microtome based 3D scanner. Company Fell Victim to: Under-Capitalization Dot-Com Bust – Bad Timing Kerschmann US Patents (7): 6,409,774 Electrophoresis- assisted staining of materials 6,372,512 Combined en bloc staining and embedding process 6,330,348 Method and apparatus for measurement of microtome performance 6,195,451 Transformation of digital images 4,960,330 Image recording apparatus 3D Model of Velcro ™ scanned with a Resolution Sciences scanner.
10. Lapidary Methods Lapidary or “Lap” methods predate human history: Lap stones use hard polishing surfaces with lubricants or abrasive slurries. Lap wheels are spinning Lap surfaces: Force applied to an object onto the Lap wheel will remove material depending upon the force, polishing medium, lap surface characteristics and speed of the wheel. Results can be exquisitely controlled by human art craft or automated methods. All known materials can be sharpened or polished up to and including diamonds. Most Gemstone faceting is done on spinning Lap wheels Lap Techniques - diverse disciplines; Optics, Astronomy, Mining, Geology, Semiconductors and Optoelectronics. Used to form the finest instruments and devices held to the highest tolerances. Lapidary techniques are Core Technologies: Most nano- technical methods require Lap processes.
12. 3D Lapidary Scanner Volumetric results: Most other 3D scans create HOLLOW surface models represented by; dense point clouds, vector graphics, polygons or Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) . Ours is a sample DESTRUCTIVE reverse engineering method that records volumes and can yield multi-surface models of internal structures. Multiple Sensors: Virtually any sensor that can be placed in either direct or indirect contact with the Lap specimen to create a 2D image of that layer. The 2D images are stored and later reassembled using known computer methods to produce 3D models beyond all known technology. Extremely Thin Layers: As the layers are worn away the surface “images” are stored in media until the entire sample or region of interest is destroyed. The “movies” are then processed by software to create matched solid voxelated 3D solids or more simply segmented concentric 3D mesh files. The z axis is perpendicular to the image plane: Because the abrasion between layers is exquisitely controllable, micrometer realm resolutions are easily attained in all three xyz dimensions.
13. How The Technology Works Exquisite Control: Layer (z) thickness is entirely controllable from macro-scale micro-scale nano-scale. The layer->layer abrasion between layers is exquisitely controllable, micrometer realm resolutions are easily attained in all three xyz dimensions. Synchronized Parallel Sensors: Placed in either direct or indirect contact with the Lap specimen. These can be stored in multiple channels to create multi sensor 2D images of the SAME layer. Most All Data Can Be Saved: Materials may be automatically collected and stored for other physical or chemical analysis registered to a specific layer. Even more complex systems can be envisioned that collect the actual volume at specified points through volume. The 2D images are stored and later reassembled using known computer tomography methods to produce results beyond all known technology. Multiple sensors can be used simultaneously to create concurrent data ex: Optical, IR, Fluorescence and dye or probe tagged molecules. Surface profilometry
14. Early Prototype Lapidary Scanner: DC Motor; USB2 Video; radial back light; (wiring hidden for clarity)
15. 1st Generation Brass-board Design
16. First Successful 3D Scan 3D Tomography File 8 of and insect leg scanned with the prototype USB scanner (grayscale mode)
17. 3D Lapidary Scanner Applications: These applications would have little regulatory compliance issues Scan any real world specimen and store it digitally for later study or reassembly into any scale actual reality models using direct digital solid printing processes. Pure science Physics, Chemistry: Bulk analysis of nano-scale objects. Paleontology: Fossilized species such as insects, invertebrates, trilobites can be brought to life digitally to show internal structures otherwise difficult or impossible to discern. Geology: Direct drill core metrology, physical parameter mapping 3D models. Would not require pulling cores as long as sensors can exist in the well hole. Engineering R & D Reverse Engineering and Quality Assurance Integrated circuit failure analysis. Bulk analysis of micro-scale and some nano-scale objects and depositions. Bulk 1st article measurements of production line samples.
18. More Applications: Regulatory hurdles involved, likely require multiple peer reviewed studies but is a high value market place. Medical/Pharma R & D Allograft & Xenograft Matrix Pastes: Create 2 Products from a single donor. Valuable 3D volume files created during processing. Enhanced live animal model studies: Leading to numerical reductions of study animal populations with wise future leadership. Reduce costs of trials: Sick animal subjects are scanned and their disease processes are identified earlier. Clinical Human Trials: Autopsies would remove critical organs, scan them quickly to determine microscopic disease processes. Dental R & D Dentistry biomaterial applications: Bonding verification modeling and of testing of the hardest samples & etc. Analysis of both removed dental tissue and biomaterials. Diamond abrasive systems could scan titanium implants.
19. Library & Archival Applications Library books that have been water damaged can be scanned and transferred into digital versions. This otherwise is a painstaking process that takes an archivist sometimes weeks to preserve one volume. Old degraded film stock might one day be scanned as a whole. Later reconstructed into usable video.
20. Mass Market Applications May be the top revenue center! Education Make education fun! Creating entertaining datasets that explore dimensions of reality now too expensive or impossible to explore. Educational appliances: Toys and hobby products with inexpensive USB sensors can be built to mount on most microscope stages. Educational Software Providers: Immersive multimedia software requires content. Young people have been for years immersed in quality High-end Computer Graphics (CG). In education it looses entertainment value if the content is not vibrant and true to life … Many internal (solids) 3D graphics solutions are not because it is costly to produce them so many are cartoonish caricatures of real life. Anti-Vivisection Movement: The trend is toward software solutions vs. lab animal dissections for all but those in higher education and research settings. Higher Education: Extremely microscopically exquisite exact models from cadavers and lab animals would be excellent amplifiers to the education experience for those who must learn surgical techniques.
21. Entertainment Edu-tainment: People thirst for knowledge! Science and education in cable, broadcast, satellite and internet spaces are filled now with vibrant new content. Much of it is Computer Graphics (CG). Industrial Light and Magic: The Lucas Arts empire dwarfs many large universities. ILM will likely be entirely CG and they and studios like them will want the newest technologies to develop their fantasy worlds.
22. Highest Value Market? Intellectual Property Generator! Data instantly protected: Copyright (©) law & treaty @ ~ 160 Years (~2 human lifetimes). Clever artifice to copyright the digital files of Natures handiwork. Cheap to Register © vs. high costs for defendable patent protections which need maintenance. The Best Data sets will be most valuable especially in multiple niche markets. Vibrant Markets exist for quality 3D files which are sold usually with limited licenses.
23. How Can It Be Marketed? Direct Sales/Maintenance Contracts: Instruments Sales Parts, consumables and maintenance. Closely Held Franchise Arrangements: Franchise, Partner & Affiliate Opportunities 3D Copy Centers both Academic & Commercial: Clients select between this, and several other 3D scan solutions. Parent Corp. receives revenue. Subcontract to Other Manufacturers: New sectors sure to arise as the enterprise gains momentum.
24. Who are we looking for as partners? Established 3D Scanner Instrument Companies This device would be an impressive addition to established solutions. Medical Implant Makers These technologies have potential to produce 3D bone models beyond known science. Diseased bones can be scanned, “healed” digitally using engineering methods, then be replicated in bio-materials, allografts or xenografts to be re-implanted later. Cadaver ear bones, heart valves, and other delicate human tissue can be scanned and subsequent 3D models used to develop prosthetic or cybernetic analogs. Histologic Processing labs Fast scan data sets can be recorded as layers and reassembled into models to show physicians much more detail.
25. Other Partner Prospects: Destructive 1st Article Inspection National Defense (DOD): Integrated circuits can be scanned and materially mapped to produce electronic analogs of adversary devices found. Does not preclude using non-destructive methods first but all other destructive methods are too cumbersome and requires destruction of several exemplars to produce useable 3D results. Factory QC: Qualify as is vs. as designed components throughout the manufacturing line. Complement Design Groups Use Cues From Nature: Natures forms are often the most efficient. Boutique Niche Service Providers: Small business service labs can service the needs of all the above users who might not otherwise be able to justify resources for limited projects. A publisher would only want the data but perhaps only of a specific species frog. Hardware Piracy Protection: Trade & Customs agencies: Enforcement and litigant investigations. Scan pirated, watches, cell phones, microprocessors to create signatures and more easily prosecute & convict the criminals.
26. The Future is Bright! Most Valuable As © IP Generator: Scientific data, 3D visual arts content or reverse engineering information has value easily protected by ©. All embodiments of this invention have this enormous advantage. Equivalent to an instrument that can through automation write best selling novels. Information is more valuable than matter and energy Transmit extremely complex object information over vast distances. Future Astronauts: May find themselves stationed years or decades from help. Intelligent nano-technical printing equipment can replace tons of spare parts. 1st Article scanners allow “as assembled” parts to be emailed or stored as information in data banks.
27. Bibliography 1) ANDREW J. EWALD,1 HELEN MCBRIDE,1 MARK REDDINGTON,2 SCOTT E. FRASER,1*AND RUSSELL KERSCHMANN2, 2002 ,Surface Imaging Microscopy, An Automated Method for Visualizing Whole Embryo Samples in Three Dimensions at High Resolution, DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS 225:369–375 (2002) 2) National Library of Medicine (US) Board of Regents. “Annual Report". US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, 1986: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/manuscripts/nlmarchives/annualreport/1986.pdf 3) National Library of Medicine (US) Board of Regents. “Annual Report”. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, 1988; http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/manuscripts/nlmarchives/annualreport/1988.pdf 4) National Library of Medicine (US) Board of Regents. "Electronic Imaging: Report of the Board of Regents". US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, 1990. NIH Publication 90-2197 5) Lorensen, W. E. and Cline, H. E., "Marching Cubes: A High Resolution 3D Surface Construction Algorithm," Computer Graphics, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 163-169, July 1987 6) Gunjan Sinha, “Secrets of The Very Small”, Popular Science, December 2001 7) Kershmann, Russell, US Patents; 6,409,774 Electrophoresis-assisted staining of materials,6,372,512 Combined en bloc staining and embedding process,6,330,348 Method and apparatus for measurement of microtome performance ,6,195,451 Transformation of digital images 4,960,330 Image recording apparatus US Patent and trademark Office, www.uspto.gov 8) "This result is obtained by using 3DMed software developed by Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (www.3dmed.net).” To use 3DMed in commercial purpose, please contact Professor Jie Tian at email@example.com.
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