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Published on January 18, 2008

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Unit 7: A Survey of the Animal Kingdom:  Unit 7: A Survey of the Animal Kingdom Milken Community High School Biology Mr. Franks dogs Mollie & Toklat Phylum Porifera (sponges) Asymmetrical Adults are sessile Filter feeders:  Phylum Cnidaria (jellyfish, coral, hydra) - Polyp/medusa - G.V.C. - Nerve net - Cnidocytes/Nematocysts Phylum Cnetophora (comb jellies) - cilia for locomotion -apical organ -bioluminescence Phylum Porifera (sponges) Asymmetrical Adults are sessile Filter feeders Phylum Mollusca:  Phylum Mollusca -soft body -head foot -visceral mass -mantle -radula -external shell WORMS:  WORMS Phylum: Platyhelminthes (Flatworms):  Phylum: Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) Characteristics: 1. Lack respiratory system 2. Lack circulatory system 3. Bilaterally symmetrical Tapeworm Class: Trematoda Common Name: flukes:  Class: Trematoda Common Name: flukes Characteristics: Parasitic Leaf shaped Endo or ectoparasitic Tegument = tough outer coating Fluke egg in stool. Ex. Blood Fluke:  Ex. Blood Fluke Causes Shistosomiasis (tropics) 800,000 people/yr die Adult fluke lives in the human bloodstream. Contraction of Blood Fluke:  Contraction of Blood Fluke Larvae bore into foot  Matures in blood  lays eggs  eggs in human feces  eggs hatch in water  larvae bore into foot Class: Cestoda (Common Name: Tapeworm):  Class: Cestoda (Common Name: Tapeworm) Characteristics: Parasitic Tegument Scolex – head with hooks and suckers for attachment No mouth, sense organs or digestive tract (absorb nutrients through skin) Life Cycle of a Tapeworm::  Life Cycle of a Tapeworm: Cow eats grass infected w/tapeworm eggs  larvae hatch & bore into muscles & form cysts  human eats undercooked meat  cyst matures into adult worm & lives in human intestine cyst Phylum: Nematoda Common Name: Roundworm:  Phylum: Nematoda Common Name: Roundworm Characteristics: Cuticle – protective outer covering Free-living or parasitic Terrestrial, marine or aquatic 3 Parasitic Nematodes of Humans:  3 Parasitic Nematodes of Humans 1. Ascaris Death caused by blocked intestine or clogged lungs Contracted by consuming contaminated food or water Slide13:  2. Hookworm Causes anemia by feeding on blood Mate in human intestine Contracted through bare feet Hookworm embedded in human intestine. Slide14:  Hookworm in human. Slide15:  3. Trichinella Causes trichinosis – sore stiff muscles Contracted when humans eat undercooked pork Trichinella larvae. Phylum: Annelida:  Phylum: Annelida Annelida originates from a Latin word meaning ‘little rings’. “In addition, they may ingest and excrete large quantities of sediments or soils. Robison (1987) notes that some sandy beaches may harbor 32,000 burrowing annelids per square meter, which collectively may ingest and excrete 3 metric tons of sand per year. The tubes sticking up from the sand in this picture, taken on a beach at Bahia de las Animas, Baja California, give some idea of how common polychaetes can be in such environments. “:  “In addition, they may ingest and excrete large quantities of sediments or soils. Robison (1987) notes that some sandy beaches may harbor 32,000 burrowing annelids per square meter, which collectively may ingest and excrete 3 metric tons of sand per year. The tubes sticking up from the sand in this picture, taken on a beach at Bahia de las Animas, Baja California, give some idea of how common polychaetes can be in such environments. “ Characteristics:  Characteristics Segmented body (metamerism) Well developed organs Setae – external bristles to aid in movement setae Slide19:  Cross section setae Slide20:  Setae muscle attachment Class: Oligochaeta Common Name: Earthworm:  Class: Oligochaeta Common Name: Earthworm Characteristics:  Characteristics Body cavity separated by septa Septa Slide23:  2. Digestion Feed on soil Absorb nutrients directly from soil Pathway: Mouth  pharynx esophagus  crop (temporary storage)  gizzard (grinds soil to release nutrients)  intestine (absorbs nutrients)  anus gizzard intestine Slide24:  3. Circulation Closed circulatory system Blood flow: anterior to posterior through ventral blood vessel then posterior to anterior through dorsal blood vessel Slide25:  Aortic arches – contract to pump blood (primitive heart) Aortic arches Seminal vesicles Slide26:  4. Nervous System Sensitive to light, touch, moisture, chemicals, temperature, vibrations Direction sensed by light receptors in tail & head Nerve ganglion pharynx Slide27:  Nerve Ganglion Slide28:  5. Movement Peristaltic contraction of muscles (wave-like) Circular & longitudinal muscles cuticle Longitudinal muscle Circular muscle Slide29:  Peristaltic Motion Slide31:  6. Respiration O2 & CO2 diffuse across the skin Skin must be moist Slide32:  7. Excretion Wastes are eliminated through nephridia in each segment Nephridia between septa walls Nephros(greek)=kidney Slide33:  8. Reproduction Hermaphrodites – possess both male & female sex organs *(but DO NOT fertilize self) Seminal vesicles ovary Seminal receptical testes Slide34:  Clitellums secrete mucus around worms Both worms eject sperm into the mucus Sperm swims to the seminal receptacle of the other Eggs are fertilized by sperm inside the oviducts Worm wiggles out of mucus Slide36:  Ventral nerve cord Ventral blood vessel gut Phylum: Arthropoda:  Phylum: Arthropoda “Jointed Foot” Phylum Arthropoda:  Phylum Arthropoda ¾ of all animal species are Arthropods Their characteristics have allowed them to adapt to nearly every environment on Earth! Composed of a diverse group of bilaterally symmetrical coelomates (body cavity formed from the mesoderm) Most likely evolved from a common ancestor with metamerism & appendages on every segment Arthropod Characteristics:  Arthropod Characteristics Segmented Appendages (jointed legs & antennae) Tagmata (specialized fused body segments) Compound Eyes (many individual light detectors) Open Circulatory System Cephalization Ventral Nerve Cord Exoskeleton Exoskeleton:  Exoskeleton 3 layers: Outer – waxy; repels H2O & prevents dessication Middle – chitin, protein & CaCO3; protection Inner - flexible joints to allow for movement What is a disadvantage of an exoskeleton? Molting:  Molting Periodic shedding of the exoskeleton Inner layer of exoskeleton is digested Organism swells, releasing exoskeleton New exoskeleton is secreted & will harden in a few days Subphylum: Crustacea:  Subphylum: Crustacea Approx. 40,000 species Examples: shrimp, lobsters, crabs, crayfish, copepods, isopods, water fleas & barnacles Characteristics: Branched antennae Mandibles Development:  Development Nauplius free-swimming larval stage 3 pairs of appendages 1 eye Adult 16-20 segments (may be fused) 2 pairs of appendages per segment 2 compound eyes The Crayfish:  The Crayfish Freshwater lobster AKA “Yabbies” down under Decapod (“ten feet”; ie. five pairs of legs) External Structure:  External Structure (Composed of two tagmata) (5 segments) Thorax (8 segments) (7 segments) (7th segment) Uropods (propulsion) External continued:  External continued (large pincers used for capturing food and defense) (feelers) (touch, taste, equilibrium) (create water currents to help with reproduction):  (create water currents to help with reproduction) *Four Pairs of Walking Legs (first two pairs have special pincers for grasping small objects) External Head:  External Head Maxillipeds (3 pairs) Mouth Digestion Stomach contains a structure called the gastric mill, teeth to grind food into a fine paste:  Digestion Stomach contains a structure called the gastric mill, teeth to grind food into a fine paste Circulation Open Circulatory System: Organs & tissues are bathed in the blood rather than receiving it through vessels:  Circulation Open Circulatory System: Organs & tissues are bathed in the blood rather than receiving it through vessels Slide51:  Respiration Dissolved O2 diffuses across the gills; thin, layered tissue w/ridges to increase surface area Slide52:  Reproduction Swimmerets create current to transfer sperm or eggs; also young are carried here Slide53:  Female Swimmeretes Male Swimmeretes Slide54:  Male Abdomen Female Abdomen Slide55:  Crayfish in ‘Berry’ Slide56:  “Berries” Female crayfish with young attached by swimmerets Slide57:  Make a Fashion Statement! Links:  Links Crayfish Anatomy Crayfish Review Invertebrates v. Vertebrates:  Invertebrates v. Vertebrates *There are many more differences than just the presence or absence of a backbone.* Invertebrate Characteristics:  Invertebrate Characteristics Symmetry radial or bilateral Segmentation = repeating similar units (some) Body Support = exoskeleton (limiting) or body cavity fluid pressure Respiratory System gas exchange or gills Circulatory System open or closed 6. Digestive & Excretory Systems = gut 7. Nervous System = range from no neurons to simple brain 8. Reproductionsome hermaphroditic 9. Development indirect (intermediate larval stage) or direct (young born as it will appear for life) Vertebrate Characteristics:  Vertebrate Characteristics Symmetry bilateral Body Support endoskeleton & vertebrae (segmentation) Body Coverings integument (outer covering) Respiratory Lungs or gills Circulatory closed 6. Digestive gut 7. Excretory kidneys 8. Nervous highly organized brains 9. Reproduction separate sexes 10. Development indirect or direct Vertebrate Classification:  Vertebrate Classification KINGDOM: Animalia PHYLUM: Chordata SUBPHYLUM: Vertebrata Chordate Characteristics:  Chordate Characteristics Notochord Hollow dorsal nerve cord Gill slits Tail More Vertebrate Characteristics:  More Vertebrate Characteristics Spinal column composed of many vertebrae Closed circulatory system Complex C.N.S. Brain enclosed in bony cranium CLASS: Amphibia:  CLASS: Amphibia Close your eyes. Imagine yourself in a rainforest. What is the environment like? What adaptations do organisms living there possess? Characteristics of Amphibians:  Characteristics of Amphibians Skin is smooth & moist; no scales Many have webbed feet Rely on water for reproduction Ectotherms = body temp. changes w/environment Undergo metamorphosis = transformation from aquatic larval form to terrestrial adult form Heart = larvae2 chambers; adult3 chambers Respiration = gills, lungs, skin, mouth Marbled Salamander ORDER: Anura:  ORDER: Anura Common Names: Frogs & Toads Order Anura, a.k.a. ‘Mountain Chicken’:  Order Anura, a.k.a. ‘Mountain Chicken’ FROGS = moist environments:  FROGS = moist environments Adult Bullfrog TOADS = drier environment:  TOADS = drier environment Colorado River Toad (Notice the camouflage?) Another Picture The Wyoming Toad Anura Characteristics:  Anura Characteristics Habitat Aquatic Terrestrial Arboreal Red Eyed Tree Frog Slide75:  Red-Eyed Tree Frog Habitat: Found in rainforests. Close to rivers. Most of Central America and parts of South America. Diet: Flies, crickets, moths and other bugs. Even smaller frogs. Enemies: Snakes, bats, and large birds. Facts: They have very sticky toes which are like suction cups. They have red eyes, are small and very delicate. Red-eyed tree frogs can grow up to 3 inches. Most of its life is spent in the rainforest canopy, but they do swim, and are excellent swimmers. Males "sing" to attract females. The Red-eyed tree frog hunts at night. They cannot survive without water and during the day they rest on the underside of huge leaves to save water loss from their bodies. They have about 60 babies a year. The eggs are usually found on a leaf over water. When they hatch the young (tadpoles) fall into the water. Red-eyed tree frogs eat many insects and are an important part of the rainforest food web chain. They have no protection against bats other than camouflage and to stay hidden. While many species of frogs are toxic to bats, the Red-eyed is not. Slide77:  Reproduction = External Slide78:  Larvae metamorphosizes from an aquatic tadpole into terrestrial, arboreal, or aquatic adult ORDER: Urodela:  ORDER: Urodela Common name: Salamander Long Tailed Salamander Urodela Characteristics:  Urodela Characteristics Habitat – aquatic & terrestrial Reproduction – external & internal Carnivorous – worms, insects, mollusks Spotted Salamander The Frog Dissection What to expect?:  The Frog Dissection What to expect? Frog Musculature: Dorsal (top) & Ventral (bottom) picture Slide82:  Frog Internal Anatomy (ventral view) Slide83:  stomach eggs small intestine liver heart Frog Lab Practical – What to expect?:  Frog Lab Practical – What to expect? Know the location of all boldfaced features in the lab Know the purpose/function of all boldfaced features in the lab You will be assessed individually When you are called you will approach the instructors desk with your frog & a probe You will be asked ten questions orally by the instructor You will have a maximum of 30 seconds to answer Each response will be worth 4 points (40 pts. total) Begin reviewing the lab this evening! Links:  Links Virtual frog Dissection Virtual Animal Dissections (earthworm, crayfish, frog & rat) The End:  The End

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