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Unit 9 Cardiovascular System

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Information about Unit 9 Cardiovascular System
Health & Medicine

Published on February 18, 2014

Author: nionoveno

Source: slideshare.net

Description

PPT prepared for lecture.
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Facebook: h_noveno@hotmail.com Instagram: Nio Noveno I hope you will make good use of my slides. Enjoy learning!  Anatomy h_noveno@hotmail.com 1

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Heart Blood vessels •Arteries •Veins •Capillaries Blood •Plasma •Formed elements •RBC •WBC •Platelets Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 3

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 4

THE HEART Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 5

THE HEART Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 6

THE HEART Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 7

THE HEART Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 8

THE HEART Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 9

THE HEART Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 10

THE HEART Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 11

THE HEART Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 12

ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS OF HEART VALVES Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 13

THE HEART Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 14

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THE HEART & ITS VESSELS Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 17

THE HEART & ITS VESSELS Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 18

CIRCULATION Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 19

CIRCULATION Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 20

THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 21

THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 22

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 35

THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 36

PULSE POINTS Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 37

THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 38

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 44

• The only fluid tissue in the human body • Classified as a connective tissue – Living cells = formed elements BLOOD – Non-living matrix = plasma Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 45

BLOOD Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 46

CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMED ELEMENTS Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 47

CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMED ELEMENTS Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 48

ERYTHROCYTES (RED BLOOD CELLS) • The main function is to carry oxygen • Anatomy of circulating erythrocytes – Biconcave disks – Essentially bags of hemoglobin – Anucleate (no nucleus) – Contain very few organelles • Outnumber white blood cells 1000:1 Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 49

HEMOGLOBIN • Iron-containing protein • Binds strongly, but reversibly, to oxygen • Each hemoglobin molecule has four oxygen binding sites • Each erythrocyte has 250 million hemoglobin molecules Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 50

LEUKOCYTES (WHITE BLOOD CELLS) • Crucial in the body’s defense against disease • These are complete cells, with a nucleus and organelles • Able to move into and out of blood vessels (diapedesis) • Can move by amoeboid motion • Can respond to chemicals released by damaged tissues Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 51

LEUKOCYTE LEVELS IN THE BLOOD • Normal levels are between 4,000 and 11,000 cells per millimeter • Abnormal leukocyte levels – Leukocytosis • Above 11,000 leukocytes/ml • Generally indicates an infection – Leukopenia • Abnormally low leukocyte level • Commonly caused by certain drugs Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 52

TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES Granulocytes Granules in their cytoplasm can be stained Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils Agranulocytes Lack visible cytoplasmic granules Lymphocytes and monocytes Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 53

TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES: GRANULOCYTES • Neutrophils – Multilobed nucleus with fine granules – Act as phagocytes at active sites of infection • Eosinophils – Large brick-red cytoplasmic granules – Found in repsonse to allergies and parasitic worms • Basophils – Have histamine-containing granules – Initiate inflammation Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 54

TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES: AGRANULOCYTES • Lymphocytes – Nucleus fills most of the cell – Play an important role in the immune response • Monocytes – Largest of the white blood cells – Function as macrophages – Important in fighting chronic infection Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 55

TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 56

PLATELETS (THROMBOCYTES) • Derived from ruptured multinucleate cells (megakaryocytes) • Needed for the clotting process • Normal platelet count = 300,000/mm3 Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 57

HUMAN BLOOD GROUPS • Blood contains genetically determined proteins • A foreign protein (antigen) may be attacked by the immune system • Blood is “typed” by using antibodies that will cause blood with certain proteins to clump (agglutination) Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 58

ABO BLOOD GROUPS • Based on the presence or absence of two antigens – Type A – Type B • The presence of both A and B is called type AB • The presence of either A or B is called types A and B, respectively • The lack of these antigens is called type O Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 59

BLOOD TYPING • Blood samples are mixed with anti-A and antiB serum • Coagulation or no coagulation leads to determining blood type • Typing for ABO and Rh factors is done in the same manner • Cross matching – testing for agglutination of donor RBCs by the recipient’s serum, and vice versa Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 60

BLOOD TYPING Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 61

BLOOD GROUPS AND TRANSFUSIONS • Large losses of blood have serious consequences – Loss of 15 to 30 percent causes weakness – Loss of over 30 percent causes shock, which can be fatal • Transfusions are the only way to replace blood quickly • Transfused blood must be of the same blood group Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 62

RH BLOOD GROUPS • Named because of the presence or absence of one of eight Rh antigens (agglutinogen D) • Most Americans are Rh+ • Problems can occur in mixing Rh+ blood into a body with Rh– blood *Danger is only when the mother is Rh– and the father is Rh+, and the child inherits the Rh+ factor Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 63

RH DANGERS DURING PREGNANCY • The mismatch of an Rh– mother carrying an Rh+ baby can cause problems for the unborn child – The first pregnancy usually proceeds without problems – The immune system is sensitized after the first pregnancy – In a second pregnancy, the mother’s immune system produces antibodies to attack the Rh+ blood (hemolytic disease of the newborn) Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 64

DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS OF BLOOD • Sites of blood cell formation – The fetal liver and spleen are early sites of blood cell formation – Bone marrow takes over hematopoiesis by the seventh month • Fetal hemoglobin differs from hemoglobin produced after birth Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 65

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