Published on February 10, 2014
Unit 6: Test Review Organisms and the Environment (Water and Succession) 2013 -‐ 2014
DeﬁniEons to know: • AbioEc -‐ a nonliving condiEon or thing that inﬂuences or aﬀects an ecosystem. • BioEc -‐ a living thing, something that was alive (like a plant or an animal) or something that has the poten/al for life (like a seed or an egg) that inﬂuences or aﬀects an ecosystem.
• Ecological Succession -‐ the gradual replacement of one type of ecological community by another in the same area over Eme
• Primary Succession -‐ the development of plant and animal communiEes over Eme in an area where no soil has existed
• Secondary Succession -‐ the development of plant and animal communiEes over Eme in an area where there was a disturbance but the soil was sEll present
• Climax Community – an ecological community where plant and animal populaEons remain stable and exist in balance.
DeﬁniEons: • Environment – the bioEc and abioEc surroundings or condiEons in which a person, plant or animal lives or operates. • Habitat -‐ the area or environment where an organism or ecological community normally lives or occurs • Microhabitat – a small, specialized environment such as a schoolyard or a clump of grass
• PopulaEon -‐ a group of individuals of the same species that live together in the same area at the same Eme • Species -‐ a group of organisms that share common aYributes and have the same name
• Surface Water – water found on the surface of the earth, such as rivers, streams, lakes, creeks, etc. • Groundwater -‐ water found beneath the surface of the earth (underground) it is supplied by run-‐oﬀ. It is the source of water in springs and wells.
• Porosity – the measure of a rock’s ability to hold water • Permeability – is a measure of the ease with which water can move through a porous rock.
• Sustainability -‐ a method of harvesEng or using a resource so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damaged. • Biodiversity -‐ the interacEon between living and nonliving organisms, how they are diﬀerent and how they relate to each other in their natural habitat
Answer the following ques8ons: Give 3 examples of pioneer species and identify them for Primary or Secondary Succession • Primary Succession -‐ Lichens, bacteria, mosses • Secondary Succession -‐ Weeds, grasses and wildﬂowers
For primary succession • order these: • • • • • • • • • Rock Lichens Bacteria Moss Ferns Grasses, Weeds & Wildﬂowers Shrubs & sm. Trees Pine trees Hardwood trees Forest
For secondary succession order these: • Crabgrass • Horseweeds • (Grasses, Weeds & Wildﬂowers) • Shrubs & sm. Trees • Pine trees • Pine forest • Hardwood trees • Hardwood forest
Answer the following questions: • What is the goal of ecological succession? Equilibrium The goal of succession is to restore an area to a climax community with much biodiversity. When this occurs, equilibrium or balance is more easily maintained. If an organism is removed from the ecosystem, the other organisms dependent on that organism will have other options for food, and can survive.
2. List the steps in primary succession. After a geologic event, bare rock is exposed to the environment. Stage 1: • Pioneer organisms, such as lichens, are the first to inhabit the area. • Lichens give off acid, which breaks the rock down into soil. Bacteria help to decompose them.
Stage 2: • Once a small amount of soil is present, moss may start to grow on in the area. • As moss dies and decays, organic matter is added to soil. • The soil becomes thicker and contains more nutrients.
Stage 3: • Ferns begin to grow. As they die they are decomposed and added to the soil. • Weeds, wildflowers and grasses will start to grow when the soil is thick enough. • As grasses and weeds die, they are decomposed and added to the soil.
Stage 4: • When soil is thick enough, bushes and small trees will start to grow. • Pine trees are the first type of trees to grow in an area since they require less water and fewer soil nutrients.
Stage 5: • When the soil becomes rich enough, deciduous trees start to grow. • Deciduous trees have the ability to grow taller than pine trees. • Leaves fall each year and decompose to add nutrients to the soil. • After a period of time, deciduous trees take over the area since they grow taller and have better ability to get light energy for photosynthesis.
Climax Forest - The End of Succession • Eventually a mature temperate deciduous forest forms.
3. List the steps in secondary succession. Occurs in areas where there was a disturbance, soil is exposed to the environment. Steps: • Because soil is present, weeds will first start to grow. Grasses and wildflowers will follow the weeds. • Then shrubs and small trees will begin to grow. • Pine trees and then deciduous trees will grow. • Eventually a climax forest will regrow.
Example of Secondary Succession Machu Pichu, ancient city of the Incans, discovered in Peru, 1913 Abandoned for thousands of years, the city was almost completely overgrown and hidden.
Excavation of Machu Pichu Photograph by Hiram Bingham Commencing excavations at Ñusta Espana near Puquiura, near the stone platform shown in the last picture
Machu Pichu is considered one of the wonders of the ancient world. It is also a tourist destination in Peru!
4. How does biodiversity affect the sustainability of an ecosystem? • The more biodiversity in an ecosystem, the more sustainable it is. • More (Higher) biodiversity = more sustainability • Less (Lower) biodiversity = less sustainability The more biodiverse an ecosystem means there are a greater variety of species and the ecosystem is better able to carry out natural processes in the face of external stress.
5. What are three negative effects excess (TOO MUCH) fertilizer can have on the environment? Too much fertilizer isn’t helpful! It just runs off in the next rain…. • runs off into the watershed and pollutes the water • aquatic plants like algae will be overstimulated with results like algae bloom • causes respiratory diseases in animals and people who drink contaminated water
6. What are some of the effects on a community if it uses more groundwater than it replaces? Overuse of groundwater can cause wells to dry up. This can lead to expensive and often futile attempts to keep up with the dropping water table by drilling deeper and deeper wells.
When too much water is withdrawn from the ground, the land can collapse, a process called subsidence. When groundwater fills spaces in the soil, it supplies part of the internal strength of the ground. When the water is removed, leaving openings filled only with air, the weight of the overlying earth compacts and crushes the spaces. In this photograph of California's San Joaquin Valley, the dates on the pole mark the former heights of the ground. In the span of 50 years, water pumping for irrigation led to nearly 30 feet of subsidence.
Removing too much groundwater can leave underground holes, leading to sinkholes http://youtu.be/ZEvCP7TXIEU Sinkhole in Daisetta, TX A sinkhole opened in the middle of a Florida highway, near a residential area in 2004 The sinkhole appeared in downtown Guatemala City, swallowing a three-story building Sinkholes around the world http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9IyIH_3eIi0
7. List 3 ways humans negaEvely impact groundwater. Describe the eﬀects. • Over ferElizaEon of crops can lead to runoﬀ and seepage into groundwater supplies, polluEng the water • LiYer and trash – pollute surface and groundwater supplies • Overuse of ground water – removing too much ground water can lead to sink holes and subsidence, as well as deplete the resource
8. List 2 ways an area can be disrupted to the point that secondary succession will occur. • Natural disrupEon – Fire, Floods, Tsunamis, Tornadoes, etc. • Human disrupEon – Building a shopping mall, house, road – Mining – Farming
9. Draw and label the steps of the water cycle.
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