Unit 6 Nervous System

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Information about Unit 6 Nervous System
Health & Medicine

Published on February 18, 2014

Author: nionoveno

Source: slideshare.net


PPT prepared for lecture.

Facebook: h_noveno@hotmail.com Instagram: Nio Noveno I hope you will make good use of my slides. Enjoy learning!  ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 1


Figure 8.1 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 3

ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 4

FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM ( • Sensory input ( ) ) ) – gathering information ( – To monitor changes occurring inside and outside the body ( ) – Changes depend on the stimuli ( ) • Integration ( ) – To process and interpret sensory input and decide if action is needed ( ) • Motor output ( ) – A response to integrated stimuli ( – The response activates muscles or glands ( ) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com ) 5

STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM ( ) • Central nervous system (CNS) [ ] – Brain ( ) – Spinal cord ( ) • Peripheral nervous system (PNS) [ ] – Nerve outside the brain and spinal cord ( ) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 6

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ( ) • Sensory (afferent) division ( ) – Nerve fibers that carry information to the central nervous system ( ) • Motor (efferent) division ( ) – Nerve fibers that carry impulses away from the central nervous system ( ) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 7

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ( ) • Motor (efferent) division ( – Two subdivisions ( • Somatic nervous system ( ( ) • Autonomic nervous system ( involuntary ( ) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com ) ) ): voluntary ): 8



• Sympathetic: epinephrine (epi) or adrenaline (noradrenaline) [norepinephrine (NE)] • Parasympathetic: acetylcholince (Ach) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 11

NERVOUS TISSUE ( • Astrocytes ( ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( ) ) – Abundant, star-shaped cells ( ) – Brace neurons ( ) – Form barrier between capillaries and neurons ( ) – Control the chemical environment of the brain ( ) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 12

NERVOUS TISSUE ( • Astrocytes ( ANATOMY ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( ) ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 13

NERVOUS TISSUE ( ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( • Microglia ( ) – Spider-like phagocytes ( – Dispose of debris ( ANATOMY ) h_noveno@hotmail.com ) ) 14

NERVOUS TISSUE ( ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( • Ependymal cells ( ) – Line cavities of the brain and spinal cord ( ) – Circulate cerebrospinal fluid ( ANATOMY ) h_noveno@hotmail.com ) 15

NERVOUS TISSUE ( ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( ) • Oligodendrocytes – Produce myelin sheath around nerve fibers in the central nervous system ( ) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 16

NERVOUS TISSUE ( ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( • Satellite cells ( ) ) – Protect neuron cell bodies ( ) • Schwann cells ( ) – Form myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous () system ( ) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 17

NERVOUS TISSUE ( ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( • Neurons (nerve cells) ( ) ) – Cells specialized to transmit messages ( ) – Major regions of neurons ( ) • Cell body ( ) – nucleus and metabolic center of the cell ( ) • Processes ( ) – fibers that extend from the cell body ( ) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 18

NEURON ANATOMY • Cell body – Nissl substance – specialized rough endoplasmic reticulum – Neurofibrils – intermediate cytoskeleton that maintains cell shape – Nucleus – Large nucleolus • Extensions outside the cell body – Dendrites – conduct impulses toward the cell body – Axons – conduct impulses away from the cell body ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 19

Figure 8.3 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 20

Figure 8.4 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 21

Figure 8.4a ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 22

Figure 8.4b ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 23

Figure 8.4c ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 24

Figure 8.5 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 25

Figure 8.5a ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 26

Figure 8.5b ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 27

Figure 8.5c ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 28

Figure 8.5d ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 29

Figure 8.5e ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 30

Figure 8.6 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 31

Figure 8.6a ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 32

Figure 8.6b ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 33

AXONS AND NERVE IMPULSES ( ) • Axons end in axonal terminals ( ) • Axonal terminals contain vesicles with neurotransmitters ( ) • Axonal terminals are separated from the next neuron by a gap ( ) – Synaptic cleft ( ) – gap between adjacent neurons ( ) – Synapse ( ) – junction between nerves ( ) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 34

NERVE FIBER COVERINGS • Schwann cells – produce myelin sheaths in jelly-roll like fashion • Nodes of Ranvier – gaps in myelin sheath along the axon ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 35

NEURON CELL BODY LOCATION • Most are found in the central nervous system – Gray matter – cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers – Nuclei – clusters of cell bodies within the white matter of the central nervous system • Ganglia – collections of cell bodies outside the central nervous system ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 36

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS • Sensory (afferent) neurons – Carry impulses from the sensory receptors • Cutaneous sense organs • Proprioceptors – detect stretch or tension • Motor (efferent) neurons – Carry impulses from the central nervous system • Interneurons (association neurons) – Found in neural pathways in the central nervous system – Connect sensory and motor neurons ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 37


STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS • Multipolar neurons – many extensions from the cell body ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 39

STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS • Bipolar neurons – one axon and one dendrite ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 40

STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS • Unipolar neurons – have a short single process leaving the cell body ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 41

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF NEURONS • Irritability – ability to respond to stimuli • Conductivity – ability to transmit an impulse • The plasma membrane at rest is polarized – Fewer positive ions are inside the cell than outside the cell ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 42

STARTING A NERVE IMPULSE • Depolarization – a stimulus depolarizes the neuron’s membrane • A depolarized membrane allows sodium (Na+) to flow inside the membrane • The exchange of ions initiates an action potential in the neuron ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 43

ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com ‹#›

THE ACTION POTENTIAL • If the action potential (nerve impulse) starts, it is propagated over the entire axon • Potassium ions rush out of the neuron after sodium ions rush in, which repolarizes the membrane • The sodium-potassium pump restores the original configuration – This action requires ATP ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 45

NERVE IMPULSE PROPAGATION • The impulse continues to move toward the cell body • Impulses travel faster when fibers have a myelin sheath ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 46

CONTINUATION OF THE NERVE IMPULSE BETWEEN NEURONS • Impulses are able to cross the synapse to another nerve – Neurotransmitter is released from a nerve’s axon terminal – The dendrite of the next neuron has receptors that are stimulated by the neurotransmitter – An action potential is started in the dendrite ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 47


THE REFLEX ARC • Reflex – rapid, predictable, and involuntary responses to stimuli • Reflex arc – direct route from a sensory neuron, to an interneuron, to an effector ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 49

SIMPLE REFLEX ARC ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 50

TYPES OF REFLEXES AND REGULATION • Autonomic reflexes – Smooth muscle regulation – Heart and blood pressure regulation – Regulation of glands – Digestive system regulation • Somatic reflexes – Activation of skeletal muscles ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 51

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) • CNS develops from the embryonic neural tube – The neural tube becomes the brain and spinal cord – The opening of the neural tube becomes the ventricles • Four chambers within the brain • Filled with cerebrospinal fluid ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 52

REGIONS OF THE BRAIN • • • • Cerebral hemispheres Diencephalon Brain stem Cerebellum ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 53

Figure 8.22 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 54

CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES (CEREBRUM) • Paired (left and right) superior parts of the brain • Include more than half of the brain mass • The surface is made of ridges (gyri) and grooves (sulci) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 55

LOBES OF THE CEREBRUM • Fissures (deep grooves) divide the cerebrum into lobes • Surface lobes of the cerebrum – Frontal lobe – Parietal lobe – Occipital lobe – Temporal lobe ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 56

Figure 8.25b ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 57

LOBES OF THE CEREBRUM ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 58

SPECIALIZED AREAS OF THE CEREBRUM • Somatic sensory area – receives impulses from the body’s sensory receptors • Primary motor area – sends impulses to skeletal muscles • Broca’s area – involved in our ability to speak ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 59


SPECIALIZED AREAS OF THE CEREBRUM • Cerebral areas involved in special senses – Gustatory area (taste) – Visual area – Auditory area – Olfactory area • Interpretation areas of the cerebrum – Speech/language region – Language comprehension region – General interpretation area ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 61


Figure 8.28 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 63

LAYERS OF THE CEREBRUM • Gray matter – Outer layer – Composed mostly of neuron cell bodies • White matter – Fiber tracts inside the gray matter – Example: corpus callosum connects hemispheres • Basal nuclei – internal islands of gray matter ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 64

DIENCEPHALON • Sits on top of the brain stem • Enclosed by the cerebral hemispheres • Made of three parts – Epithalamus – Thalamus – Hypothalamus ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 65

Figure 8.23a ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 66

Figure 8.23 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 67

Figure 8.23b ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 68

DIENCEPHALON ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 69

Figure 8.24a ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 70

EPITHALAMUS • Forms the roof of the third ventricle • Houses the pineal body (an endocrine gland) • Includes the choroid plexus – forms cerebrospinal fluid ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 71

THALAMUS • Surrounds the third ventricle • The relay station for sensory impulses • Transfers impulses to the correct part of the cortex for localization and interpretation ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 72

HYPOTHALAMUS • Under the thalamus • Important autonomic nervous system center – Helps regulate body temperature – Controls water balance – Regulates metabolism • An important part of the limbic system (emotions) • The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 73

Figure 8.24 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 74

Figure 8.24b ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 75

BRAIN STEM • Attaches to the spinal cord • Parts of the brain stem – Midbrain – Pons – Medulla oblongata ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 76

BRAIN STEM ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 77

MIDBRAIN • Mostly composed of tracts of nerve fibers • Has two bulging fiber tracts – cerebral peduncles • Has four rounded protrusions – corpora quadrigemina – Reflex centers for vision and hearing ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 78

PONS • The bulging center part of the brain stem • Mostly composed of fiber tracts • Includes nuclei involved in the control of breathing ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 79

MEDULLA OBLONGATA • • • • The lowest part of the brain stem Merges into the spinal cord Includes important fiber tracts Contains important control centers – Heart rate control – Blood pressure regulation – Breathing – Swallowing – Vomiting ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 80

RETICULAR FORMATION • Diffuse mass of gray matter along the brain stem • Involved in motor control of visceral organs • Reticular activating system plays a role in awake/sleep cycles and consciousness ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 81

RETICULAR FORMATION ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 82

CEREBELLUM • Two hemispheres with convoluted surfaces • Provides involuntary coordination of body movements ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 83

CEREBELLUM ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 84

PROTECTION OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM • Scalp and skin • Skull and vertebral column • Cerebrospinal fluid • Blood brain barrier • Meninges ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 85

MENINGES • Dura mater • Arachnoid layer – Double-layered external covering • Periosteum – attached to surface of the skull • Meningeal layer – outer covering of the brain – Folds inward in several areas ANATOMY – Middle layer – Web-like • Pia mater – Internal layer – Clings to the surface of the brain h_noveno@hotmail.com 86

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID • • • • Similar to blood plasma composition Formed by the choroid plexus Forms a watery cushion to protect the brain Circulated in arachnoid space, ventricles, and central canal of the spinal cord ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 87



BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER • Includes the least permeable capillaries of the body • Excludes many potentially harmful substances • Useless against some substances – Fats and fat soluble molecules – Respiratory gases – Alcohol – Nicotine – Anesthesia ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 90

SPINAL CORD • Extends from the medulla oblongata to the region of T12 • Below T12 is the cauda equina (a collection of spinal nerves) • Enlargements occur in the cervical and lumbar regions ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 91

Figure 8.21 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 92

SPINAL CORD ANATOMY • Central canal filled with cerebrospinal fluid ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 93

SPINAL CORD ANATOMY • Internal gray matter - mostly cell bodies – Dorsal (posterior) horns – Anterior (ventral) horns ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 94

SPINAL CORD ANATOMY • Exterior white mater – conduction tracts ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 95

SPINAL CORD ANATOMY • Meninges cover the spinal cord • Nerves leave at the level of each vertebrae – Dorsal root • Associated with the dorsal root ganglia – collections of cell bodies outside the central nervous system – Ventral root ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 96

ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 97

Figure 8.17b ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 98

Figure 8.17 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 99

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM • Nerves and ganglia outside the central nervous system • Nerve: bundle of neuron fibers • Neuron fibers are bundled by connective tissue ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 100

Figure 8.18a ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 101

Figure 8.18b ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 102

Figure 8.20 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 103

Figure 8.27 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 104

Figure 8.30 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 105

STRUCTURE OF A NERVE • Endoneurium surrounds each fiber • Groups of fibers are bound into fascicles by perineurium • Fascicles are bound together by epineurium ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 106

CLASSIFICATION OF NERVES • Mixed nerves – both sensory and motor fibers • Afferent (sensory) nerves – carry impulses toward the CNS • Efferent (motor) nerves – carry impulses away from the CNS ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 107

CRANIAL NERVES ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 108

I Olfactory nerve – sensory for smell II Optic nerve – sensory for vision III Oculomotor nerve – motor fibers to eye muscles IV Trochlear – motor fiber to eye muscles V Trigeminal nerve – sensory for the face; motor fibers to chewing muscles VI Abducens nerve – motor fibers to eye muscles ANATOMY VII Facial nerve – sensory for taste; motor fibers to the face VIII Vestibulocochlear nerve – sensory for balance and hearing IX Glossopharyngeal nerve – sensory for taste; motor fibers to the pharynx X Vagus nerves – sensory and motor fibers for pharynx, larynx, and viscera XI Accessory nerve – motor fibers to neck and upper back XII Hypoglossal nerve – motor fibers to tongue h_noveno@hotmail.com 109

Figure 8.38 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 110

SPINAL NERVES • There is a pair of spinal nerves at the level of each vertebrae for a total of 31 pairs • Spinal nerves are formed by the combination of the ventral and dorsal roots of the spinal cord • Spinal nerves are named for the region from which they arise ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 111

SPINAL NERVES ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 112

ANATOMY OF SPINAL NERVES • Spinal nerves divide soon after leaving the spinal cord – Dorsal rami – serve the skin and muscles of the posterior trunk – Ventral rami – forms a complex of networks (plexus) for the anterior ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 113


AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM • The involuntary branch of the nervous system • Consists of only motor nerves • Divided into two divisions – Sympathetic division – Parasympathetic division ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 115

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS • Nerves – Somatic – one motor neuron – Autonomic – preganglionic and postganglionic nerves • Effector organs – Somatic – skeletal muscle – Autonomic – smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands • Nerurotransmitters – Somatic – always use acetylcholine – Autonomic – use acetylcholine, epinephrine, or norepinephrine ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 116

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS Somatic Nerve One motor neuron Effector Organs Skeletal muscles Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com Autonomic Preganglionic & postganglionic nerves Cardiac muscles Smooth muscles Glands Acetylcholine Epinephrine Norepinephrine 117


ANATOMY OF THE SYMPATHETIC DIVISION • Originates from T1 through L2 • Ganglia are at the sympathetic trunk (near the spinal cord) • Short pre-ganglionic neuron and long postganglionic neuron transmit impulse from CNS to the effector • Norepinephrine and epinephrine are neurotransmitters to the effector organs ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 119

SYMPATHETIC PATHWAYS ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 120

ANATOMY OF THE PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION • Originates from the brain stem and S1 through S4 • Terminal ganglia are at the effector organs • Always uses acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 121


Figure 8.39 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 123

DEVELOPMENT ASPECTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM • The nervous system is formed during the first month of embryonic development • Any maternal infection can have extremely harmful effects • The hypothalamus is one of the last areas of the brain to develop • No more neurons are formed after birth, but growth and maturation continues for several years • The brain reaches maximum weight as a young adult ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 125

UNIT 6 NERVOUS SYSTEM HILARIO CRUZADA NOVENO JR., MAN, MSN, RN Lecturer Thank You! ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 126

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