Unit 6 Nervous System

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Information about Unit 6 Nervous System
Health & Medicine

Published on February 18, 2014

Author: nionoveno



PPT prepared for lecture.

Facebook: Instagram: Nio Noveno I hope you will make good use of my slides. Enjoy learning!  ANATOMY 1


Figure 8.1 ANATOMY 3


FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM ( • Sensory input ( ) ) ) – gathering information ( – To monitor changes occurring inside and outside the body ( ) – Changes depend on the stimuli ( ) • Integration ( ) – To process and interpret sensory input and decide if action is needed ( ) • Motor output ( ) – A response to integrated stimuli ( – The response activates muscles or glands ( ) ANATOMY ) 5

STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM ( ) • Central nervous system (CNS) [ ] – Brain ( ) – Spinal cord ( ) • Peripheral nervous system (PNS) [ ] – Nerve outside the brain and spinal cord ( ) ANATOMY 6

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ( ) • Sensory (afferent) division ( ) – Nerve fibers that carry information to the central nervous system ( ) • Motor (efferent) division ( ) – Nerve fibers that carry impulses away from the central nervous system ( ) ANATOMY 7

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ( ) • Motor (efferent) division ( – Two subdivisions ( • Somatic nervous system ( ( ) • Autonomic nervous system ( involuntary ( ) ANATOMY ) ) ): voluntary ): 8



• Sympathetic: epinephrine (epi) or adrenaline (noradrenaline) [norepinephrine (NE)] • Parasympathetic: acetylcholince (Ach) ANATOMY 11

NERVOUS TISSUE ( • Astrocytes ( ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( ) ) – Abundant, star-shaped cells ( ) – Brace neurons ( ) – Form barrier between capillaries and neurons ( ) – Control the chemical environment of the brain ( ) ANATOMY 12


NERVOUS TISSUE ( ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( • Microglia ( ) – Spider-like phagocytes ( – Dispose of debris ( ANATOMY ) ) ) 14

NERVOUS TISSUE ( ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( • Ependymal cells ( ) – Line cavities of the brain and spinal cord ( ) – Circulate cerebrospinal fluid ( ANATOMY ) ) 15

NERVOUS TISSUE ( ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( ) • Oligodendrocytes – Produce myelin sheath around nerve fibers in the central nervous system ( ) ANATOMY 16

NERVOUS TISSUE ( ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( • Satellite cells ( ) ) – Protect neuron cell bodies ( ) • Schwann cells ( ) – Form myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous () system ( ) ANATOMY 17

NERVOUS TISSUE ( ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( • Neurons (nerve cells) ( ) ) – Cells specialized to transmit messages ( ) – Major regions of neurons ( ) • Cell body ( ) – nucleus and metabolic center of the cell ( ) • Processes ( ) – fibers that extend from the cell body ( ) ANATOMY 18

NEURON ANATOMY • Cell body – Nissl substance – specialized rough endoplasmic reticulum – Neurofibrils – intermediate cytoskeleton that maintains cell shape – Nucleus – Large nucleolus • Extensions outside the cell body – Dendrites – conduct impulses toward the cell body – Axons – conduct impulses away from the cell body ANATOMY 19

Figure 8.3 ANATOMY 20

Figure 8.4 ANATOMY 21

Figure 8.4a ANATOMY 22

Figure 8.4b ANATOMY 23

Figure 8.4c ANATOMY 24

Figure 8.5 ANATOMY 25

Figure 8.5a ANATOMY 26

Figure 8.5b ANATOMY 27

Figure 8.5c ANATOMY 28

Figure 8.5d ANATOMY 29

Figure 8.5e ANATOMY 30

Figure 8.6 ANATOMY 31

Figure 8.6a ANATOMY 32

Figure 8.6b ANATOMY 33

AXONS AND NERVE IMPULSES ( ) • Axons end in axonal terminals ( ) • Axonal terminals contain vesicles with neurotransmitters ( ) • Axonal terminals are separated from the next neuron by a gap ( ) – Synaptic cleft ( ) – gap between adjacent neurons ( ) – Synapse ( ) – junction between nerves ( ) ANATOMY 34

NERVE FIBER COVERINGS • Schwann cells – produce myelin sheaths in jelly-roll like fashion • Nodes of Ranvier – gaps in myelin sheath along the axon ANATOMY 35

NEURON CELL BODY LOCATION • Most are found in the central nervous system – Gray matter – cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers – Nuclei – clusters of cell bodies within the white matter of the central nervous system • Ganglia – collections of cell bodies outside the central nervous system ANATOMY 36

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS • Sensory (afferent) neurons – Carry impulses from the sensory receptors • Cutaneous sense organs • Proprioceptors – detect stretch or tension • Motor (efferent) neurons – Carry impulses from the central nervous system • Interneurons (association neurons) – Found in neural pathways in the central nervous system – Connect sensory and motor neurons ANATOMY 37


STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS • Multipolar neurons – many extensions from the cell body ANATOMY 39

STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS • Bipolar neurons – one axon and one dendrite ANATOMY 40

STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS • Unipolar neurons – have a short single process leaving the cell body ANATOMY 41

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF NEURONS • Irritability – ability to respond to stimuli • Conductivity – ability to transmit an impulse • The plasma membrane at rest is polarized – Fewer positive ions are inside the cell than outside the cell ANATOMY 42

STARTING A NERVE IMPULSE • Depolarization – a stimulus depolarizes the neuron’s membrane • A depolarized membrane allows sodium (Na+) to flow inside the membrane • The exchange of ions initiates an action potential in the neuron ANATOMY 43


THE ACTION POTENTIAL • If the action potential (nerve impulse) starts, it is propagated over the entire axon • Potassium ions rush out of the neuron after sodium ions rush in, which repolarizes the membrane • The sodium-potassium pump restores the original configuration – This action requires ATP ANATOMY 45

NERVE IMPULSE PROPAGATION • The impulse continues to move toward the cell body • Impulses travel faster when fibers have a myelin sheath ANATOMY 46

CONTINUATION OF THE NERVE IMPULSE BETWEEN NEURONS • Impulses are able to cross the synapse to another nerve – Neurotransmitter is released from a nerve’s axon terminal – The dendrite of the next neuron has receptors that are stimulated by the neurotransmitter – An action potential is started in the dendrite ANATOMY 47


THE REFLEX ARC • Reflex – rapid, predictable, and involuntary responses to stimuli • Reflex arc – direct route from a sensory neuron, to an interneuron, to an effector ANATOMY 49


TYPES OF REFLEXES AND REGULATION • Autonomic reflexes – Smooth muscle regulation – Heart and blood pressure regulation – Regulation of glands – Digestive system regulation • Somatic reflexes – Activation of skeletal muscles ANATOMY 51

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) • CNS develops from the embryonic neural tube – The neural tube becomes the brain and spinal cord – The opening of the neural tube becomes the ventricles • Four chambers within the brain • Filled with cerebrospinal fluid ANATOMY 52

REGIONS OF THE BRAIN • • • • Cerebral hemispheres Diencephalon Brain stem Cerebellum ANATOMY 53

Figure 8.22 ANATOMY 54

CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES (CEREBRUM) • Paired (left and right) superior parts of the brain • Include more than half of the brain mass • The surface is made of ridges (gyri) and grooves (sulci) ANATOMY 55

LOBES OF THE CEREBRUM • Fissures (deep grooves) divide the cerebrum into lobes • Surface lobes of the cerebrum – Frontal lobe – Parietal lobe – Occipital lobe – Temporal lobe ANATOMY 56

Figure 8.25b ANATOMY 57


SPECIALIZED AREAS OF THE CEREBRUM • Somatic sensory area – receives impulses from the body’s sensory receptors • Primary motor area – sends impulses to skeletal muscles • Broca’s area – involved in our ability to speak ANATOMY 59


SPECIALIZED AREAS OF THE CEREBRUM • Cerebral areas involved in special senses – Gustatory area (taste) – Visual area – Auditory area – Olfactory area • Interpretation areas of the cerebrum – Speech/language region – Language comprehension region – General interpretation area ANATOMY 61


Figure 8.28 ANATOMY 63

LAYERS OF THE CEREBRUM • Gray matter – Outer layer – Composed mostly of neuron cell bodies • White matter – Fiber tracts inside the gray matter – Example: corpus callosum connects hemispheres • Basal nuclei – internal islands of gray matter ANATOMY 64

DIENCEPHALON • Sits on top of the brain stem • Enclosed by the cerebral hemispheres • Made of three parts – Epithalamus – Thalamus – Hypothalamus ANATOMY 65

Figure 8.23a ANATOMY 66

Figure 8.23 ANATOMY 67

Figure 8.23b ANATOMY 68


Figure 8.24a ANATOMY 70

EPITHALAMUS • Forms the roof of the third ventricle • Houses the pineal body (an endocrine gland) • Includes the choroid plexus – forms cerebrospinal fluid ANATOMY 71

THALAMUS • Surrounds the third ventricle • The relay station for sensory impulses • Transfers impulses to the correct part of the cortex for localization and interpretation ANATOMY 72

HYPOTHALAMUS • Under the thalamus • Important autonomic nervous system center – Helps regulate body temperature – Controls water balance – Regulates metabolism • An important part of the limbic system (emotions) • The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus ANATOMY 73

Figure 8.24 ANATOMY 74

Figure 8.24b ANATOMY 75

BRAIN STEM • Attaches to the spinal cord • Parts of the brain stem – Midbrain – Pons – Medulla oblongata ANATOMY 76


MIDBRAIN • Mostly composed of tracts of nerve fibers • Has two bulging fiber tracts – cerebral peduncles • Has four rounded protrusions – corpora quadrigemina – Reflex centers for vision and hearing ANATOMY 78

PONS • The bulging center part of the brain stem • Mostly composed of fiber tracts • Includes nuclei involved in the control of breathing ANATOMY 79

MEDULLA OBLONGATA • • • • The lowest part of the brain stem Merges into the spinal cord Includes important fiber tracts Contains important control centers – Heart rate control – Blood pressure regulation – Breathing – Swallowing – Vomiting ANATOMY 80

RETICULAR FORMATION • Diffuse mass of gray matter along the brain stem • Involved in motor control of visceral organs • Reticular activating system plays a role in awake/sleep cycles and consciousness ANATOMY 81


CEREBELLUM • Two hemispheres with convoluted surfaces • Provides involuntary coordination of body movements ANATOMY 83


PROTECTION OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM • Scalp and skin • Skull and vertebral column • Cerebrospinal fluid • Blood brain barrier • Meninges ANATOMY 85

MENINGES • Dura mater • Arachnoid layer – Double-layered external covering • Periosteum – attached to surface of the skull • Meningeal layer – outer covering of the brain – Folds inward in several areas ANATOMY – Middle layer – Web-like • Pia mater – Internal layer – Clings to the surface of the brain 86

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID • • • • Similar to blood plasma composition Formed by the choroid plexus Forms a watery cushion to protect the brain Circulated in arachnoid space, ventricles, and central canal of the spinal cord ANATOMY 87



BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER • Includes the least permeable capillaries of the body • Excludes many potentially harmful substances • Useless against some substances – Fats and fat soluble molecules – Respiratory gases – Alcohol – Nicotine – Anesthesia ANATOMY 90

SPINAL CORD • Extends from the medulla oblongata to the region of T12 • Below T12 is the cauda equina (a collection of spinal nerves) • Enlargements occur in the cervical and lumbar regions ANATOMY 91

Figure 8.21 ANATOMY 92

SPINAL CORD ANATOMY • Central canal filled with cerebrospinal fluid ANATOMY 93

SPINAL CORD ANATOMY • Internal gray matter - mostly cell bodies – Dorsal (posterior) horns – Anterior (ventral) horns ANATOMY 94

SPINAL CORD ANATOMY • Exterior white mater – conduction tracts ANATOMY 95

SPINAL CORD ANATOMY • Meninges cover the spinal cord • Nerves leave at the level of each vertebrae – Dorsal root • Associated with the dorsal root ganglia – collections of cell bodies outside the central nervous system – Ventral root ANATOMY 96


Figure 8.17b ANATOMY 98

Figure 8.17 ANATOMY 99

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM • Nerves and ganglia outside the central nervous system • Nerve: bundle of neuron fibers • Neuron fibers are bundled by connective tissue ANATOMY 100

Figure 8.18a ANATOMY 101

Figure 8.18b ANATOMY 102

Figure 8.20 ANATOMY 103

Figure 8.27 ANATOMY 104

Figure 8.30 ANATOMY 105

STRUCTURE OF A NERVE • Endoneurium surrounds each fiber • Groups of fibers are bound into fascicles by perineurium • Fascicles are bound together by epineurium ANATOMY 106

CLASSIFICATION OF NERVES • Mixed nerves – both sensory and motor fibers • Afferent (sensory) nerves – carry impulses toward the CNS • Efferent (motor) nerves – carry impulses away from the CNS ANATOMY 107


I Olfactory nerve – sensory for smell II Optic nerve – sensory for vision III Oculomotor nerve – motor fibers to eye muscles IV Trochlear – motor fiber to eye muscles V Trigeminal nerve – sensory for the face; motor fibers to chewing muscles VI Abducens nerve – motor fibers to eye muscles ANATOMY VII Facial nerve – sensory for taste; motor fibers to the face VIII Vestibulocochlear nerve – sensory for balance and hearing IX Glossopharyngeal nerve – sensory for taste; motor fibers to the pharynx X Vagus nerves – sensory and motor fibers for pharynx, larynx, and viscera XI Accessory nerve – motor fibers to neck and upper back XII Hypoglossal nerve – motor fibers to tongue 109

Figure 8.38 ANATOMY 110

SPINAL NERVES • There is a pair of spinal nerves at the level of each vertebrae for a total of 31 pairs • Spinal nerves are formed by the combination of the ventral and dorsal roots of the spinal cord • Spinal nerves are named for the region from which they arise ANATOMY 111


ANATOMY OF SPINAL NERVES • Spinal nerves divide soon after leaving the spinal cord – Dorsal rami – serve the skin and muscles of the posterior trunk – Ventral rami – forms a complex of networks (plexus) for the anterior ANATOMY 113


AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM • The involuntary branch of the nervous system • Consists of only motor nerves • Divided into two divisions – Sympathetic division – Parasympathetic division ANATOMY 115

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS • Nerves – Somatic – one motor neuron – Autonomic – preganglionic and postganglionic nerves • Effector organs – Somatic – skeletal muscle – Autonomic – smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands • Nerurotransmitters – Somatic – always use acetylcholine – Autonomic – use acetylcholine, epinephrine, or norepinephrine ANATOMY 116

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS Somatic Nerve One motor neuron Effector Organs Skeletal muscles Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine ANATOMY Autonomic Preganglionic & postganglionic nerves Cardiac muscles Smooth muscles Glands Acetylcholine Epinephrine Norepinephrine 117


ANATOMY OF THE SYMPATHETIC DIVISION • Originates from T1 through L2 • Ganglia are at the sympathetic trunk (near the spinal cord) • Short pre-ganglionic neuron and long postganglionic neuron transmit impulse from CNS to the effector • Norepinephrine and epinephrine are neurotransmitters to the effector organs ANATOMY 119


ANATOMY OF THE PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION • Originates from the brain stem and S1 through S4 • Terminal ganglia are at the effector organs • Always uses acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter ANATOMY 121


Figure 8.39 ANATOMY 123

DEVELOPMENT ASPECTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM • The nervous system is formed during the first month of embryonic development • Any maternal infection can have extremely harmful effects • The hypothalamus is one of the last areas of the brain to develop • No more neurons are formed after birth, but growth and maturation continues for several years • The brain reaches maximum weight as a young adult ANATOMY 125


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